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1.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 222: 112263, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339994

RESUMO

The biosynthesis of polyphenolic compounds in cabbage waste, outer green leaves of white head cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba), was stimulated by postharvest irradiation with UVB lamps or sunlight. Both treatments boosted the content of kaempferol and quercetin glycosides, especially in the basal leaf zone, as determined by the HPLC analysis of leaf extracts and by a non-destructive optical sensor. The destructive analysis of samples irradiated by the sun for 6 days at the end of October 2015 in Skierniewice (Poland) showed an increase of leaf flavonols by 82% with respect to controls. The treatment by a broadband UVB fluorescent lamp, with irradiance of 0.38 W m-2 in the 290-315 nm range (and 0.59 W m-2 in the UVA region) for 12 h per day at 17 °C along with a white light of about 20 µmol m-2 s-1, produced a flavonols increase of 58% with respect to controls. The kinetics of flavonols accumulation in response to the photochemical treatments was monitored with the FLAV non-destructive index. The initial FLAV rate under the sun was proportional to the daily radiation doses with a better correlation for the sun global irradiance (R2 = 0.973), followed by the UVA (R2 = 0.965) and UVB (R2 = 0.899) irradiance. The sunlight turned out to be more efficient than the UVB lamp in increasing the flavonols level of waste leaves, because of a significant role played by UVA and visible solar radiation in the regulation of the flavonoid accumulation in cabbage. The FLAV index increase induced on the adaxial leaf side was accompanied by a lower but still significant FLAV increase on the unirradiated abaxial side, likely due to a systemic signaling by mean of the long-distance movement of macromolecules. Our present investigation provides useful data for the optimization of postharvest photochemical protocols of cabbage waste valorization. It can represent a novel and alternative tool of vegetable waste management for the recovery of beneficial phytochemicals.


Assuntos
Brassica/efeitos da radiação , Luz , Brassica/química , Brassica/metabolismo , Clorofila/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonóis/análise , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Raios Ultravioleta
3.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(2)2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33445510

RESUMO

The correct fertilization of vegetable crops is commonly determined on the basis of soil and plant costly destructive analyses, demanding more sustainable non-invasive optical detection. Here, we tested the ability of the combined transmittance/fluorescence leaf clip Dualex device for determining the nitrogen (N) status of cabbage plants. Fully developed leaves from plants grown under different N rates of 0; 100; 200; 300 kg N ha-1 in 2018 and 2019 were measured in the field by the Dualex sensor twice a year in July and October. The chlorophyll (Chl) and nitrogen (nitrogen balance index, NBI) indices and the flavonols (Flav) index of the sensor were positively and negatively correlated to leaf nitrogen, respectively. Merging the two-years data, the NBI versus leaf N correlation was less point dispersed in October than July (R2 = 0.76 and 0.64, respectively). NBI was also correlated to cabbage yield, better in July than October. Our results showed that the multiparametric Dualex device can be used as precision agriculture tool for the early prediction of plant N and cabbage yield with economic advantage for the growers and reduced environmental contamination due to nitrate leaching.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Nitrogênio/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Clorofila/análise , Desenho de Equipamento , Fertilizantes , Fluorescência , Polônia
4.
Plant Cell Environ ; 44(4): 1119-1129, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32515010

RESUMO

Anthocyanins have long been suggested as having great potential in offering photoprotection to plants facing high light irradiance. Nonetheless, their effective ability in protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from supernumerary photons has been questioned by some authors, based upon the inexact belief that anthocyanins almost exclusively absorb green photons, which are poorly absorbed by chlorophylls. Here we focus on the blue light absorbing features of anthocyanins, a neglected issue in anthocyanin research. Anthocyanins effectively absorb blue photons: the absorbance of blue relative to green photons increases from tri- to mono-hydroxy B-ring substituted structures, reaching up to 50% of green photons absorption. We offer a comprehensive picture of the molecular events activated by low blue-light availability, extending our previous analysis in purple and green basil, which we suggest to be responsible for the "shade syndrome" displayed by cyanic leaves. While purple leaves display overexpression of genes promoting chlorophyll biosynthesis and light harvesting, in green leaves it is the genes involved in the stability/repair of photosystems that are largely overexpressed. As a corollary, this adds further support to the view of an effective photoprotective role of anthocyanins. We discuss the profound morpho-anatomical adjustments imposed by the epidermal anthocyanin shield, which reflect adjustments in light harvesting capacity under imposed shade and make complex the analysis of the photosynthetic performance of cyanic versus acyanic leaves.

