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1.
Pain Med ; 2021 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33823017

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While Provocation Lumbar Discography has been used to identify discs responsible for low back pain, the biomechanical effects of disc injection have received little attention. The purpose of this study was to assess the motion of the Functional Spinal Unit including the Endplate and Facet/Pedicle region during disc injection including comparison between normal and degenerative discs. SUBJECTS: 91 consecutive patients referred for Discography with chronic low back pain. METHODS: Lateral projection vertebral motion was retrospectively analyzed at 232 levels (normal: 76 (32.8%), degenerative: 156 (67.2%)). Pre and post injection fluoroscopic images were size-scaled and lower endplates superimposed on separate PowerPoint images. Upper Endplate and Facet/Pedicle motion was separately and independently analyzed on toggled PowerPoint images, subjectively graded as: Prominent, Intermediate, Questionable/Uncertain, or No Motion. Disc morphology was graded using the AP/Lateral post-injection disc appearance (Adams Criteria). RESULTS: Prominent or Intermediate Endplate and Facet/Pedicle motion was identified at most lumbar levels with substantial overall agreement (degenerative: κ = 0.93; CI: 0.87-1.00, normal: κ = 0.80; CI: 0.61-1.00). Degenerative levels were strongly associated with a lower degree of Endplate and Facet/Pedicle motion compared with normal: ("Prominent" motion grade: Endplate: 61% (95/156) versus 89% (68/76) (p < 0.001), Facet/Pedicle: 60% (93/156) versus 88% (67/76) (p < 0.001)). CONCLUSION: Disc injection expands the disc space inducing Endplate motion, Pedicle motion and Facet translation in almost all normal and most degenerate levels. Disc injection therefore biomechanically 'Provokes' the entire Functional Spinal Unit. When 'Provoked' pain is encountered during lumbar discography, contribution from the associated facet joint and myo-tendinous insertions should be considered.

3.
Rheumatol Int ; 2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33682026

RESUMO

Poor obstetric outcomes are described in rheumatic diseases (RDs) such as systemic sclerosis (SSc). We assessed the effect of the disease in Indian women and compared with those in developed countries and other RDs. Women with SSc (ACR/EULAR 2013 criteria) registered at a tertiary care centre (2010-2016) were interviewed by teleconsultation. Pregnancies occurring after disease onset were compared with those occurring prior to it. Maternal complications included antepartum hemorrhage, postpartum hemorrhage, spontaneous abortion, preterm rupture of membrane, oligohydramnios, infection, prolonged labour, and foetal complications including low birth weight (LBW), intrauterine death (IUD), preterm delivery, and neonatal infection. Results were expressed as median (Interquartile range). Of 200 SSc, 75 patients aged 31 (22-38) years and disease duration 41 (32-50) months were interviewed. Diffuse cutaneous SSc was the most common (42.56%). 127 conceptions before the onset of SSc were compared with 15 after. Among post-diagnosis, 9 (60%) were live births, 3 (20%) spontaneous abortions 1 (6.7%) induced abortion, 2 (13.3%) IUD. Of the live births, 4 (26.7%) were preterm and 3 (20%) were LBW. Pregnancies after disease onset had a higher rate of maternal (OR - 4.9) and foetal (OR - 9.9) complications compared to pregnancies before SSc. Compared to the Italian cohort, Indian SSc patients had a higher abortion rate (OR - 5.8), frequent lower section ceaserean section (OR - 9.4) and lower live births (OR - 0.05). More frequent caesarean deliveries (OR - 93), preterm deliveries (OR - 20) when compared with lupus and favourable maternal outcomes (OR - 0.15), higher preterm deliveries (OR - 9.6) in comparison with Takayasu arteritis were noted. SSc incurs a higher risk of poor maternal as well as the foetal outcome.

