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1.
J Migr Health ; 4: 100071, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34820657

RESUMO

We seek to strengthen understanding of the health needs of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in contexts of conflict or violence. Based upon a scoping review, our paper identified limited evidence on IDP health, but nevertheless indicates that IDPs tend to experience worse health outcomes than other conflict-affected populations across a range of health issues; and this is due to the particularly vulnerable situation of IDPs relative to these other populations, including reduced access to health services. Further research is required to better understand these needs and the interventions that can most effectively address these needs.

2.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 222, 2021 10 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Social mobilisation is potentially a key tool in the prevention of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in fragile settings. This formative study addressed existing and potential social mobilisation mechanisms seeking behaviour to tackle NCDs in El Salvador, with an emphasis on the implications in the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: We conducted 19 semi-structured interviews with health workers, government officials, NGO leaders, and community members. Interviews addressed mechanisms for social mobilisation which existed prior to COVID-19, the ways in which these mechanisms tackled NCDs, the impact of COVID-19 on social mobilisation activities and new, emerging mechanisms for social mobilisation in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: Findings indicate a growing awareness of NCDs within communities, with social mobilisation activities seen as valuable in tackling NCDs. However, major barriers to NCD prevention and treatment provision remain, with COVID-19 constraining many possible social mobilisation activities, leaving NCD patients with less support. Factors linked with effective social mobilisation of communities for NCD prevention included strong engagement of community health teams within community structures and the delivery of NCD prevention and management messages through community meetings with trusted health professionals or community members. There are gender differences in the experience of NCDs and women were generally more engaged with social mobilisation activities than men. In the context of COVID-19, traditional forms of social mobilisation were challenged, and new, virtual forms emerged. However, these new forms of engagement did not benefit all, especially those in hard-to-reach rural areas. In these contexts, specific traditional forms of mobilisation such as through radio (where possible) and trusted community leaders - became increasingly important. CONCLUSIONS: New mechanisms of fostering social mobilisation include virtual connectors such as mobile phones, which enable mobilisation through platforms such as WhatsApp, Facebook and Twitter. However, traditional forms of social mobilisation hold value for those without access to such technology. Therefore, a combination of new and traditional mechanisms for social mobilisation hold potential for the future development of social mobilisation strategies in El Salvador and, as appropriate, in other fragile health contexts.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Doenças não Transmissíveis , El Salvador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Doenças não Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Doenças não Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Soc Sci Med ; 291: 114473, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34662762

RESUMO

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) disproportionately affect people living in fragile contexts marked by poor governance and health systems struggling to deliver quality services for the benefit of all. This combination can lead to the erosion of trust in the health system, affecting health-seeking behaviours and the ability of individuals to sustain their health. In this cross-country multiple-case study, we analyse the role of trust in health-seeking for NCD services in fragile contexts. Our analysis triangulates multiple data sources, including semi-structured interviews (n = 102) and Group Model Building workshops (n = 8) with individuals affected by NCDs and health providers delivering NCD services. Data were collected in Freetown and Makeni (Sierra Leone), Beirut and Beqaa (Lebanon), and Morazán, Chalatenango and Bajo Lempa (El Salvador) between April 2018 and April 2019. We present a conceptual model depicting key dynamics and feedback loops between contextual factors, institutional, interpersonal and social trust and health-seeking pathways. Our findings signal that firstly, the way health services are delivered and experienced shapes institutional trust in health systems, interpersonal trust in health providers and future health-seeking pathways. Secondly, historical narratives about public institutions and state authorities' responses to contextual fragility drivers impact institutional trust and utilisation of services from public health institutions. Thirdly, social trust mediates health-seeking behaviour through social bonds and links between health systems and individuals affected by NCDs. Given the repeated and sustained utilisation of health services required with these chronic diseases, (re)building and maintaining trust in public health institutions and providers is a crucial task in fragile contexts. This requires interventions at community, district and national levels, with a key focus on promoting links and mutual accountability between health systems and communities affected by NCDs.