5.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 9(11)2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182252

RESUMO

Whether flavonoids play significant antioxidant roles in plants challenged by photooxidative stress of different origin has been largely debated over the last few decades. A critical review of the pertinent literature and our experimentation as well, based on a free-of-scale approach, support an important antioxidant function served by flavonoids in plants exposed to a wide range of environmental stressors, the significance of which increases with the severity of stress. On the other side, some questions need conclusive answers when the putative antioxidant functions of plant flavonoids are examined at the level of both the whole-cell and cellular organelles. This partly depends upon a conclusive, robust, and unbiased definition of "a plant antioxidant", which is still missing, and the need of considering the subcellular re-organization that occurs in plant cells in response to severe stress conditions. This likely makes our deterministic-based approach unsuitable to unveil the relevance of flavonoids as antioxidants in extremely complex biological systems, such as a plant cell exposed to an ever-changing stressful environment. This still poses open questions about how to measure the occurred antioxidant action of flavonoids. Our reasoning also evidences the need of contemporarily evaluating the changes in key primary and secondary components of the antioxidant defense network imposed by stress events of increasing severity to properly estimate the relevance of the antioxidant functions of flavonoids in an in planta situation. In turn, this calls for an in-depth analysis of the sub-cellular distribution of primary and secondary antioxidants to solve this still intricate matter.

6.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(6)2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32630593

RESUMO

Ocimum basilicum (basil) leaves are rich in polyphenols, conferring them a high antioxidant activity. The application of UV-B can be used to maintain the post-harvest nutraceutical quality of basil leaves. We aimed to investigate the effects of pre-harvest UV-B application on polyphenolic and pigment contents, antioxidant capacity, and the visual quality of basil stored leaves. We also evaluated the applicability of the non-invasive Dualex® for monitoring the accumulation of leaf epidermal phenolics (Flav Index). After exposing plants to white light (control) and to supplemental UV-B radiation for 4 d, the leaves were harvested and stored for 7d (TS7). The UV-B leaves showed both a higher phenolic content and antioxidant capacity than the controls at TS7. In addition, the correlations between the Flav Index and phenolic content demonstrated that Dualex® can reliably assess the content of epidermal phenolics, thus confirming its promising utilization as a non-destructive method for monitoring the phytochemical quality of O. basilicum leaves. In conclusion, a pre-harvesting UV-B application may be a tool for enhancing the content of polyphenols and the antioxidant potential of basil stored leaves without detrimental effects on their visual quality. These results are important considering the nutraceutical value of this plant and its wide commercial distribution.

7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(4)2020 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059448

RESUMO

Non-destructive tools for the in situ evaluation of vine fruit quality and vineyard management can improve the market value of table grape. We proposed a new approach based on a portable fluorescence sensor to map the ripening level of Crimson Seedless table grape in five different plots in the East, Central-North and South of the Macedonia Region of Greece. The sensor provided indices of ripening and color such as SFRR and ANTHRG correlated to the chlorophyll and anthocyanin berry contents, respectively. The mean ANTHRG index was significantly different among all the plots examined due to the occurrence of different environmental conditions and/or asynchronous ripening processes. The indices presented moderate, poor in some cases, spatial variability, probably due to a significant vine-to-vine, intra-vine and intra-bunch variability. The cluster analysis was applied to the plot with the most evident spatial structure (at Kilkis). Krigged maps of the SFRR, ANTHRG and yield were classified by k-means clustering in two-zones that differed significantly in their mean values. ANTHRG and SFRR were inversely correlated over 64% of the plot. SFRR appeared to be a potential useful proxy of yield since it was directly correlated to yield over 66% of the plot. The grape color (ANTHRG) was slightly higher over the low-yield zones with respect to the high-yield zones. Our study showed that the combination of anthocyanins and chlorophyll indices detected in the field on Crimson Seedless table grape by a portable fluorescence sensor can help in defining the best harvest time and the best areas for harvesting.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/instrumentação , Sementes/fisiologia , Vitis/fisiologia , Algoritmos , Antocianinas/análise , Clorofila/análise , Fluorescência , Estatística como Assunto
8.
Foods ; 8(7)2019 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252678

