Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 7 de 7
Mais filtros

Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443598


Apocynin (APO) is a known multi-enzymatic complexed compound, employed as a viable NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor, extensively used in both traditional and modern-day therapeutic strategies to combat neuronal disorders. However, its therapeutic efficacy is limited by lower solubility and lesser bioavailability; thus, a suitable nanocarrier system to overcome such limitations is needed. The present study is designed to fabricate APO-loaded polymeric nanoparticles (APO-NPs) to enhance its therapeutic efficacy and sustainability in the biological system. The optimized APO NPs in the study exhibited 103.6 ± 6.8 nm and -13.7 ± 0.43 mV of particle size and zeta potential, respectively, along with further confirmation by TEM. In addition, the antioxidant (AO) abilities quantified by DPPH and nitric oxide scavenging assays exhibited comparatively higher AO potential of APO-NPs than APO alone. An in-vitro release profile displayed a linear diffusion pattern of zero order kinetics for APO from the NPs, followed by its cytotoxicity evaluation on the PC12 cell line, which revealed minimal toxicity with higher cell viability, even after treatment with a stress inducer (H2O2). The stability of APO-NPs after six months showed minimal AO decline in comparison to APO only, indicating that the designed nano-formulation enhanced therapeutic efficacy for modulating NOX-mediated ROS generation.

Acetofenonas/química , Acetofenonas/farmacologia , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , NADPH Oxidases/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/química , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Células PC12 , Ratos
Indian J Tuberc ; 67(1): 3-7, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32192614


BACKGROUND/AIMS: The association between tuberculosis (TB) and female reproductive health issues usually remains unaddressed. TB is considered as one of the major causes of infertility in India. Because of the associated stigma, the suffering females do not discuss the problems they are facing. This may lead to disturbances in serum hormone levels also. Hence, a study was planned to find abnormalities in menstrual patterns and fertility in women in childbearing age, who were suffering from TB, and evaluate disturbances in serum hormone levels of LH, FSH, Prolactin and testosterone, if any. It also aimed to evaluate if hormone levels, or some early disturbances in menstrual cycle, can serve as a predictor for infertility in future lives. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 25 female patients each of child bearing age group from OPD/IPD: of pulmonary TB (PTB), extra pulmonary non genital TB (EPTB), extra pulmonary genital TB (GTB) and healthy controls were enrolled. Thus, a total of 75 patients with TB and 25 healthy controls were taken into the study. Patients were questioned for any abnormalities of menstrual cycle. If married, fertility status, total number of live children, abortions etc and previous history of any reproductive health issues was asked. Serum FSH, LH, Prolactin and testosterone levels on the 3rd day of the menstrual cycle were done. Data so obtained was tabulated and statistically analyzed. RESULTS: TB patients (75/100) and healthy controls (25/100) were matched with respect to age, marital status and rural/urban background. Menstrual abnormalities, infertility and adverse events related to pregnancy were higher in patients with TB than healthy controls (p = 0.176, 0.571 and 0.005 respectively). TB patients had significantly higher levels of Testosterone and significantly lower levels of Prolactin than healthy controls (p=<0.001). Levels of FSH and LH were lower in TB patients than healthy controls (p = 0.428 and 0.274 respectively). On categorization into different types of TB, the sub-groups were matched with respect to rural/urban background. GTB was significantly higher in patients who were married (p = 0.020). Significantly higher GTB patients (10/25) reported menstrual abnormalities (p < 0.001). All the 3 infertile patients reported in the study belonged to GTB sub-group (p = 0.044). GTB had higher number of adverse events related to pregnancy followed by EPTB and PTB. Levels of FSH, LH, Testosterone and Prolactin in the three sub-groups of TB patients did not show any significant difference (p = 0.683, 0.817, 0.781, and 0.187). Since the total number of infertile patients in our study was only 3, relationship of menstrual abnormalities or serum hormone levels as a predictor of infertility could not be assessed. CONCLUSION: Females suffering from TB experience significantly higher adverse events related to pregnancy than healthy controls. Menstrual abnormalities, infertility and adverse events related to pregnancy were more pronounced in females suffering from GTB than PTB/EPTB. Female patients suffering from any form of TB need to be comprehensively managed. Because of highly sensitive issues related to infertility and reproductive health in today's era, it is imperative that any future complications of the same are kept into consideration in female patients with TB.