4.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 108, 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289908

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies of psychological distress in Sierra Leone have typically used measures which were developed for use in other contexts, and which often have not been adapted or validated for use in Sierra Leone. This has resulted in a lack of reliable information about the patterns of psychological distress within the population, which is a barrier to the development of effective and appropriate mental health services. The aim of the study was to develop a locally-appropriate measure of psychological distress for Sierra Leone. METHODS: The new measure consists of two instruments: the Sierra Leone Psychological Distress Scale (SLPDS) and a gendered measure of ability to carry out daily tasks-a Function scale-as an indication of the severity of distress. A three-phase mixed methods exploratory sequential study was conducted. Phase 1 was item generation and testing, leading to the development of a set of potential items for both instruments. Phase 2 was a small pilot study (N = 202) leading to the selection of the final set of items for both measures. Phase 3 was a validation phase where the SLPDS and the Function scale were administered with a larger sample of 904 respondents. Item analysis was used to assess the internal consistency of the scales, and Exploratory Factor Analysis to explore the properties of the SLPDS. RESULTS: Exploratory factor analysis using the principal axis factoring with an oblique rotation identified a three-factor structure for the 18-item SLPDS. Internal consistency for the SLPDS (Cronbach's alpha = 0.89) and three subscales was good (Cronbach's alpha > 0.73). The internal reliability of the male and female versions of the Function scale was also found to be acceptable (Cronbach's alpha = 0.90 for the female scale and 0.79 for the male scale). CONCLUSIONS: Together the SLPD and Function scales provide a locally-validated tool which will enable government bodies and local and international non-governmental organisations in Sierra Leone to assess mental health and psychosocial needs. This will support both effective service provision and the evaluation of initiatives designed to improve mental health and psychosocial wellbeing.


Assuntos
Angústia Psicológica , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Serra Leoa , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Global Health ; 17(1): 68, 2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34187499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), including mental health, have become a major concern in low- and middle-income countries. Despite increased attention to them over the past decade, progress toward addressing NCDs has been slow. A lack of bold policy commitments has been suggested as one of the contributors to limited progress in NCD prevention and management. However, the policies of key global actors (bilateral, multilateral, and not-for-profit organisations) have been understudied. METHODS: This study aimed to map the key global actors investing in action regarding NCDs and review their policies to examine the articulation of priorities regarding NCDs. Narrative synthesis of 70 documents and 31 policy papers was completed, and related to data collated from the Global Health Data Visualisation Tool. RESULTS: In 2019 41% of development assistance for health committed to NCDs came from private philanthropies, while that for other global health priorities from this source was just 20%. Through a range of channels, bilateral donors were the other major source of NCD funding (contributing 41% of NCD funding). The UK and the US were the largest bilateral investors in NCDs, each contributing 8%. However, NCDs are still under-prioritised within bilateral portfolios - receiving just 0.48% of US funding and 1.66% of the UK. NGOs were the key channels of funding for NCDs, spending 48% of the funds from donors in 2019. The reviewed literature generally focused on NCD policies of WHO, with policies of multilateral and bilateral donors given limited attention. The analysis of policies indicated a limited prioritisation of NCDs in policy documents. NCDs are framed in the policies as a barrier to economic growth, poverty reduction, and health system sustainability. Bilateral donors prioritise prevention, while multilateral actors offer policy options for NCD prevention and care. Even where stated as a priority, however, funding allocations are not aligned. CONCLUSION: The growing threat of NCDs and their drivers are increasingly recognised. However, global actors' policy priorities and funding allocations need to align better to address these NCD threats. Given the level of their investment and engagement, more research is needed into the role of private philanthropies and NGOs in this area.

6.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 15(1): 58, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116686

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is increasing global evidence that mental health is strongly determined by social, economic and environmental factors, and that strategic action in these areas has considerable potential for improving mental health and preventing and alleviating mental disorders. Prevention and promotion activities in mental health must address the needs prioritised by local actors. The aim of this study was to identify stressors with the potential to influence emotional wellbeing and distress within the general population of Sierra Leone, in order to contribute to an inter-sectoral public mental health approach to improving mental health within the country. METHODOLOGY: Respondents were a convenience sample of 153 respondents (60 women, 93 men) from five districts of Sierra Leone. Using freelisting methodology, respondents were asked to respond to the open question 'What kind of problems do women/men have in your community?'. Data analysis involved consolidation of elicited problems into a single list. These were then organised thematically using an adaptation of the socio-ecological model, facilitating exploration of the interactions between problems at individual, family, community and societal levels RESULTS: Overall, respondents located problems predominantly at community and societal levels. Although few respondents identified individual-level issues, they frequently described how problems at other levels contributed to physical health difficulties and emotional distress. Women identified significantly more problems at the family level than men, particularly related to relationships with an intimate partner. Men identified significantly more problems at the societal level than women, primarily related to lack of infrastructure. Men and women were equally focused on problems related to poverty and lack of income generating opportunities. CONCLUSION: Poverty and inability to earn an income underpinned many of the problems described at individual, family and community level. Actions to address livelihoods, together with improving infrastructure and addressing gender norms which are harmful to both men and women, are likely key to improving the wellbeing of the Sierra Leone population.