4.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2021 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33676589

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global randomised controlled trials of the anti-IL-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 have shown conflicting results but potential decreases in time to discharge and burden on intensive care. Tocilizumab reduced progression to mechanical ventilation and death in a trial population enriched for racial and ethnic minorities. We aimed to investigate whether tocilizumab treatment could prevent COVID-19 progression in the first multicentre randomised controlled trial of tocilizumab done entirely in a lower-middle-income country. METHODS: COVINTOC is an open-label, multicentre, randomised, controlled, phase 3 trial done at 12 public and private hospitals across India. Adults (aged ≥18 years) admitted to hospital with moderate to severe COVID-19 (Indian Ministry of Health grading) confirmed by positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR result were randomly assigned (1:1 block randomisation) to receive tocilizumab 6 mg/kg plus standard care (the tocilizumab group) or standard care alone (the standard care group). The primary endpoint was progression of COVID-19 (from moderate to severe or from severe to death) up to day 14 in the modified intention-to-treat population of all participants who had at least one post-baseline assessment for the primary endpoint. Safety was assessed in all randomly assigned patients. The trial is completed and registered with the Clinical Trials Registry India (CTRI/2020/05/025369). FINDINGS: 180 patients were recruited between May 30, 2020, and Aug 31, 2020, and randomly assigned to the tocilizumab group (n=90) or the standard care group (n=90). One patient randomly assigned to the standard care group inadvertently received tocilizumab at baseline and was included in the tocilizumab group for all analyses. One patient randomly assigned to the standard care group withdrew consent after the baseline visit and did not receive any study medication and was not included in the modified intention-to-treat population but was still included in safety analyses. 75 (82%) of 91 in the tocilizumab group and 68 (76%) of 89 in the standard care group completed 28 days of follow-up. Progression of COVID-19 up to day 14 occurred in eight (9%) of 91 patients in the tocilizumab group and 11 (13%) of 88 in the standard care group (difference -3·71 [95% CI -18·23 to 11·19]; p=0·42). 33 (36%) of 91 patients in the tocilizumab group and 22 (25%) of 89 patients in the standard care group had adverse events; 18 (20%) and 15 (17%) had serious adverse events. The most common adverse event was acute respiratory distress syndrome, reported in seven (8%) patients in each group. Grade 3 adverse events were reported in two (2%) patients in the tocilizumab group and five (6%) patients in the standard care group. There were no grade 4 adverse events. Serious adverse events were reported in 18 (20%) patients in the tocilizumab group and 15 (17%) in the standard care group; 13 (14%) and 15 (17%) patients died during the study. INTERPRETATION: Routine use of tocilizumab in patients admitted to hospital with moderate to severe COVID-19 is not supported. However, post-hoc evidence from this study suggests tocilizumab might still be effective in patients with severe COVID-19 and so should be investigated further in future studies. FUNDING: Medanta Institute of Education and Research, Roche India, Cipla India, and Action COVID-19 India.

5.
Neuroimage ; 233: 117956, 2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716158

RESUMO

Changes of cardiac-induced regional pulsatility can be associated with specific regions of brain volumetric changes, and these are related with cognitive alterations. Thus, mapping of cardiac pulsatility over the entire brain can be helpful to assess these relationships. A total of 108 subjects (age: 66.5 ± 8.4 years, 68 females, 52 healthy controls, 11 subjective cognitive decline, 17 impaired without complaints, 19 MCI and 9 AD) participated. The pulsatility map was obtained directly from resting-state functional MRI time-series data at 3T. Regional brain volumes were segmented from anatomical MRI. Multidomain neuropsychological battery was performed to test memory, language, attention and visuospatial construction. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was also administered. The sparse partial least square (SPLS) method, which is desirable for better interpreting high-dimensional variables, was applied for the relationship between the entire brain voxels of pulsatility and 45 segmented brain volumes. A multiple holdout SPLS framework was used to optimize sparsity for assessing the pulsatility-volume relationship model and to test the reliability by fitting the models to 9 different splits of the data. We found statistically significant associations between subsets of pulsatility voxels and subsets of segmented brain volumes by rejecting the omnibus null hypothesis (any of 9 splits has p < 0.0056 (=0.05/9) with the Bonferroni correction). The pulsatility was positively associated with the lateral ventricle, choroid plexus, inferior lateral ventricle, and 3rd ventricle and negatively associated with hippocampus, ventral DC, and thalamus volumes for the first pulsatility-volume relationship. The pulsatility had an additional negative relationship with the amygdala and brain stem volumes for the second pulsatility-volume relationship. The spatial distribution of correlated pulsatility was observed in major feeding arteries to the brain regions, ventricles, and sagittal sinus. The indirect mediating pathways through the volumetric changes were statistically significant between the pulsatility and multiple cognitive measures (p < 0.01). Thus, the cerebral pulsatility, along with volumetric measurements, could be a potential marker for better understanding of pathophysiology and monitoring disease progression in age-related neurodegenerative disorders.

