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2.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32452085

RESUMO

AIMS: The AMBER trial demonstrated that concomitant use of patiromer enabled the more persistent use of spironolactone by reducing the risk of hyperkalaemia in patients with resistant hypertension and advanced chronic kidney disease. We report herein the pre-specified subgroup analysis in patients with heart failure (HF). METHODS AND RESULTS: Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either placebo or patiromer (8.4 g once daily), in addition to open-label spironolactone (starting at 25 mg once daily) and their baseline blood pressure medications. Dose titrations were permitted after 1 week for patiromer/placebo and after 3 weeks for spironolactone. The primary endpoint was the between-group difference at week 12 in the proportion of patients on spironolactone. Efficacy endpoints and safety were assessed in all randomized patients (intention to treat). A total of 295 patients were enrolled, of whom 132 (45%) had HF. In the HF subgroup, 68.1% of patients receiving placebo remained on spironolactone at week 12, compared with 84.1% of patients receiving patiromer (P = 0.0504). The reason for discontinuation from spironolactone use was hyperkalaemia in the majority of both groups. There was no significant interaction between the subgroups with HF and without HF (P = 0.8085) for the primary endpoint. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with the overall AMBER trial results, this pre-specified subgroup analysis in patients with HF, resistant hypertension and advanced chronic kidney disease demonstrated that patiromer enabled more persistent use of spironolactone by reducing the risk of hyperkalaemia.

3.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 31(5): 1128-1139, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32354987

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Canagliflozin reduced renal and cardiovascular events in people with type 2 diabetes in the CREDENCE trial. We assessed efficacy and safety of canagliflozin by initial estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHODS: CREDENCE randomly assigned 4401 participants with an eGFR of 30 to <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and substantial albuminuria to canagliflozin 100 mg or placebo. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to analyze effects on renal and cardiovascular efficacy and safety outcomes within screening eGFR subgroups (30 to <45, 45 to <60, and 60 to <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and linear mixed effects models to analyze the effects on eGFR slope. RESULTS: At screening, 1313 (30%), 1279 (29%), and 1809 (41%) participants had an eGFR of 30 to <45, 45 to <60, and 60 to <90 ml/min per 1.73 m2, respectively. The relative benefits of canagliflozin for renal and cardiovascular outcomes appeared consistent among eGFR subgroups (all P interaction >0.11). Subgroups with lower eGFRs, who were at greater risk, exhibited larger absolute benefits for renal outcomes. Canagliflozin's lack of effect on serious adverse events, amputations, and fractures appeared consistent among eGFR subgroups. In all subgroups, canagliflozin use led to an acute eGFR drop followed by relative stabilization of eGFR loss. Among those with an eGFR of 30 to <45 ml/min per 1.73 m2, canagliflozin led to an initial drop of 2.03 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Thereafter, decline in eGFR was slower in the canagliflozin versus placebo group (-1.72 versus -4.33 ml/min per 1.73 m2; between-group difference 2.61 ml/min per 1.73 m2). CONCLUSIONS: Canagliflozin safely reduced the risk of renal and cardiovascular events, with consistent results across eGFR subgroups, including the subgroup initiating treatment with an eGFR of 30 to <45 ml/min per 1.73 m2. Absolute benefits for renal outcomes were greatest in subgroups with lower eGFR. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRY NAME AND REGISTRATION NUMBER: Evaluation of the Effects of Canagliflozin on Renal and Cardiovascular Outcomes in Participants With Diabetic Nephropathy (CREDENCE), NCT02065791.

5.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol ; 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blood pressure [BP]-lowering with the use of antihypertensive drugs appears to protect the cardiovascular (CV) system in hemodialysis patients. However, the optimal treatment algorithm of hypertension remains elusive; extrapolation of clinical-trial evidence from the general population may not be optimal. METHODS: For this narrative review, we searched the Medline/PubMed database [inception to August 01, 2019] to identify randomized clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of antihypertensive drugs on CV outcomes and mortality in patients on hemodialysis. RESULTS: Randomized trials with angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors [ACEIs] or angiotensin-receptor-blockers [ARBs] failed to provide consistent cardioprotection. ß-blockers may provide more consistent CV benefit. Although some early clinical trials have shown that mineralocorticoid-receptor-antagonists [MRAs] reduce CV mortality, the associated risk of hyperkalemia raises important safety concerns on the use of MRAs as add-on therapy. CONCLUSION: Our first-line therapy of hypertension in hemodialysis is the assessment and management of dry-weight and optimization of dialysis prescription. Based on the available clinical-trial evidence, we prescribe atenolol 3 times/week after dialysis as first-line pharmacological option of hypertension to our patients without specific indications for other agents. Long-acting dihydropyridines and ACEIs/ARBs are our second-line and third-line choices, respectively. We avoid using MRAs and await results from ongoing trials testing their safety and efficacy. In patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis, randomized trials are clearly warranted in order to define BP targets and the comparative effectiveness of different antihypertensive drugs.