8.
Child Psychiatry Hum Dev ; 52(6): 1184-1193, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33247347

RESUMO

Evidence for a single underlying factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in children remains elusive. We assessed the underlying factor structure of the Child PTSD Symptom Scale through exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) in 570 survivors of the 2015 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal. The EFA suggests that the three-factor DSM-IV model fit these data best. The CFA suggests that while the DSM-IV model adequately fit these data, the four-factor King model fit them better. There was no evidence of differential item functioning by age or gender, and internal consistency of the scale was high. PTSD (overall or by factor) was not correlated with functional impairment. Inconsistent psychometric results across contexts and methodologies suggest that our current theoretical conceptualizations and empirical models of posttraumatic stress are lacking. Future studies must both document the instrument properties to assure internal validity and cross-study comparisons and, bolstered by increased psychometric data and analyses, rework theoretical models of PTSD with improved cross-cultural validity.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Criança , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Análise Fatorial , Humanos , Psicometria , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/diagnóstico , Sobreviventes
9.
J Child Psychol Psychiatry ; 62(5): 484-509, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This paper revisits the themes of an influential 1993 review regarding the factors shaping the mental health and psychosocial well-being of refugees to take stock of developments in the evidence base and conceptualisation of issues for refugee children over the last 25 years. METHODS: The study deployed a systematic search strategy. This initially identified 784 papers, which was reduced to 65 studies following application of inclusion and exclusion criteria. We used a later iteration of Bronfenbrenner's bioecological model of human development - the PPCT model - to consolidate evidence. RESULTS: We identify a range of risk and protective factors operating at individual, familial, community and institutional and policy levels that influence outcomes for refugee children. The dynamics shaping the interaction of these influences are linked to the life course principles of socio-historical time and developmental age, proximal processes and child agency. CONCLUSIONS: Actions at individual, familial, community, school, institutional and policy levels all have potential traction on mental health and psychosocial well-being of refugee children. However, evidence suggests that greatest impact will be secured by multilevel interventions addressing synergies between ecological systems, approaches engaging proximal processes (including parenting programmes) and interventions facilitating the agency of the developing refugee child.


Assuntos
Refugiados , Criança , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Poder Familiar , Instituições Acadêmicas
10.
Disasters ; 45(1): 67-85, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322750

RESUMO

Child- and youth-friendly spaces have become a common feature of emergency humanitarian provision. This study reports on the outcomes of child and youth learning centres (CYLCs) in Ethiopia's Buramino Camp established for those fleeing conflict in Somalia. Eighty-five youths completed baseline assessments shortly after arrival and follow-up assessments three to six months later. Caregivers of 106 younger children completed similar appraisals. 693 children attending the CYLCs completed pre- and post-educational assessments, which indicated major gains-significant at p<0.0001-in both literacy (younger children, t=9.06; youth, t=13.87) and numeracy (younger children, t=13.94; youths, t=17.10). Children's CYLC attendance increased reports of met needs among caregivers (t=2.53, p<0.05) and youths (t=2.57, p<0.05), and, among caregivers but not youths, significantly moderated protection concerns (t=2.39, p<0.05, and t=-1.90, p=0.06, respectively). There was general improvement in psychosocial well-being over time for all children; CYLC attendance predicted greater reductions in reported difficulties only among younger children (t=2.51, p<0.05).