Infertilidade/epidemiologia , Distúrbios Menstruais/epidemiologia , Tuberculose dos Genitais Femininos/epidemiologia , Tuberculose Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anemia/sangue , Anemia/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Hormônio Foliculoestimulante/sangue , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Hormônio Luteinizante/sangue , Prolactina/sangue , Testosterona/sangue , Tuberculose/sangue , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Tuberculose dos Genitais Femininos/sangue , Tuberculose Pulmonar/sangue , Adulto Jovem
Indian J Tuberc ; 66(2): 247-252, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151492


BACKGROUND/AIMS: In drug resistant tuberculosis (DRTB) suspects, rifampicin resistance has always been prioritized, hence Cartridge Based Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (CBNAAT) is recommended under Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP), India. However, since it doesn't detect isoniazid resistance, rifampicin sensitive patients with unknown isoniazid status may be erroneously treated as drug sensitive TB, leading to poor treatment outcomes and emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR) TB. Hence isoniazid mono-resistance should be specifically looked for and treated as per recommendations. The objective of the present study, almost the first of its kind in India, was to evaluate the burden of isoniazid mono-resistance amongst patients diagnosed with DRTB and to study the association of different patient and disease related factors with treatment outcomes under the treatment regimen specific for isoniazid mono-resistance, started from January 1, 2017 in our state, under RNTCP. METHODS: It was a retrospective study which scrutinized medical records of 52 isoniazid mono-resistant TB patients started on treatment under RNTCP between January 1 to December 31, 2017. Necessary information on possible patient and disease related predicting factors like gender, age, type of mutation (katG/inhA), weight band (26-45 kg/46-70 kg), total serum protein/albumin levels, previous history of anti-tubercular treatment (ATT), history of smoking, HIV status, presence of diabetes mellitus (DM), presence of anemia, occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADR) during treatment and duration of intensive phase (IP), was retrieved. These factors were analyzed for their possible association with treatment outcomes. RESULTS: Out of 103 DRTB patients enrolled, 50.5% (52/103) patients were diagnosed with isoniazid mono-resistance. 50/103 were MDR-TB and 1/103 were extensively-drug resistant TB (XDR-TB). Further analysis of these 52 isoniazid mono-resistant patients revealed:35 (67.3%) were males and 17 (32.7%) females. 27 (51.9%) patients were <30 years, 25 (48.1%) being ≥30 years of age. All patients were negative for HIV. 34/52 (65.4%) patients were declared cured, 15/52 were lost to follow up (LTFU) and 3/52 died (1 male, 2 females). Excluding these 3 patients who died, cure rates were significantly better in females (14/15 = 93.3%), with only 1/15 LTFU, than males (20/34 = 58.8% cure, 14/34 = 41.2% LTFU), (p = 0.019). Patients who were <30 years of age had significantly better cure rates (21/25 = 84%) with lesser LTFU's (4/25 = 16%), than those ≥30years of age (13/24 = 54.2% cure, 11/24 = 45.8% LTFU), (p = 0.032). Review of previous history of ATT revealed that 33 patients had primary isoniazid mono-resistance, 4 patients had previous history of being LTFU, 9 had recurrent TB and 3 were labeled as failure. Cure rates were significantly better in primary isoniazid mono-resistant patients (26/33 = 78.8%), than those with previous history of being LTFU(0/4), (p = 0.04). Type of mutation, weight band, total serum protein/albumin, history of smoking, presence of DM, presence of anemia, occurrence of ADR and duration of IP did not affect treatment outcomes. CONCLUSION: Isoniazid mono-resistance formed a major chunk of DRTB, with majority of the patients detected with primary mono-resistance. Strategically framed treatment regimens for isoniazid mono-resistance under RNTCP in India are effective in a wide range of population. Still, there are high chances of LTFU/default, which needs to be addressed on priority. Male gender, age ≥30 years and being LTFU in the past are associated with poorer cure rates, hence should be paid special attention.

Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antituberculosos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico , Tuberculose Extensivamente Resistente a Medicamentos/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Isoniazida/farmacologia , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos/tratamento farmacológico
Case Rep Neurol Med ; 2014: 694750, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24864218


Introduction. Varicella zoster virus (VZV) encephalomyelitis with cranial nerve involvement is rare. Characteristically it is preceded by a rash and primarily presents in the immunocompromised. The spectrum of VZV neurologic disease is extensive and it is not uncommon to present without rash. We report the case of an elderly otherwise immunocompetent patient who presented with diverse manifestations of VZV CNS infection all occurring without rash. Case Report. A 78-year-old man presented with 1 week of progressive paraparesis and sensory loss, malaise, and fevers. MRI of the neuraxis demonstrated numerous enhancing lesions: intramedullary, leptomeningeal, pachymeningeal, and cranial nerves. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) showed a white blood cell count of 420/ µ L with elevated protein (385 mg/dL). CSF VZV qualitative PCR was positive and CSF VZV immunofluorescence assay detected IgM antibody, confirming the diagnosis of VZV encephalomyelitis. Clinical and radiological improvement was observed after intravenous acyclovir treatment. Conclusion. This is a rare report of an immunocompetent patient with extensive VZV encephalomyelitis. We highlight the importance of considering this diagnosis even in the absence of the characteristic rash, and the potential risk of premature discontinuation of antiviral therapy once HSV has been excluded. Prompt recognition and treatment can dramatically reduce morbidity and mortality in patients.

