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1.
Int Rev Immunol ; : 1-43, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33464134

RESUMO

Primary immunodeficiency (PID) or Inborn errors of immunity (IEI) refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by immune system impairment. Although patients with IEI manifest highly variable symptoms, the most common clinical manifestations are recurrent infections, autoimmunity and malignancies. Some patients present hematological abnormality including thrombocytopenia due to different pathogenic mechanisms. This review focuses on primary and secondary thrombocytopenia as a complication, which can occur in IEI. Based on the International Union of Immunological Societies phenotypic classification for IEI, the several innate and adaptive immunodeficiency disorders can lead to thrombocytopenia. This review, for the first time, describes manifestation, mechanism and therapeutic modalities for thrombocytopenia in different classes of IEI.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459250

RESUMO

Kabuki syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome characterized by intellectual disability, developmental delay, short stature, facial dysmorphic features including ectropion of the lateral third of the lower eyelids and long palpebral fissures, and prominent finger pads. Pathogenic variants of KMT2D (MLL2) and KDM6A are found to be the major causes of Kabuki syndrome. Here, we report the first Iranian case with Kabuki syndrome with an IQ of 79, two episodes of viral pneumonia and distinctive facial features, prominent ears and persistent fetal fingertip pads. These characteristics raised our suspicion for performing whole-exome sequencing (WES), which revealed 2 heterozygous pathogenic missense variants in the KMT2D gene: c.C10024T in exon 34 leading to p.R3342C and c.G15005A in exon 48 leading to p.R5002Q. Hence, the definitive diagnosis of Kabuki syndrome was made based on molecular findings along with the intellectual disability and characteristic facial features.

3.
Immunol Invest ; : 1-16, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33401995

RESUMO

Background: Activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ syndrome (APDS) is a recently defined combined primary immunodeficiency disease (PID) characterized by recurrent respiratory tract infections, lymphoproliferation, autoimmunity and lymphoma. Gain-of-function mutations in PIK3CD and loss-of-function of PIK3R1 genes lead to APDS1 and APDS2, respectively. Methods: Demographic, clinical, immunological and genetic data were collected from medical records of 15 pediatric patients, who were genetically identified using the whole-exome sequencing method. Results: Fifteen patients (6 APDS1 and 9 APDS2) were enrolled in this study. Recurrent respiratory tract infections followed by lymphoproliferation and autoimmunity were the most common manifestations (86.7%, 53.3% and 26.7%, respectively). Five patients (33.3%) had a Hyper-IgM-syndrome-like immunoglobulin profile. In the APDS1 group, splice site and missense mutations were found in half of the patients and the C-lobe domain of PIK3CD was the most affected region (50%). In the APDS2 group, splice site mutation was the most frequent mutation (77.8%) and the inter-SH2 domain was the most affected region of PIK3R1 (66.7%). Mortality rate was significantly higher in APDS2 group (P = .02) mainly due to chronic lung infections. Conclusion: Respiratory tract infections and humoral immunodeficiency are commonly the most important complication in pediatric APDS patients, and they can be fatal by ultimately causing catastrophic damage to the structure of lungs. Hence, physicians should be aware of its significance and further work-up of patients with recurrent respiratory tract infections especially in patients with lymphoproliferation. Moreover, delineation of genotype-phenotype associations with disease severity could be helpful in the timely application of appropriate management and patients' survival.

4.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290277

RESUMO

Inborn errors of immunity cause monogenic immune dysregulatory conditions such as severe and recurrent pathogen infection, inflammation, allergy and malignancy. Somatic reversion refers to the spontaneous repair of a pathogenic germline genetic variant and has been reported to occur in a number of inborn errors of immunity with a range of impacts on clinical outcomes of these conditions. DOCK8 deficiency due to bi-allelic inactivating mutations in DOCK8 causes a combined immunodeficiency characterised by severe bacterial, viral and fungal infections, as well as allergic disease and some cancers. Here, we describe the clinical, genetic and cellular features of three patients with bi-allelic DOCK8 variants who, following somatic reversion in multiple lymphocyte subsets, exhibited improved clinical features, including complete resolution of infection and allergic disease, cure over time. Acquisition of DOCK8 expression restored defective lymphocyte signalling, survival and proliferation, as well as CD8+ T cell cytotoxicity, CD4+ T cell cytokine production, and memory B cell generation compared to typical DOCK8-deficient patients. Our temporal analysis of DOCK8-revertant and DOCK8-deficient cells within the same individual established mechanisms of clinical improvement in these patients following somatic reversion and revealed further non-redundant functions of DOCK8 in human lymphocyte biology. Lastly, our findings have significant implications for future therapeutic options for the treatment of DOCK8 deficiency.