6.
Comput Biol Med ; 130: 104210, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550068

RESUMO

COVID-19 has infected 77.4 million people worldwide and has caused 1.7 million fatalities as of December 21, 2020. The primary cause of death due to COVID-19 is Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), people who are at least 60 years old or have comorbidities that have primarily been targeted are at the highest risk from SARS-CoV-2. Medical imaging provides a non-invasive, touch-free, and relatively safer alternative tool for diagnosis during the current ongoing pandemic. Artificial intelligence (AI) scientists are developing several intelligent computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tools in multiple imaging modalities, i.e., lung computed tomography (CT), chest X-rays, and lung ultrasounds. These AI tools assist the pulmonary and critical care clinicians through (a) faster detection of the presence of a virus, (b) classifying pneumonia types, and (c) measuring the severity of viral damage in COVID-19-infected patients. Thus, it is of the utmost importance to fully understand the requirements of for a fast and successful, and timely lung scans analysis. This narrative review first presents the pathological layout of the lungs in the COVID-19 scenario, followed by understanding and then explains the comorbid statistical distributions in the ARDS framework. The novelty of this review is the approach to classifying the AI models as per the by school of thought (SoTs), exhibiting based on segregation of techniques and their characteristics. The study also discusses the identification of AI models and its extension from non-ARDS lungs (pre-COVID-19) to ARDS lungs (post-COVID-19). Furthermore, it also presents AI workflow considerations of for medical imaging modalities in the COVID-19 framework. Finally, clinical AI design considerations will be discussed. We conclude that the design of the current existing AI models can be improved by considering comorbidity as an independent factor. Furthermore, ARDS post-processing clinical systems must involve include (i) the clinical validation and verification of AI-models, (ii) reliability and stability criteria, and (iii) easily adaptable, and (iv) generalization assessments of AI systems for their use in pulmonary, critical care, and radiological settings.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Humanos
7.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(3): 625-631, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388903

RESUMO

Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a serious complication of rheumatic diseases. Fever and hyperferritinemia are common in active systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (sJIA) and cytopenia in active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), thus recognizing MAS in them is a challenge. We compared clinical and laboratory parameters, various classification criteria, and outcomes of MAS in SLE and sJIA. Clinical and laboratory data were extracted from case records of patients with clinician diagnosed cases of SLE-MAS (adult and pediatric) and sJIA-MAS, admitted (2004-2018) at a tertiary care hospital. Ravelli, International consensus, HLH-2004, and criteria proposed by Parodi et al. were applied and compared. Among 33 patients (18 females) with MAS, 19 had SLE (7, childhood-onset SLE) and 14 had sJIA. MAS was more likely to be the presenting manifestation of disease in SLE (p < 0.05). There were no differences in the clinical features among them. Patients with SLE-MAS had lower baseline total leucocyte and platelet counts (p < 0.01), whereas patients with sJIA-MAS had significantly higher median CRP (p = 0.002), fall in TLC (p = 0.012), delta ESR/CRP ratio (p = 0.02), and lower fibrinogen level (p = 0.006). Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, ferritin/CRP ratio, and the number of patients with ferritin/ESR > 80 were similar. Only 6/33(18%) fulfilled the HLH criteria. Criteria meant for sJIA-MAS or SLE-MAS performed well for both diseases and the majority of patients could be diagnosed using them. Two patients died in each group. MAS in SLE and sJIA is more similar than dissimilar in clinical features and outcome. Criteria meant for MAS in sJIA or SLE-MAS performed equally well in both diseases.

8.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(3): 551-563, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423071