7.
Circulation ; 141(12): 1001-1026, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32202936

RESUMO

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), a major public health problem that is rising in prevalence, is associated with high morbidity and mortality and is considered to be the greatest unmet need in cardiovascular medicine today because of a general lack of effective treatments. To address this challenging syndrome, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a working group made up of experts in HFpEF and novel research methodologies to discuss research gaps and to prioritize research directions over the next decade. Here, we summarize the discussion of the working group, followed by key recommendations for future research priorities. There was uniform recognition that HFpEF is a highly integrated, multiorgan, systemic disorder requiring a multipronged investigative approach in both humans and animal models to improve understanding of mechanisms and treatment of HFpEF. It was recognized that advances in the understanding of basic mechanisms and the roles of inflammation, macrovascular and microvascular dysfunction, fibrosis, and tissue remodeling are needed and ideally would be obtained from (1) improved animal models, including large animal models, which incorporate the effects of aging and associated comorbid conditions; (2) repositories of deeply phenotyped physiological data and human tissue, made accessible to researchers to enhance collaboration and research advances; and (3) novel research methods that take advantage of computational advances and multiscale modeling for the analysis of complex, high-density data across multiple domains. The working group emphasized the need for interactions among basic, translational, clinical, and epidemiological scientists and across organ systems and cell types, leveraging different areas or research focus, and between research centers. A network of collaborative centers to accelerate basic, translational, and clinical research of pathobiological mechanisms and treatment strategies in HFpEF was discussed as an example of a strategy to advance research progress. This resource would facilitate comprehensive, deep phenotyping of a multicenter HFpEF patient cohort with standardized protocols and a robust biorepository. The research priorities outlined in this document are meant to stimulate scientific advances in HFpEF by providing a road map for future collaborative investigations among a diverse group of scientists across multiple domains.

9.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(13): 1495-1496, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053429
10.
Hypertension ; 75(3): 702-706, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31928112

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with incident cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Whether subclinical cardiovascular disease and target organ damage is associated with incident CKD is unknown. We investigated the relations of echocardiographic left ventricular mass (LVM) with incident CKD. We evaluated 2258 Framingham Offspring cohort participants (mean age, 57 years; 56% women) who underwent echocardiography at a routine examination and had an estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. We used Cox proportional hazards regression with discrete time intervals to relate sex-standardized LVM (independent variable) to the incidence of CKD, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 L/min per 1.73 m2, on follow-up. During a median follow-up of 14.6 years, 373 (16.5%) participants developed incident CKD. Higher LVM was associated with higher risk of CKD after adjusting for prevalent cardiovascular disease, body mass index, systolic blood pressure, total and HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, antihypertensive medication, smoking, and diabetes mellitus (hazard ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.03-1.29]; P=0.017) per 1-SD increase in LVM g/m2. Further adjustment for baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.16 [95% CI, 1.04-1.31]; P=0.010) and baseline urine albumin/creatinine ratio (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.04-1.33]; P=0.009) slightly attenuated the association. In our community-based sample, LVM was associated with incident CKD prospectively, which suggests that the relations between CKD and subclinical cardiovascular disease may be bidirectional. Further studies are needed to confirm our findings.

11.
J Nat Prod ; 83(2): 552-562, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31977211

RESUMO

The United States FDA has received over 800 botanical investigational new drug applications (IND) and pre-IND meeting requests (PIND) in the years preceding 2018. The current data show that indications for submitted INDs cover nearly every review division of the FDA. Despite increasing global interest in the investigation of botanical mixtures as drug products, only two botanical new drug applications (NDA) have been approved in the U.S.: Veregen in 2006 and Fulyzaq (also known as Mytesi) in 2012. Given botanicals' chemical and biological complexity, efforts in characterizing their pharmacology, demonstrating therapeutic efficacy, and ensuring quality consistency remain scientific and regulatory challenges. The FDA published a revised Botanical Drug Development Guidance for Industry document in December 2016 to address developmental considerations for late-phase trials and to provide recommendations intended to facilitate botanical drug development. Herein, we present an analysis of botanical INDs showing their variety of botanical raw materials (e.g., coming from different geographic regions, single vs multiple herbs), the varied levels of previous human experience, and therapeutic areas, as well as provide an overview of experience and challenges in reviewing botanical drugs.