5.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; : 1-9, 2020 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33203275

RESUMO

Objectives: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is the most common symptomatic inborn error of immunity characterized by variable clinical manifestations. Methods: Web of Science, Scopus, and PubMed databases were searched systemically to find eligible studies from the earliest available date to February 2020 with standard keywords. Pooled estimates of the autoimmunity prevalence and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using random-effects models. Results: The overall prevalence of autoimmunity was 29.8% (95% CI: 26.4-33.3; I2 = 82.8%). The prevalences of hematologic autoimmune diseases, autoimmune gastrointestinal disorders, autoimmune rheumatologic disorders, autoimmune skin disorders, and autoimmune endocrinopathy in CVID patients were 18.9%, 11.5%, 6.4%, 5.9%), and 2.5%, respectively. There were significantly higher lymphocyte, CD3 + T cell, and CD4 + T cell count among CVID patients without autoimmunity (p< 0.05). Furthermore, failure to thrive, organomegaly, enteropathy, and meningitis was significantly higher in CVID patients with autoimmunity(p< 0.05). Conclusions: Many CVID patients could present with autoimmunity as part of the disease or even as the first or only clinical manifestation of the disease. Care providers may need to pay particular attention to the possible association of these two disorders since the co-occurrence of CVID and autoimmunity could be a misleading clue.

6.
Immunol Invest ; : 1-14, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191838

RESUMO

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a primary immunodeficiency disease with a heterogeneous genetic background. Lipopolysaccharide-responsive beige-like anchor (LRBA), as well as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), have important regulatory roles in the immune responses. Here, we have investigated the expression of LRBA and CTLA-4 proteins in CVID patients with at least one presentation of early-onset occurrence, autoimmunity, or enteropathy. In this study, 20 newly diagnosed CVID patients without infection only phenotype, and ten healthy individuals were enrolled. The expressions of LRBA and CTLA-4 proteins were assessed by western blotting and flow cytometry, respectively. The patients were divided into two groups of autoimmunity-positive (11 cases) and autoimmunity-negative (9 patients). LRBA and CTLA-4 expressions were significantly lower in autoimmune-positive patients than in healthy individuals (P = .03 and P = .03, respectively). Autoimmune-negative patients had lower expression of LRBA and CTLA-4 than the control group, although it was not significant. There was a positive correlation between the expressions of LRBA and CTLA-4 in both groups of patients (P < .05). Furthermore, the highest frequency of LRBA (85.7%) and CTLA-4 (71.4%) defects was detected in those with concomitant presence of autoimmunity, enteropathy, and early-onset occurrence. Concurrent presence of autoimmunity, enteropathy, and early-onset occurrence in CVID patients could be indicative of a lack of expression in LRBA and CTLA-4 proteins. This could be helpful in early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate treatment in these patients prior to genetic confirmation.

7.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 48(5): 424-429, sept.-oct. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-FGT-5478

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Considering that no studies have been done on a comprehensive review of Serum sickness-like reactions patients (SSLRs) at a referral center in Iran so far, this study aimed to determine the clinical and laboratory characteristics of children with SSRL in Tehran Children's Medical Center. PATIENTS: The present study was a registry-based study in which the data of 94 SSLRs patients registered in a two-year period were investigated. Confirmation of fever, rash, urticaria, arthralgia / arthritis and history of antibiotic consumption up to three weeks before were the criteria for the diagnosis. RESULTS: Fifty-one (54 %) patients were male with mean age of 56 ± 30 months and there was no significant difference in the age of the two genders. The mean onset of symptoms before hospitalization were 3.8 ± 2.7 days (1-14 days); this mean was significantly higher in males than in females (4.6 ± 2.9 versus 2.9 ± 1.7 days, P-value = 0.003). Among antibiotics, Co-amoxiclav and Cefixime antibiotics had the most frequency by 31 % and 33 %, respectively as the most important incidence factor of SSLRs. The mean duration of consumption of culprit medications in the incidence of SSLRs was 5.6 ± 2.9 days with a range of 1-15 days. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that among the antibiotics, Co-amoxiclav and Cefixime are more prevalent and a review of prescribing these two antibiotics for the treatment of the children's infections is essential if this finding is confirmed by other Iranian scholars