RESUMO

Overlap myositis (OM), an important subset of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM), is being increasingly recognized with wider myositis-specific autoantibody (MSA) testing. We studied the differences in clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes of OM with Dermatomyositis (DM), Polymyositis (PM), anti-synthetase syndrome (ASSD), and Cancer-associated IIM (CAM). Data from the MyoCite registry (Dec2017-May2020), a prospective dataset of IIM was extracted for the clinical profile, and MSAs, immunosuppressants received, disease activity (relapses and incomplete response), and treatment-related (drugs ADRs and infections) adverse events (DRAE and TRAE) were collected and analyzed between groups. Of 214 adults (58-OM,89-DM,27-ASSD,33-PM,7-CAM), OM had a greater female preponderance (13.5:1). Raynaud's and sclerodactyly were the prime distinguishing features of OM. OM could be distinguished from PM by frequent arthritis (OR-3.2) and infrequent dysphagia (OR-0.17); DM with greater nephritis (OR-20), infrequent dysphagia (OR-0.24) and rashes (OR-0.02); and ASSD by infrequent ILD (OR-0.07), and mechanic's hand (OR-0.05). 50% fulfilled the classification criteria for ASSD in the absence of MSA testing. ANA was positive more often (PM/DM: OR-6.7) and anti-Ro52 (OR-4.5) frequent in OM. Baseline serum creatinine and acute phase reactants were higher. OM received lower glucocorticoids (0 mg/kg, p < 0.001). Overall, 90% and 84% of OM at 12 and 24 months, respectively, achieved remission, with similar DRAE and TRAE as other IIM subsets. OM can be misdiagnosed as ASSD in the absence of MSA testing. Raynaud's, sclerodactyly, and a positive ANA may identify OM and prevent overtreatment.

9.
Rheumatol Int ; 41(2): 257-273, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33386447

RESUMO

Sudden cardiac death is commonly seen due to arrhythmias, which is a common cardiac manifestation seen in COVID-19 patients, especially those with underlying cardiovascular disease (CVD). Administration of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) as a potential treatment option during SARS-CoV-2, initially gained popularity, but later, its safe usage became questionable due to its cardiovascular safety, largely stemming from instances of cardiac arrhythmias in COVID-19. Moreover, in the setting of rheumatic diseases, in which patients are usually on HCQ for their primary disease, there is a need to scale the merits and demerits of HCQ usage for the treatment of COVID-19. In this narrative review, we aim to address the association between usage of HCQ and sudden cardiac death in COVID-19 patients. MEDLINE, EMBASE, ClinicalTrials.gov and SCOPUS databases were used to review articles in English ranging from case reports, case series, letter to editors, systematic reviews, narrative reviews, observational studies and randomized control trials. HCQ is a potential cause of sudden cardiac death in COVID-19 patients. As opposed to the reduction in CVD with HCQ in treatment of systemic lupus erythematous, rheumatoid arthritis, and other rheumatic diseases, safe usage of HCQ in COVID-19 patients is unclear; whereby, it is observed to result in QTc prolongation and Torsades de pointes even in patients with no underlying cardiovascular comorbidity. This is occasionally associated with sudden cardiac death or cardiac arrest; hence, its clinical efficacy needs further investigation by large-scale clinical trials.


Assuntos
Antirreumáticos/efeitos adversos , Morte Súbita Cardíaca/etiologia , Hidroxicloroquina/efeitos adversos , Antirreumáticos/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Pandemias , Doenças Reumáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Medição de Risco
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493322

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We determined the mortality along with the proportion of disease related adverse events measured individually and by a composite adverse outcome (devised by including deaths, disability, relapses, and minimal response) and its predictors in an inception cohort of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies (IIM). METHODS: IIM from the MyoCite cohort (December 2017-19) were reviewed for early outcomes (mortality, IMACS core set). Comparisons were drawn between those meeting the primary and secondary outcomes. RESULTS: Of 70 patients [62 adults, M: F = 1:4.8, age 43 (28.5-51) and 8 children, M: F = 1:1, 14.5 (8.8-16)], Dermatomyositis (DM) was the most common subset (29,41.4% adults; 7,87.5% children). Over 10 (4-15) months, 10 (15.2%) died and four Polymyositis were reclassified. One-year survival for anti- Melanoma Differentiation Antigen 5 (MDA5) subtype was 30% and Anti-synthetase Syndrome (ARS) subtype was 75%. Overall, lower respiratory infections were the most common cause of death (n = 3,30%) followed closely by malignancy and Rapidly Progressive Interstitial Lung Disease (RP ILD).Amongst survivors, a major IMACS response was recorded in 54.5% adults and 100% children. 30% suffered from moderate to severe disability and 16.7% experienced relapses. Overall, two-thirds accrued the composite adverse outcome.In a multivariate analysis, older age and anti-MDA5 predicted mortality. Arthritis, rash, and positive ANA reduced and anti-MDA5 increased the risk for the composite adverse outcome. CONCLUSION: Indian patients with IIM suffer high early mortality attributable to infection, cancer and RP-ILD, calling for high vigilance post-diagnosis. Autoantibodies and certain clinical features identify risk for composite adverse outcomes.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33493341