12.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(3): 1109-1119, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197540

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Person-Centered Oncologic Care and Choices (P-COCC) combines an advance care planning (ACP) value-focused patient interview with a care goal video decision aid. Our randomized study showed that P-COCC was acceptable but increased participant distress, compared with video-alone and usual care study arms. This mixed methods approach explores the ACP values in the P-COCC arm and their relationship to the distress phenomenon. METHODS: Qualitative thematic analysis of the 46 audio-recorded P-COCC interview transcripts with advanced gastrointestinal cancer patients was performed by multiple reviewers. Quantitative (Likert scale) changes in ACP values were compared across study arms. ACP themes and value change were analyzed in participants with increased distress. RESULTS: Transcript analysis resulted in thematic saturation and identified eight distinct themes on ACP values relating to end-of-life wishes, communication needs, and psychosocial supports. Of 98 participants (33 P-COCC, 43 videos, 22 usual care) who completed the change in value measure, there was no difference detected with P-COCC compared with either video (p = 0.052) or usual care (p = 0.105) arms alone, but P-COCC led to a frequency distribution of more change in personal values compared with the other study arms combined (p = 0.043). Among the subset of P-COCC participants with increased distress, there was no statistical relationship with change in values. CONCLUSIONS: The ACP paradigm P-COCC both informs and supports patients in individualized, value-based decision-making. Distress is not associated with changes in ACP values and may be a necessary, at least transient, byproduct of discussing sensitive but pertinent topics about end-of-life medical care.

13.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(2): 340-343, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666248

RESUMO

Patients with cancer who have exhausted standard treatments often seek access to investigational drugs. Often, however, such access is unavailable, due to either the unavailability of a trial, lack of an open recruiting spot on the trial, even when the trial itself is open, or the inability of the patient to meet one or more trial eligibility criteria. In such settings patients often seek access to investigational agents outside of a trial. The federal "Right to Try" legislation was passed to create an additional avenue, different from the FDA's Expanded Access, or "Compassionate Use" Program, through which patients might obtain access to investigational drugs. A year after this legislation was signed into law, there remains both a limited awareness of it and a substantial degree of misunderstanding on the part of those who are aware of it. The law creates an avenue to greatly facilitate off-study administration when patient, physician, and the manufacturer are all in agreement regarding the off study use of an eligible investigational agent. The law does not, however, empower a patient to impose a demand on either a provider or a drug manufacturer, nor does it require any entity to provide financial coverage for the drug. Eligible drugs are those which are not approved by the FDA for any indication, have completed a phase I trial, have an ongoing pivotal trial, and have an active registration plan. We review the specific law with commentary on its implications for improved access to investigational drugs outside of clinical trials.

17.
Trials ; 20(1): 713, 2019 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In medical oncology settings, early specialist palliative care interventions have demonstrated improvements in patient quality of life and survival compared with usual oncologic care. However, the effect of early specialist palliative care interventions in surgical oncology settings is not well studied. METHODS: The Surgery for Cancer with Option for Palliative Care Expert (SCOPE) Trial is a single-center, prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled trial of a specialist palliative care intervention for cancer patients undergoing non-palliative surgery. It will enroll 236 patients scheduled for major abdominal operations for malignancy, who will be randomized 1:1 at enrollment to receive usual care (control arm) or specialist palliative care consultation (intervention arm). Intervention arm patients will receive consultations from a palliative care specialist (physician or nurse practitioner) preoperatively and postoperatively. The primary outcome is physical and functional wellbeing at 90 days postoperatively. Secondary outcomes are quality of life at 90 days postoperatively, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms at 180 days postoperatively, days alive at home without an emergency room visit in the first 90 postoperative days, and overall survival at 1 year postoperatively. Participants will be followed for 3 years after surgery for exploratory analyses of their ongoing quality of life, healthcare utilization, and mortality. DISCUSSION: SCOPE is an ongoing randomized controlled trial evaluating specialist palliative care interventions for cancer patients undergoing non-palliative oncologic surgery. Findings from the study will inform ways to identify and improve care of surgical patients who will likely benefit from specialist palliative care services. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03436290 First Registered: 16 February 2018 Enrollment Began: 1 March 2018 Last Update: 20 December 2018.

18.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31834379

RESUMO

In the modern era of targeted and immune-based therapies, investigator and patient expectations of availability and efficacy in phase I trials have increased. We assessed availability of, and benefit from, early drug development trials, specifically in patients with gastrointestinal cancers. We reviewed computerized referral records of the Early Drug Development Service at our institution to identify patients internally referred from our Gastrointestinal Oncology Service in calendar year 2018. End points were treatment on a trial, 3 and 6-month progression-free survival (PFS), and any tumor shrinkage. Of 394 gastrointestinal cancer patients referred in 2018, 54 enrolled on a trial and 53 (13.5%) were treated (1 withdrew before treatment): 34 on immune-based and 19 on targeted (3 to phase II basket) studies. None of the 52 patients who had exhausted standard therapy achieved 6-month PFS; two (3.8%) met 3-month PFS with tumor growth below RECIST progression at 3 months; both came off study for progression at 4 months. One patient who was to receive an irinotecan-based regimen as standard therapy instead received irinotecan plus an investigational targeted agent and remained stable for 8 months. No patients achieved any degree of tumor shrinkage. The most common reasons for non-accrual were lack of available protocol treatment openings and failure to meet eligibility criteria for specific trials. Thus, availability, and benefit, from investigational treatment in this treatment-refractory gastrointestinal cancer patient population was extremely modest. Expectations regarding both availability and efficacy of phase I investigational therapy in gastrointestinal cancer patients likely exceed what our experience suggests.

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