No disponible

9.
Immunol Invest ; : 1-12, 2020 Oct 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Protein kinase C is a family of serine/threonine kinases that play a key role in the adaptive immune cell signaling, as well as regulation of growth, apoptosis, and differentiation of a variety of cell types. Patients homozygous for a null mutation of the Protein Kinase C Delta (PRKCD) gene, present clinical feature of immune dysregulation with susceptibility to Epstein-Barr virus infection. However, a minority of patients present the autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). METHODS: The data were collected by direct interview and examining the patient's clinical record. Whole-exome sequencing was performed to detect the underlying genetic mutation in the patient. We also conducted electronic searches for ALPS-like reported patients in PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases. RESULTS: In this study, we reported a 13-year-old boy who presented with autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, recurrent pneumonia, cardiomyopathy, and dermatological manifestations. An elevation of double-negative T cells, CD8+ T cells, serum IgG level, as well as a reduction in NK cells, was observed in the patient. A homozygous frameshift mutation (c.1293_1294insA) in exon 13 of the PRKCD gene was confirmed. The literature search showed 39 ALPS-like patients with monogenic defects which only six (15.3%) of them were due to PRKCD genes. CONCLUSION: PRKCD should be considered in the context of ALPS clinical manifestations with prominent dermatological involvements.

10.
J Clin Immunol ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052516

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is a rare genetic condition, caused by biallelic deleterious variants in the ATM gene, and has variable immunological abnormalities. This study aimed to examine immunologic parameters reflecting cell development, activation, proliferation, and class switch recombination (CSR) and determine their relationship to the clinical phenotype in AT patients. METHODS: In this study, 40 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of AT from the Iranian immunodeficiency registry center and 28 age-sex matched healthy controls were enrolled. We compared peripheral B and T cell subsets and T cell proliferation response to CD3/CD28 stimulation in AT patients with and without CSR defects using flow cytometry. RESULTS: A significant decrease in naïve, transitional, switched memory, and IgM only memory B cells, along with a sharp increase in the marginal zone-like and CD21low B cells was observed in the patients. We also found CD4+ and CD8+ naïve, central memory, and terminally differentiated effector memory CD4+ (TEMRA) T cells were decreased. CD4+ and CD8+ effector memory, CD8+ TEMRA, and CD4+ regulatory T cells were significantly elevated in our patients. CD4+ T cell proliferation was markedly impaired compared to the healthy controls. Moreover, immunological investigations of 15 AT patients with CSR defect revealed a significant reduction in the marginal zone, switched memory, and more intense defects in IgM only memory B cells, CD4+ naïve and central memory T cells. CONCLUSION: The present study revealed that patients with AT have a broad spectrum of cellular and humoral deficiencies. Therefore, a detailed evaluation of T and B cell subsets increases understanding of the disease in patients and the risk of infection.

11.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 16(9): 859-871, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791865

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ataxia-telangiectasia (A-T) is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, oculocutaneous telangiectasia, variable immunodeficiency, radiosensitivity, and cancer predisposition. Mutations cause A-T in the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene encoding a serine/threonine-protein kinase. AREAS COVERED: The authors reviewed the literature on PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases to collect comprehensive data related to A-T. This review aims to discuss various update aspects of A-T, including epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, prognosis, and management. EXPERT OPINION: A-T as a congenital disorder has phenotypic heterogeneity, and the severity of symptoms in different patients depends on the severity of mutations. This review provides a comprehensive overview of A-T, although some relevant questions about pathogenesis remain unanswered, probably owing to the phenotypic heterogeneity of this monogenic disorder. The presence of various clinical and immunologic manifestations in A-T indicates that the identification of the role of defective ATM in phenotype can be helpful in the better management and treatment of patients in the future.