RESUMO

There is a large potential in Europe for valorization in the vegetable food supply chain. For example, there is occasionally overproduction of tomatoes for fresh consumption, and a fraction of the production is unsuited for fresh consumption sale (unacceptable color, shape, maturity, lesions, etc.). In countries where the facilities and infrastructure for tomato processing is lacking, these tomatoes are normally destroyed, used as landfilling or animal feed, and represent an economic loss for producers and negative environmental impact. Likewise, there is also a potential in the tomato processing industry to valorize side streams and reduce waste. The present paper provides an overview of tomato production in Europe and the strategies employed for processing and valorization of tomato side streams and waste fractions. Special emphasis is put on the four tomato-producing countries Norway, Belgium, Poland, and Turkey. These countries are very different regards for example their climatic preconditions for tomato production and volumes produced, and represent the extremes among European tomato producing countries. Postharvest treatments and applications for optimized harvest time and improved storage for premium raw material quality are discussed, as well as novel, sustainable processing technologies for minimum waste and side stream valorization. Preservation and enrichment of lycopene, the primary health promoting agent and sales argument, is reviewed in detail. The European volume of tomato postharvest wastage is estimated at >3 million metric tons per year. Together, the optimization of harvesting time and preprocessing storage conditions and sustainable food processing technologies, coupled with stabilization and valorization of processing by-products and side streams, can significantly contribute to the valorization of this underutilized biomass.

9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(6): 2763-2774, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Accumulation and stability of tomato lycopene markedly depends on the cultivar, plant growing and storage conditions. To estimate lycopene in open-field cultivated processing and fresh market tomatoes, we used a calibrated spectral reflectance portable sensor. RESULTS: Lycopene accumulation in fruits attached to the plant, starting from the Green ripening stage, followed a sigmoidal function. It was faster and reached higher levels in processing (cv. Calista) than fresh market (cv. Volna) tomatoes (90 and 62 mg kg-1 fresh weight, respectively). During storage at 12, 20 and 25 °C, Red tomatoes retained about 90% of harvest lycopene for three weeks. Pink tomatoes increased lycopene during the first week of storage, but never reached the lycopene values of Red tomatoes ripened on the vine. Storability at 12 °C retaining the highest quality in red tomatoes was limited to 14 and 7 days for Calista and Volna cultivars, respectively. CONCLUSION: Significant differences in lycopene accumulation and stability between processing and fresh market tomatoes were established by examining with time the very same fruits by a non-destructive optical tool. It can be useful in agronomical and post-harvest physiological studies and can be of interest for producers oriented to the niche nutraceutical market. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Licopeno/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Carotenoides/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Óptica e Fotônica
10.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 917, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013588

RESUMO

Anthocyanic morphs are generally less efficient in terms of carbon gain, but, in turn, are more photoprotected than anthocyanin-less ones. To date, mature leaves of different morphs or leaves at different developmental stages within the same species have generally been compared, whereas there is a lack of knowledge regarding different stages of development of red vs. green leaves. Leaves (1-, 7-, and 13-week-old) of red- (RLP) and green-leafed (GLP) Prunus in terms of photosynthetic rate, carbon metabolism and photoprotective mechanisms were compared to test whether anthocyanin-equipped leaves perform better than anthocyanin-less leaves and whether photoprotection is the primary role of epidermally-located anthocyanins, using for the first time a recently-developed parameter of chlorophyll fluorescence (qPd). GLP leaves had a higher photosynthetic rate in 1- and 7-week-old leaves, but RLP leaves performed better at an early stage of senescence and had a longer leaf lifespan. Anthocyanins contributed to leaf photoprotection throughout the leaf development, but were tightly coordinated with carotenoids. Besides photoprotecting, we propose that epidermal anthocyanins may be principally synthetized to maintain an efficient carbon-sink strength in young and senescent leaves, thus extending the RLP leaf lifespan.

11.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(23): 5778-5789, 2018 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29775294

RESUMO

We analyzed the potential of non-destructive optical sensing of grape skin anthocyanins for selective harvesting in precision viticulture. We measured anthocyanins by a hand-held fluorescence optical sensor on a 7 ha Sangiovese vineyard plot in central Italy. Optical indices obtained by the sensor were calibrated for the transformation in units of anthocyanins per berry mass, i.e., milligrams per gram of berry fresh weight. A full protocol for optimal data filtration, interpolation, and homogeneous zone delineation based on a very large number of optical measurements is proposed. Both the single signal-based fluorescence index (ANTHR) and the two signal ratio-based index (ANTHRG) can be used for Sangiovese grapes. Significant separations of grape-quality batches were obtained by several methods of data classification and zone delineations. Basic statistical criteria were as efficient as the K-means clustering. The best separations were obtained for three classes of grape skin anthocyanin.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Antocianinas/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis , Vinho
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(18): 4748-4757, 2018 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29677447