Assuntos
Abuso Físico/prevenção & controle , Funcionamento Psicossocial , Refugiados , Adolescente , Altruísmo , Criança , Etiópia , Feminino , Humanos , Alfabetização , Masculino , Refugiados/educação , Refugiados/psicologia , Somália/etnologia
11.
Confl Health ; 14(1): 71, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33292413

RESUMO

Major knowledge gaps remain concerning the most effective ways to address mental health and psychosocial needs of populations affected by humanitarian crises. The Research for Health in Humanitarian Crisis (R2HC) program aims to strengthen humanitarian health practice and policy through research. As a significant portion of R2HC's research has focused on mental health and psychosocial support interventions, the program has been interested in strengthening a community of practice in this field. Following a meeting between grantees, we set out to provide an overview of the R2HC portfolio, and draw lessons learned. In this paper, we discuss the mental health and psychosocial support-focused research projects funded by R2HC; review the implications of initial findings from this research portfolio; and highlight four remaining knowledge gaps in this field. Between 2014 and 2019, R2HC funded 18 academic-practitioner partnerships focused on mental health and psychosocial support, comprising 38% of the overall portfolio (18 of 48 projects) at a value of approximately 7.2 million GBP. All projects have focused on evaluating the impact of interventions. In line with consensus-based recommendations to consider a wide range of mental health and psychosocial needs in humanitarian settings, research projects have evaluated diverse interventions. Findings so far have both challenged and confirmed widely-held assumptions about the effectiveness of mental health and psychosocial interventions in humanitarian settings. They point to the importance of building effective, sustained, and diverse partnerships between scholars, humanitarian practitioners, and funders, to ensure long-term program improvements and appropriate evidence-informed decision making. Further research needs to fill knowledge gaps regarding how to: scale-up interventions that have been found to be effective (e.g., questions related to integration across sectors, adaptation of interventions across different contexts, and optimal care systems); address neglected mental health conditions and populations (e.g., elderly, people with disabilities, sexual minorities, people with severe, pre-existing mental disorders); build on available local resources and supports (e.g., how to build on traditional, religious healing and community-wide social support practices); and ensure equity, quality, fidelity, and sustainability for interventions in real-world contexts (e.g., answering questions about how interventions from controlled studies can be transferred to more representative humanitarian contexts).

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913658

RESUMO

Background: Over recent decades there has been considerable mental health research in Sierra Leone but little on local conceptualisations of mental health conditions. Understanding these is crucial both for identifying the experienced needs of the population and utilising relevant community-based resources to address them. This study took a grounded approach to identify the ways in which adults in Sierra Leone express psychological distress. Methods: Rapid ethnographic methods deployed included 75 case study interviews with community members, 12 key informant (KI) pile sorts and 55 KI interviews. Thematic analysis of data was supported by frequency analysis and multi-dimensional scaling. Results: Thirty signs of distress were identified. The only consistent 'syndrome' identified with respect to these was a general concept of crase, which referred to psychosis-related presentation but also a wide range of other signs of distress. We did not find consensus on locally defined concepts for mild-moderate forms of mental disorder: people use multiple overlapping signs and terms indicating psychological distress. Conclusions: Analysis supports calls to view mental health problems as a 'continuum of distress' rather than as discrete categories. This framing is coherent with opportunities for prevention and response in Sierra Leone which do not focus primarily on formal healthcare service providers but rather involve a range of community-based actors. It also enables attention to be paid to the identification of milder signs of distress with a view to early response and prevention of more severe mental health problems.

13.
Confl Health ; 14: 57, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32774451

RESUMO

Background: Accurately identifying the magnitude of gender-based violence (GBV) in humanitarian settings is hindered by logistical and methodological complexities. The 'Neighborhood Method', an adapted household survey that uses primary and secondary reporting to assess the prevalence of GBV in humanitarian settings, reduces the length of time and cost associated with traditional surveys. Primary female adult respondents disclose incidents of physical violence, intimate and non-intimate partner rape for themselves, other females in their homes (standard reporting) and other women and children in their social networks (secondary reporting). This study examines the reliability and validity of this inclusion of secondary reporting to determine the comparability of the Neighborhood Method to a traditional survey approach. Methods: Drawing on data from 1180 women reporting on 3744 females in respondent households and 15,086 in neighboring households across four humanitarian settings (Ethiopia/ Somalia, Liberia, Sri Lanka, and Uganda), reliability of secondary reporting was measured through intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Cohen's kappas. Validity was assessed using two-sample z-tests for differences between standard versus secondary reporting. Results: Prevalence estimates comparing a respondent's household with a neighboring household show closer agreement (ICC: 0.999-0.986) than self-reports vs. secondary reporting on a female counterpoint in a neighboring home (ICC: 0.939-0.98). Kappa statistics analyzing the reliability of two separate neighbors reporting on a third neighbor showed moderate agreement beyond chance alone (κ = 0.45 for physical violence and 0.48 for rape). Prevalence rates corresponded between standard and secondary reports (i.e. showed no statistical difference) in 18 out of 24 compared populations. Conclusions: For prevalence of GBV, secondary reporting about neighbors can serve as a useful adjunct to standard survey methodology. Findings offer important initial insights into the consistency and accuracy of secondary reporting as a tool for field epidemiologists in humanitarian settings.