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, profile and predictors of infections in an Indian cohort of IIM. METHODS: We reviewed the records of a retrospective cohort of IIM enrolled from consecutive patients following up in the clinic as the observation cohort (OC). A newly diagnosed inception cohort of IIM were followed prospectively as the validation cohort (VC) to confirm observations and compare with the OC. RESULTS: Among 68 patients in the OC (age 33.4 years, F: M 4.2:1), 37(54.4%) experienced 54 infections, of which 21(38.8%) were major and recurrent infections in 11 patients(16.17%) over 3.08 years. Tuberculosis was the most common infection(12, 22.2%), with predominance of extra-pulmonary forms. Serum protein(OR 0.44), platelets(0.44) at disease onset and daily steroid dose(1.04) predicted major infections on multivariate analysis. A higher daily dose of steroids at first infection correlated with number of recurrent infections. Infection free one-year survival was 73.8%.Of 70 patients in VC (35.7 years, F: M 3.7:1), three had myositis attributed to an infection. Similar proportion of total(22, 33.3%), major(10, 45.4%) and recurrent(4,18%) infections were recorded. Most common infection was community acquired pneumonia, followed by Tuberculosis with serum albumin(OR 0.25) at disease onset being the only predictor. One-year infection free survival was 64.7%. Those who had a major infection had increased mortality at 1 year with survival of 60% compared with 89.09% in those without.In both cohorts, a daily prednisone dose >6.25 mg predisposed to major infections. CONCLUSION: Major and recurrent infections are common in Indian IIM patients and confer higher risk for future infections and lower survival. Respiratory and atypical bacterial infections such as Tuberculosis occur throughout the disease course.

12.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 51(1): 113-120, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360322

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Idiopathic Inflammatory Myositis (IIM) are heterogenous with distinct clinical phenotypes associated with specific myositis specific antibodies (MSA) and myositis associated antibodies (MAA). OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the frequency, pattern and associations of MSA/MAA in a large Indian cohort of IIM. METHODS: Adult and juvenile IIM (2017 ACR/EULAR criteria), were recruited in the MyoCite cohort between 2017and 2020 at a tertiary center in Northern India. Standardized clinical and laboratory variables were extracted from the database archive. Serum samples were evaluated for the presence of MSAs/MAAs by Line immunoassay and anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) by Immunofluorescence assay (IFA). The prevalence and clinical associations of different MSA/MAAs were assessed. RESULTS: MSA and MAAs were tested in 250 IIM patients (214 adults, 36 children) of age [40 (30-49), 13 (7.5-16) years] and disease duration [ 7 (3-17), 6 (2-17) months] comprising predominantly of Dermatomyositis (DM) followed by Overlap myositis (OM). MSAs/MAAs were found in 148 (59.2%, 60.7% adults and 50% JIIM), of which two-thirds were MSA (95, 64% overall). Two cases (0.8%) had more than one MSA. In adult IIM, the most common MSA was anti-Jo-1 (10%), whereas it was anti-MDA5 and anti-NXP2 4 (11%) each in Juvenile IIM (JIIM). 76.0% (172/226) were ANA positive, with speckled pattern being the most common (37%,). Nearly two-thirds (54, 61%) of those with negative ANA had MSA/ MAA. Nearly half (18/54, 54.6%) had MSA associated with cytoplasmic patterns. ARS (anti-aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase) were associated with mechanic's hands (OR-7.06), ILD (OR-4.4), and arthritis (OR-2.23). Clinical associations of anti-Jo-1 and non-Jo-1 Anti synthetase syndrome (ASS) did not differ. Anti-MDA-5 associated with oral ulcers (OR-8.3), fever (OR-8.6) and weight loss (OR-7.35) in adults, and arthritis (OR-11.5), and periungual rash (OR-9.6) in children. Anti-TIF-1γ associated with photosensitivity (OR-10.44) and malignancy (OR-34) in adults, and cuticular overgrowth (OR-11.2) in children. CONCLUSION: Myositis autoantibodies are seen in two-thirds IIMs and are associated with distinct clinical subsets. Jo-1 and non-Jo-1 ASS exhibit similar characteristics. The association of anti-TIF1 γ with malignancy was confirmed in adults. MSA/MAA were present in two-thirds of those with negative ANA and MSA were nearly always mutually exclusive.