RESUMO

Reflectance spectroscopy represents a useful tool for the nondestructive assessment of tomato lycopene, even in the field. For this reason, a compact, low-cost, light emitting diode-based sensor has been developed to measure reflectance in the 400-750 nm spectral range. It was calibrated against wet chemistry and evaluated by partial least squares (PLS) regression analyses. The lycopene prediction models were defined for two open-field cultivated red-tomato varieties: the processing oblong tomatoes of the cv. Calista (average weight: 76 g) and the fresh-consumption round tomatoes of the cv. Volna (average weight: 130 g), over a period of two consecutive years. The lycopene prediction models were dependent on both cultivar and season. The lycopene root mean square error of prediction produced by the 2014 single-cultivar calibrations validated on the 2015 samples was large (33 mg kg-1) in the Calista tomatoes and acceptable (9.5 mg kg-1) in the Volna tomatoes. A more general bicultivar and biyear model could still explain almost 80% of the predicted lycopene variance, with a relative error in red tomatoes of less than 20%. In 2016, the in-field applications of the multiseasonal prediction models, built with the 2014 and 2015 data, showed significant ( P < 0.001) differences in the average lycopene estimated in the crop on two sampling dates that were 20 days apart: on August 19 and September 7, 2016, the lycopene was 98.9 ± 9.3 and 92.2 ± 10.8 mg kg-1 FW for cv. Calista and 54.6 ± 13.2 and 60.8 ± 6.8 mg kg-1 FW for cv. Volna. The sensor was also able to monitor the temporal evolution of lycopene accumulation on the very same fruits attached to the plants. These results indicated that a simple, compact reflectance device and PLS analysis could provide adequately precise and robust (through-seasons) models for the nondestructive assessment of lycopene in whole tomatoes. This technique could guarantee tomatoes with the highest nutraceutical value from the production, during storage and distribution, and finally to consumers.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/análise , Frutas/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Licopeno , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/metabolismo , Estações do Ano
13.
Food Chem ; 244: 213-223, 2018 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29120773

RESUMO

Fluorescence sensors are useful tools for the non-destructive assessment of grape berry anthocyanins. The Multiplex (Mx) sensor here studied provides two anthocyanin indices: ANTHR = log(1/Chl-fluorescence_R) and ANTHRG = log(Chl-fluorescence_R/Chl-fluorescence_G), based on the chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence excited with red (R) and green (G) light. These indices were calibrated against wet chemistry. The dependence of anthocyanin prediction models on cultivar, season and site was studied on four cultivars in two Italian regions during three consecutive years. The 2010 global model (all cultivars at both growing sites) gave relative prediction errors on anthocyanin content less than 14.1% (ANTHR) and 19.0% (ANTHRG). The ANTHRG was independent of season, maintaining a relative error of about 20% in both 2011 and 2012. In field applications of the calibrated Mx, it showed its ability to detect inter-plot and inter-season differences on both growing sites.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Frutas/química , Modelos Teóricos , Estações do Ano , Vitis/química , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Calibragem , Espectrometria de Fluorescência
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 64(1): 85-94, 2016 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26679081

RESUMO

A multiparametric optical sensor was used to nondestructively estimate phytochemical compounds in white cabbage leaves directly in the field. An experimental site of 1980 white cabbages (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata subvar. alba), under different nitrogen (N) treatments, was mapped by measuring leaf transmittance and chlorophyll fluorescence screening in one leaf/cabbage head. The provided indices of flavonols (FLAV) and chlorophyll (CHL) displayed the opposite response to applied N rates, decreasing and increasing, respectively. The combined nitrogen balance index (NBI = CHL/FLAV) calculated was able to discriminate all of the plots under four N regimens (0, 100, 200, and 400 kg/ha) and was correlated with the leaf N content determined destructively. CHL and FLAV were properly calibrated against chlorophyll (R(2) = 0.945) and flavonol (R(2) = 0.932) leaf contents, respectively, by using a homographic fit function. The proposed optical sensing of cabbage crops can be used to estimate the N status of plants and perform precision fertilization to maintain acceptable crop yield levels and, additionally, to rapidly detect health-promoting flavonol antioxidants in Brassica plants.