J Vasc Surg ; 58(5): 1339-45, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23663872


OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that fluoroscopic imaging creates radiation fields that are unevenly scattered throughout the endovascular suite. We sought to quantify the radiation dose spectrum at various locations during imaging procedures and to represent this in a clinically useful manner. METHODS: Digital subtraction imaging (Innova 4100; GE Healthcare, Waukesha, Wisc) of the abdomen and pelvis was performed on a cadaver in anteroposterior, left lateral, and right anterior oblique 45° projections. Radiation exposure was monitored in real time with DoseAware dosimeters (Phillips, Houston, Tex) in eight radial projections at distances of 2, 4, and 6 ft from the center of the imaged field, each at 5-ft heights from the floor. Three to five consecutive data points were collected for each location. RESULTS: At most positions around the angiographic table, radiation exposure decreased as the distance from the source emitter increased; however, the intensity of the exposure varied dramatically around the axis of imaging. With anteroposterior imaging, the radiation fields have symmetric dumbbell shapes, with maximal exposure perpendicular to the table at the level of the gantry. Peak levels at 4 and 6 ft from the source emitter were 2.4 times and 3.4 times higher, respectively, than predicted based on the inverse square law. Maximal radiation exposure was measured in the typical operator position 2 ft away and perpendicular to the table (4.99 mSv/h). When the gantry was rotated 45° and 90°, the radiation fields shifted, becoming more asymmetric, with increasing radiation doses to 10.9 and 69 mSv/h, respectively, on the side of the emitter. Minimal exposure is experienced along the axis of the table, decreasing with distance from the source (<0.77 mSv/h). CONCLUSIONS: Quantifiable and reproducible radiation scatter is created during interventional procedures. Radiation doses vary widely around the perimeter of the angiography table and change according to imaging angles. These data are easily visualized using contour plots and scatter three-dimensional mesh plots. Rather than the concentric circles predicted by the inverse square law, these data more closely resemble a "scatter cloud." Knowledge of the actual exposure levels within the endovascular environment may help in mitigating these risks to health care providers.

Angiografia Digital , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Exposição Ocupacional , Doses de Radiação , Radiografia Intervencionista , Angiografia Digital/efeitos adversos , Cadáver , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador , Posicionamento do Paciente , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento de Radiação/métodos , Proteção Radiológica , Radiografia Intervencionista/efeitos adversos , Espalhamento de Radiação
J Vasc Surg ; 55(3): 799-805, 2012 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22079168


OBJECTIVES: To determine radiation exposure for members of an endovascular surgery team during imaging procedures by varying technique. METHODS: Digital subtraction angiography imaging of the abdomen and pelvis (Innova 4100; GE, Fairfield, Conn) was performed on cadavers, varying positioning and technique within the usual bounds of clinical practice. Radiation exposure was monitored in real-time with dosimeters (DoseAware; Philips, Andover, Mass) to simulate the position of the operator, assistant, and anesthesiologist. The DoseAware system reports radiation exposure in 1-second intervals. Three to five consecutive data points were collected for each imaging configuration. RESULTS: Operator radiation exposure is minimized with detector-to-patient distance <5 cm (2.1 mSv/h) in contrast to 10 to 15 cm (2.8 mSv/h); source-to-image distance of <15 cm (2.3 mSv/h) in contrast to 25 cm (3.3 mSv/h). Increasing image magnification from 0 (2.3 mSv/h) to 3 (0.83 mSv/h) decreases operator exposure by 74%. Increasing linear image collimation from 0 (2.3 mSv/h) to 10 cm (0.30 mSv/h) decreases operator exposure by 87%. The anesthesiologist's radiation exposure is 11% to 49% of the operator's, greatest in the left anterior oblique (LAO) 90 degree projection. The assistant's radiation exposure is 23% to 46% of the operator's. The highest exposure to the operator was noted to be in the LAO 90 degree projection (30.3 mSv/h) and lowest exposure with 10-cm vertical collimation (0.28 mSv/h). CONCLUSIONS: Varying imaging techniques results in different radiation exposure to members of an endovascular surgery team. Knowledge of the variable intensity of radiation exposure may allow modification of the technique to minimize radiation exposure to the team while providing suitable imaging.

Angiografia Digital , Procedimentos Endovasculares , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Doses de Radiação , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Radiografia Intervencionista , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares , Angiografia Digital/efeitos adversos , Cadáver , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Dosimetria Fotográfica , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Lesões por Radiação/etiologia , Radiografia Intervencionista/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Espalhamento de Radiação , Fatores de Tempo , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Vasculares/efeitos adversos