13.
J Clin Rheumatol ; 27(1): 31-33, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347032

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and its subsequent effects on health care systems have significantly impacted the management of chronic rheumatic diseases, including systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: In this context, a 25-item anonymized e-survey was posted on the Twitter and Facebook e-groups and pages of various scleroderma organizations and patient communities to assess the problems faced by patients with SSc during the pandemic, with a focus on effects on the disease, drug procurance, continuity of medical care, and prevalent fears among patients. RESULTS: Of the 291 participants (median age of 55 [43.5-63] years, 93.8% females), limited systemic sclerosis was the most common diagnosis (42.3%). Many patients experienced problems attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic (119, 40.9%), of which 46 (38.7%) required an increase in medicines, and 12 (10.1%) of these needed hospitalizations for disease-related complications. More than one-third (36.4%) were on glucocorticoids or had underlying cardiovascular risks (39%) that would predispose them to severe COVID-19.A significant proportion (38.1%) faced hurdles in procuring medicines or experienced disruption in physiotherapy sessions (24.7%). One-quarter (24.1%) felt it was difficult to contact their specialist, whereas another 7.2% were unable to do so. Contracting COVID-19 was the most prevalent fear (71.5%), followed by infection in the family (61.9%), and a flare of the disease (45.4%). Most respondents preferred teleconsultations (55.7%) over hospital visits in the pandemic period. CONCLUSION: The results of the patient survey suggest that the COVID-19 pandemic has affected many patients with SSc and may translate to poorer outcomes in this population in the postpandemic period.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Escleroderma Sistêmico/complicações , Escleroderma Sistêmico/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 18(7): 778-784, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33349207

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Antibody-mediated injury in chronic active antibody-mediated rejection, possibly with other effector T cells, may play a role in graft injury. The role of inflammatory cells in the inflammation and fibrosis and tubular atrophy region has been recently advocated in the progression of injury. Cytotoxic T cells play a prominent role in T-cell-mediated rejection; however, the possible role of cytotoxic T cells in circulation and the intragraft compartment in chronic active antibody-mediated rejection, a common immunological cause of long-term graft failure, has not been well-studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured the frequency of circulating cytotoxic T cells with flow cytometry, serum granzyme B level by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and intragraft granzyme B+ cell, and mRNA by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction in biopsy tissue from living donor renal allograft recipients with stable graft function and chronic active antibody-mediated rejection. RESULTS: The frequency of CD3+ and CD3+CD8+ T cells was similar in both stable graft function patients and chronic active antibody-mediated rejection patients. The frequency of CD3+CD8+granzyme B+ cytotoxic T cells was significantly lower in peripheral blood. Serum granzyme B level and intragraft number of granzyme B+ cells (counts/mm²) were also significantly higher in the chronic active antibody-mediated rejection group compared with that of patients with stable graft function. The intragraft granzyme B+ T cell count was positively correlated with serum creatinine and 24-hour urine proteinuria but negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate. CONCLUSIONS: Granzyme B mediates covert graft injury in patients with chronic active antibody-mediated rejection in addition to antibody-mediated injury.

16.
J Korean Med Sci ; 35(45): e398, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33230988

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to a massive rise in survey-based research. The paucity of perspicuous guidelines for conducting surveys may pose a challenge to the conduct of ethical, valid and meticulous research. The aim of this paper is to guide authors aiming to publish in scholarly journals regarding the methods and means to carry out surveys for valid outcomes. The paper outlines the various aspects, from planning, execution and dissemination of surveys followed by the data analysis and choosing target journals. While providing a comprehensive understanding of the scenarios most conducive to carrying out a survey, the role of ethical approval, survey validation and pilot testing, this brief delves deeper into the survey designs, methods of dissemination, the ways to secure and maintain data anonymity, the various analytical approaches, the reporting techniques and the process of choosing the appropriate journal. Further, the authors analyze retracted survey-based studies and the reasons for the same. This review article intends to guide authors to improve the quality of survey-based research by describing the essential tools and means to do the same with the hope to improve the utility of such studies.