14.
Confl Health ; 14: 40, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32582366

RESUMO

Background: Evidence of 'what works' in humanitarian programming is important for addressing the disruptive consequences of conflict and forced displacement. However, collecting robust scientific evidence, and ensuring contextual relevance, is challenging. We measured the biological, psychosocial, and cognitive impacts of a structured psychosocial intervention, implemented by Mercy Corps with Syrian refugees and Jordanian host-community youth. In this paper, we present a case analysis of this evaluation study and reflect on the scientific contributions of the work, the challenges experienced in its delivery, and the strategies deployed to address them. Discussion: We identified challenges with respect to study design, methods, and dissemination: these included the logistics and acceptability of implementing a randomized controlled trial in a humanitarian context, the selection and refinement of culturally-relevant research tools and community-based practices, and the dissemination of results to multiple stakeholders. We demonstrated beneficial and sustained impacts on self-reports of insecurity, stress, and mental health; developed a reliable and culturally-relevant measure of resilience; experimentally tested cognitive skills; and showed that levels of cortisol, a biomarker of chronic stress, reduced by one third in response to intervention. Using stress biomarkers offered proof-of-concept evidence, beyond self-reported data: interventions targeting mental health and psychosocial wellbeing can regulate physiological stress in the body as well as improve self-reported mental health and wellbeing. We built constructive dialogue between local communities, scholars, humanitarian practitioners, and policy-makers. Conclusions: Our work shows the value of rigorous research in humanitarian settings, emphasizing relevance for local communities and meaningful ways to build research ownership. Findings encourage the adoption of cognitive measures and stress biomarkers alongside self-report surveys in evaluating programme impacts. High-quality scientific research with youth can be feasible, useful, and ethical in humanitarian settings.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31940865

RESUMO

Psychological first aid (PFA) is a world-wide implemented approach to helping people affected by an emergency, disaster, or other adverse event. Controlled evaluations of PFA's training effects are lacking. We evaluated the effectiveness of a one-day PFA training on the acquisition and retention of knowledge of appropriate responses and skills in the acute aftermath of adversity in Peripheral Health Units (PHUs) in post-Ebola Sierra Leone. Secondary outcomes were professional quality of life, confidence in supporting a distressed person, and professional attitude. PHUs in Sierra Leone (n = 129) were cluster-randomized across PFA (206 participants) and control (202 participants) in March 2017. Knowledge and understanding of psychosocial support principles and skills were measured with a questionnaire and two patient scenarios to which participants described helpful responses. Professional attitude, confidence, and professional quality of life were assessed using self-report instruments. Assessments took place at baseline and at three- and six-months post-baseline. The PFA group had a stronger increase in PFA knowledge and understanding at the post-PFA training assessment (d = 0.50; p < 0.001) and at follow-up (d = 0.43; p = 0.001). In addition, the PFA group showed better responses to the scenarios at six-months follow-up (d = 0.38; p = 0.0002) but not at the post-assessment (d = 0.04; p = 0.26). No overall significant differences were found for professional attitude, confidence, and professional quality of life. In conclusion, PFA training improved acquisition and retention of knowledge and understanding of appropriate psychosocial responses and skills in providing support to individuals exposed to acute adversity. Our data support the use of PFA trainings to strengthen capacity for psychosocial support in contexts of disaster and humanitarian crisis. Future studies should examine the effects of PFA on psychosocial outcomes for people affected by crises.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Desastres , Primeiros Socorros/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serra Leoa , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 11(1): 1816649, 2020 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33680342