Assuntos
Brassica/química , Clorofila/química , Flavonóis/química , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brassica/metabolismo , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
15.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 140: 28-35, 2014 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25063983

RESUMO

The location of individual coumarins in leaves of Fraxinus ornus acclimated at full solar irradiance was estimated using their specific UV- and fluorescence spectral features. Using a combination of UV-induced fluorescence and blue light-induced fluorescence of tissues stained with diphenylborinic acid 2-amino-ethylester, in wide field or confocal laser scanning microscopy, we were able to visualize the distribution of esculetin and esculetin 6-O-glucoside (esculin) in palisade cells. Coumarins are not uniformly distributed in the cell vacuole, but accumulate mostly in the adaxial portion of palisade cells. Our study indeed shows, for the first time, that coumarins in palisade cells accumulate as vacuolar inclusions, as previously reported in the pertinent literature only for anthocyanins. Furthermore, esculetin and esculin have a different vacuolar distribution: esculetin largely predominates in the first 15 µm from the adaxial epidermis. This leads to hypothesize for esculetin and esculin different transport mechanisms from the endoplasmic reticulum to the vacuole as well as potentially different roles in photoprotection. Our study open to new experiments aimed at exploring the mechanisms that deliver coumarins to the vacuole using different fluorescence signatures of coumarin aglycones and coumarin glycosides.


Assuntos
Esculina/análise , Fraxinus/química , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Esculina/metabolismo , Fraxinus/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Células do Mesofilo/química , Células do Mesofilo/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Raios Ultravioleta , Umbeliferonas/análise , Umbeliferonas/metabolismo , Vacúolos/química , Vacúolos/metabolismo
16.
Plant Cell Environ ; 37(8): 1950-64, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24738622

RESUMO

Isoprene strengthens thylakoid membranes and scavenges stress-induced oxidative species. The idea that isoprene production might also influence isoprenoid and phenylpropanoid pathways under stress conditions was tested. We used transgenic tobacco to compare physiological and biochemical traits of isoprene-emitting (IE) and non-emitting (NE) plants exposed to severe drought and subsequent re-watering. Photosynthesis was less affected by drought in IE than in NE plants, and higher rates were also observed in IE than in NE plants recovering from drought. Isoprene emission was stimulated by mild drought. Under severe drought, isoprene emission declined, and levels of non-volatile isoprenoids, specifically de-epoxidated xanthophylls and abscisic acid (ABA), were higher in IE than in NE plants. Soluble sugars and phenylpropanoids were also higher in IE plants. After re-watering, IE plants maintained higher levels of metabolites, but isoprene emission was again higher than in unstressed plants. We suggest that isoprene production in transgenic tobacco triggered different responses, depending upon drought severity. Under drought, the observed trade-off between isoprene and non-volatile isoprenoids suggests that in IE plants isoprene acts as a short-term protectant, whereas non-volatile isoprenoids protect against severe, long-term damage. After drought, it is suggested that the capacity to emit isoprene might up-regulate production of non-volatile isoprenoids and phenylpropanoids, which may further protect IE leaves.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Hemiterpenos/biossíntese , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Terpenos/metabolismo , Tabaco/fisiologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Butadienos , Secas , Pentanos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Tabaco/genética , Xantofilas/metabolismo
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 61(50): 12211-8, 2013 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24279372

RESUMO

A nondestructive fluorescence-based technique for evaluating Vitis vinifera L. grape maturity using a portable sensor (Multiplex) is presented. It provides indices of anthocyanins and chlorophyll in Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Sangiovese red grapes and of flavonols and chlorophyll in Vermentino white grapes. The good exponential relationship between the anthocyanin index and the actual anthocyanin content determined by wet chemistry was used to estimate grape anthocyanins from in field sensor data during ripening. Marked differences were found in the kinetics and the amount of anthocyanins between cultivars and between seasons. A sensor-driven mapping of the anthocyanin content in the grapes, expressed as g·kg(-1) fresh weight, was performed on a 7-ha vineyard planted with Sangiovese. In the Vermentino, the flavonol index was favorably correlated to the actual content of berry skin flavonols determined by means of HPLC analysis of skin extracts. It was used to make a nondestructive estimate of the evolution in the flavonol concentration in grape berry samplings. The chlorophyll index was inversely correlated in a linear manner to the total soluble solids (°Brix): it could, therefore, be used as a new index of technological maturity. The fluorescence sensor (Multiplex) possesses a high potential for representing an important innovative tool for controlling grape maturity in precision viticulture.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Imagem Óptica/métodos , Vitis/química , Vinho/análise , Antocianinas/análise , Flavonóis/análise , Frutas/classificação , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Imagem Óptica/instrumentação , Vitis/classificação , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 61(42): 10156-62, 2013 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24063641