17.
Asian J Transfus Sci ; 14(1): 39-43, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transfusion of allogeneic blood in breast cancer surgery is variable, and differences of transfusion incidence have been observed in the literature. Most hospital guidelines including ours dictate group and reserve policy of blood before breast surgery. Here, we aimed to audit the blood utilization in patients undergoing elective breast surgery in our hospital and thereby optimize the blood ordering schedule, economic burden, and loss of clinical resources. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 478 breast cancer surgeries over a period of 6 years. Patient and disease details were obtained from patient file and hospital information system. Blood samples sent to blood bank were subjected to compatibility test and reserved. All transfusions were documented, and statistical analysis was done. RESULTS: Of the total 478 patients, most underwent wide local excision of the breast and modified radical mastectomy. A total of 16 patients received 71 units of blood and blood components in all categories of surgeries. Only 103 were younger women (≤40 years), with a mean age of 31 years. Nontransfused patients were significantly more than transfused ones (P < 0.05). Frequency of blood transfusion was more in young patients (4.9%). Seven (22.6%) of the total 31 Stage IV patients received blood transfusions. Frequency of blood transfusion was more in patients undergoing surgery after chemotherapy (8.8%). A significant loss of time and loss of revenue was observed. CONCLUSION: We conclude that routine compatibility test is not justified for all patients undergoing breast surgery. A more targeted approach is needed to reduce blood demand and associated cost to patient and blood transfusion services.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33175137

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic and the subsequent effects on healthcare systems is having a significant effect on the management of long-term autoimmune conditions. The aim of this study was to assess the problems faced by patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM). METHODS: An anonymized eSurvey was carried out with a focus on effects on disease control, continuity of medical care, drug procurance and prevalent fears in the patient population. RESULTS: Of the 608 participants (81.1% female, median (s.d.) age 57 (13.9) years), dermatomyositis was the most frequent subtype (247, 40.6%). Patients reported health-related problems attributable to the COVID-19 pandemic (n = 195, 32.1%); specifically 102 (52.3%) required increase in medicines, and 35 (18%) required hospitalization for disease-related complications. Over half (52.7%) of the surveyed patients were receiving glucocorticoids and/or had underlying cardiovascular risk factors (53.8%), placing them at higher risk for severe COVID-19. Almost one in four patients faced hurdles in procuring medicines. Physiotherapy, critical in the management of IIM, was disrupted in 214 (35.2%). One quarter (159, 26.1%) experienced difficulty in contacting their specialist, and 30 (4.9%) were unable to do so. Most (69.6%) were supportive of the increased use of remote consultations to maintain continuity of medical care during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: This large descriptive study suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic has incurred a detrimental effect on continuity of medical care for many patients with IIM. There is concern that delays and omissions in clinical care may potentially translate to poorer outcomes in the future.

20.
Rheumatol Int ; 2020 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150493

RESUMO

Teleconsultation has assumed a central role in the management of chronic and disabling rheumatic diseases, such as the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM), during COVID-19. However, the feasibility, challenges encountered, and outcomes remain largely unexplored. Here, we describe our teleconsultation experience in a prospectively followed cohort of adult and juvenile IIM. 250 IIM enrolled into the MyoCite cohort (2017-ongoing) were offered the option of audio/visual teleconsultation using WhatsApp during the nationwide lockdown. Clinical outcomes (major/minor relapse) and prescription changes were compared between IIM subsets. Socio-demographic and clinico-serological characteristics of those who sought teleconsultation were compared with those who did not. 151 teleconsultations were sought over a 93 day period by 71 (52.2%) of 136 IIM (median age 38 years, F:M 4.5:1). Nearly one-third (38%) consulted on an emergency basis, with voice consultations being the primary medium of communication. Over a quarter (26.8%) reported relapse (15.5% minor, 11.3% major), these being more common in JDM [71.4%, OR 8.9 (1.5-51)] as compared with adult IIM, but similar across various antibody-based IIM subtypes. Patients who relapsed required more consultations [2(2-3) vs 1(1-2), p 0.009]. The demographic and socioeconomic profile of the patients seeking consultation (n = 71) was not different from those who did not (n = 65). Voice-based teleconsultations may be useful to diagnose and manage relapses in IIM during the pandemic. Patient education for meticulous and timely reporting may be improve care, and larger multicentre studies may identify subsets of IIM that require greater care and early tele-triage for effective management of the condition.

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