RESUMO

Background: Internationally deployed humanitarian aid (HA) workers are routinely confronted with potentially traumatic stressors. However, it remains unknown whether HA deployment and related traumatic stress are associated with long-term changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Therefore, we investigated whether cortisol awakening response (CAR) decreased upon deployment and whether this was moderated by previous and recent trauma exposure and parallel changes in symptom severity and perceived social support. Methods: In this prospective study, n = 86 HA workers (68% females) completed questionnaires regarding trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depressive symptoms and perceived social support, as well as salivary cortisol assessments at awakening and 30 minutes post-awakening at before, early and 3-6 months post-deployment. Results: Linear mixed models showed significantly decreased CAR (b(SE) = -.036(.011), p = .002) and awakening cortisol over time (b(SE) = -.007(.003), p = .014). The extent of awakening cortisol change was significantly moderated by interactions between previous and recent trauma exposure. Also, a steeper awakening cortisol decrease was significantly associated with higher mean anxiety and PTSD symptoms across assessments. No significant effects were found for social support. Conclusions: We observed attenuated CAR and awakening cortisol upon HA deployment, with a dose-response effect between trauma exposure before and during the recent deployment on awakening cortisol. Awakening cortisol change was associated with PTSD and anxiety symptom levels across assessments. Our findings support the need for organizational awareness that work-related exposures may have long-lasting biological effects. Further research assessing symptoms and biological measures in parallel is needed to translate current findings into guidelines on the individual level.

17.
Health Policy Plan ; 35(1): 26-35, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625558

RESUMO

Health system resilience reflects the ability to continue service delivery in the face of extraordinary shocks. We examined the case of the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA) and its delivery of services to Palestine refugees in Syria during the ongoing crisis to identify factors enabling system resilience. The study is a retrospective qualitative case study utilizing diverse methods. We conducted 35 semi-structured interviews with UNRWA clinical and administrative professionals engaged in health service delivery over the period of the Syria conflict. Through a group model building session with a sub-group of eight of these participants, we then elicited a causal loop diagram of health system functioning over the course of the war, identifying pathways of threat and mitigating resilience strategies. We triangulated analysis with data from UNRWA annual reports and routine health management information. The UNRWA health system generally sustained service provision despite individual, community and system challenges that arose during the conflict. We distinguish absorptive, adaptive and transformative capacities of the system facilitating this resilience. Absorptive capacities enabled immediate crisis response, drawing on available human and organizational resources. Adaptive capacities sustained service delivery through revised logistical arrangements, enhanced collaborative mechanisms and organizational flexibility. Transformative capacity was evidenced by the creation of new services in response to changing community needs. Analysis suggests factors such as staff commitment, organizational flexibility and availability of collaboration mechanisms were important assets in maintaining service continuity and quality. This evidence regarding alternative strategies adopted to sustain service delivery in Syria is of clear relevance to other actors seeking organizational resilience in crisis contexts.


Assuntos
Atenção à Saúde/organização & administração , Refugiados , Nações Unidas/organização & administração , Conflitos Armados , Atenção à Saúde/métodos , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos de Casos Organizacionais , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síria
18.
Health Policy Plan ; 35(2): 235-243, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821487

RESUMO

Advances in population health outcomes risk being slowed-and potentially reversed-by a range of threats increasingly presented as 'fragility'. Widely used and critiqued within the development arena, the concept is increasingly used in the field of global health, where its relationship to population health, health service delivery, access and utilization is poorly specified. We present the first scoping review seeking to clarify the meaning, definitions and applications of the term in the global health literature. Adopting the theoretical framework of concept analysis, 10 bibliographic and grey literature sources, and five key journals, were searched to retrieve documents relating to fragility and health. Reviewers screened titles and abstracts and retained documents applying the term fragility in relation to health systems, services, health outcomes and population or community health. Data were extracted according to the protocol; all documents underwent bibliometric analysis. Narrative synthesis was then used to identify defining attributes of the concept in the field of global health. A total of 377 documents met inclusion criteria. There has been an exponential increase in applications of the concept in published literature over the last 10 years. Formal definitions of the term continue to be focused on the characteristics of 'fragile and conflict-affected states'. However, synthesis indicates diverse use of the concept with respect to: level of application (e.g. from state to local community); emphasis on particular antecedent stressors (including factors beyond conflict and weak governance); and focus on health system or community resources (with an increasing tendency to focus on the interface between two). Amongst several themes identified, trust is noted as a key locus of fragility at this interface, with critical implications for health seeking, service utilization and health system and community resilience.


Assuntos
Formação de Conceito , Atenção à Saúde , Saúde Global , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Responsabilidade Social
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