RESUMO

A novel fluorescence approach to monitor the evolution of anthocyanins and derivatives in red wine was developed. Some red table wines and Port wine with different vintage years were first tested with the aim to determine the ideal fluorescent conditions. The fluorescence contribution of both monomeric and polymeric anthocyanins was studied by comparing their emission spectra. By measuring the F700/F560 ratio on different wine samples and applying an inverted exponential function, it was possible to estimate the monomeric/polymeric anthocyanin absorbance ratio that is proportional to the relative content of the two classes of compounds. The methodology was further developed by using pure compounds representative of monomeric anthocyanins and anthocyanin-pyruvic acid adducts, namely, by using malvidin-3-O-glucoside and vitisin A. A fluorescence excitation ratio (FER350/550) was considered for estimating the absorbance ratio between vitisin A and malvidin-3-O-glucoside. Overall, this work aims to use fluorescence to monitor the evolution of anthocyanin derivatives and to distinguish them from their anthocyanin precursors, thereby allowing the evolution of anthocyanin pigments during wine aging to be monitored, but it also may be useful to determine age markers or even geographical markers.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Análise Espectral/métodos , Vinho/análise , Fluorescência , Estrutura Molecular
19.
Phytochem Anal ; 24(5): 460-6, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23716352

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Kiwifruit contains high amounts of anti-oxidants beneficial to health. Its quality is influenced by ripening time, genotype, cultivation techniques, climate and storage conditions after harvest. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to characterise the phenolic content by HPLC methods and to evaluate the performance of a portable optical sensor (Multiplex 3), for in vivo non-destructive phenolic compound assessment in kiwifruits. METHODS: Kiwifruits peel extracts were characterised by reverse-phase (RP) HPLC with diode-array detector (DAD) and electrospray ionisation (ESI) with MS using the Zorbax SB-Aq. column from Agilent. The fluorimetric sensor method is based on the screening of fruit chlorophyll fluorescence excitation and allows the UV absorbance of intact fruit skin to be measured. The flavonol index, FLAV, was calculated as log(FRF(R)/FRF(UV)), where FRF(R) and FRF(UV) are the chlorophyll fluorescence excited with red and UV light. RESULTS: Hydroxycinnamic acids, procyanidins, and quercetin glycosides were the main polyphenol classes detected by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS in the kiwifruit skin. A good linear regression (R² = 0.88) was found between the fluorimetric sensor FLAV index and flavonol chromatographic analysis of the fruits. The FLAV index was able to detect the higher content of flavonols in sun-exposed fruits with respect to mid-shaded and shaded ones in accordance with the destructive analysis. CONCLUSION: The fluorimetric sensor represents a rapid and non-invasive tool to: (i) monitor the flavonol accumulation in kiwifruit and to assess its quality concerning the healthy anti-oxidant properties; (ii) evaluate the effect of environmental and agronomical factors related to the fruit quality; and (iii) select fruits with the largest flavonol content, and consequently less susceptible to pathogen attack, in order to improve their storage durability.


Assuntos
Actinidia/química , Óptica e Fotônica/instrumentação , Polifenóis/análise , Calibragem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta
20.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 72: 35-45, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23583204

RESUMO

We discuss on the relative significance of different functional roles potentially served by flavonoids in photoprotection, with special emphasis to their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and control the development of individual organs and whole plant. We propose a model in which chloroplast-located flavonoids scavenge H2O2 and singlet oxygen generated under excess light-stress, thus avoiding programmed cell death. We also draw a picture in which vacuolar flavonoids in conjunction with peroxidases and ascorbic acid constitute a secondary antioxidant system aimed at detoxifying H2O2, which may diffuse out of the chloroplast at considerable rates and enter the vacuole following excess light stress-induced depletion of ascorbate peroxidase. We hypothesize for flavonols key roles as developmental regulators in early and current-day land-plants, based on their ability to modulate auxin movement and auxin catabolism. We show that antioxidant flavonoids display the greatest capacity to regulate key steps of cell growth and differentiation in eukaryotes. These regulatory functions of flavonoids, which are shared by plants and animals, are fully accomplished in the nM concentration range, as likely occurred in early land plants. We therefore conclude that functions of flavonoids as antioxidants and/or developmental regulators flavonoids are of great value in photoprotection. We also suggest that UV-B screening was just one of the multiple functions served by flavonoids when early land-plants faced an abrupt increase in sunlight irradiance.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonoides/efeitos da radiação , Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta
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