12.
Oman Med J ; 35(4): e157, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32802416

RESUMO

Objectives: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia and increased susceptibility to recurrent infections. Methods: We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases to find eligible studies from the earliest available date to January 2018 with standard keywords. Pooled estimates of the infection prevalence and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random-effects models. Results: We found that pneumonia (67.7%) was the most prevalent infection followed by upper respiratory tract (59.0%) and gastrointestinal infections (36.3%). Furthermore, bacterial complications (41.7%) were higher in CVID patients compared to viral (25.4%), parasitic (18.8%), or fungal (3.4%) infections. Patients with longer age at diagnosis presented with fewer disease comorbidities. There was an inverse correlation between T lymphocyte count and viral infections. Moreover, we found that immunoglobulin M (IgM) serum level was inversely correlated with hepatitis C and gastrointestinal infections, and IgG serum level was inversely correlated with infectious arthritis. Higher numbers of CD4 and CD8 T cells were associated with the lower frequencies of otitis media. CVID patients with infections had significantly lower percentages of CD3 T cells. In contrast, higher percentages of CD19 lymphocytes were found in CVID patients who had a history of infections. Conclusions: Our findings demonstrated that in addition to hypogammaglobulinemia, patients with CVID have an imbalance in the frequency of T lymphocytes, which is in parallel with the higher frequency of infectious complications.

13.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 16(7): 733-738, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634042

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Human Ficolin-3 (FCN3) is an oligomeric-structured lectin encoded by the FCN3 gene with a pivotal role in the lectin complement pathway. It has anti-microbial activities against bacterial and viral infections and restrains opportunistic pathogens. Mutation in the FCN3 gene is associated with variable clinical manifestations particularly immunologic (infections and autoimmunity) and neurologic complications. METHODS: In this study, we report a 5-year-old boy with a biallelic mutation in the FCN3 gene using clinical and immunological and genetic evaluations (whole exome sequencing). RESULTS: Our case is the first national and the eighth case worldwide with a confirmed frameshift mutation associated with Ficolin-3 deficiency. He manifested refractory seizures since early infancy, meningitis, pyelonephritis and was diagnosed with severe primary immunodeficiency. CONCLUSION: Our case and literature review indicate Ficolin-3 deficiency should be considered in early-onset, premature neonate with a bacterial infection, neurological manifestation and systemic lupus erythematosus like presentations.

14.
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 48(5): 424-429, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653225

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Considering that no studies have been done on a comprehensive review of Serum sickness-like reactions patients (SSLRs) at a referral center in Iran so far, this study aimed to determine the clinical and laboratory characteristics of children with SSRL in Tehran Children's Medical Center. PATIENTS: The present study was a registry-based study in which the data of 94 SSLRs patients registered in a two-year period were investigated. Confirmation of fever, rash, urticaria, arthralgia / arthritis and history of antibiotic consumption up to three weeks before were the criteria for the diagnosis. RESULTS: Fifty-one (54 %) patients were male with mean age of 56 ±â€¯30 months and there was no significant difference in the age of the two genders. The mean onset of symptoms before hospitalization were 3.8 ±â€¯2.7 days (1-14 days); this mean was significantly higher in males than in females (4.6 ±â€¯2.9 versus 2.9 ±â€¯1.7 days, P-value = 0.003). Among antibiotics, Co-amoxiclav and Cefixime antibiotics had the most frequency by 31 % and 33 %, respectively as the most important incidence factor of SSLRs. The mean duration of consumption of culprit medications in the incidence of SSLRs was 5.6 ±â€¯2.9 days with a range of 1-15 days. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that among the antibiotics, Co-amoxiclav and Cefixime are more prevalent and a review of prescribing these two antibiotics for the treatment of the children's infections is essential if this finding is confirmed by other Iranian scholars.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a rare autosomal recessive immune disorder that is caused by mutations in 6 different genes related to the formation and function of secretory lysosomes within cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer (NK) cells. Thus, defect in these genes is associated with the accumulation of antigens due to defective cytotoxic function. FHL type 3 (FHL3) accounts for nearly 30-40% of FHL, and its underlying reason is mutation in UNC13D gene which encodes Munc13-4 protein. METHODS: For the first time, we aimed to systematically review clinical features, immunologic data, and genetic findings of patients with FHL3. We conducted electronic searches for English-language articles in PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and Scopus databases to collect comprehensive records related to patients with UNC13D mutations. RESULTS: A total of 279 abstracts were initially reviewed for inclusion. Among them, 57 articles corresponding to 322 individual FHL3 patients fulfilled our selection criteria. Finally, 73 and 249 patients were considered as severe and mild feature groups, respectively. Our results confirmed that fever, hepatosplenomegaly, and hemophagocytosis are common clinical features in the disease. Moreover, reduced fibrinogen and NK cell activity, as well as increased ferritin and triglycerides, are important markers for early diagnosis of the FHL3 disease. Investigation of genotype showed that the most prevalent type and zygosity of UNC13D are splice-site errors and compound heterozygous, respectively. CONCLUSION: FHL3 patients have a wide range of clinical manifestations, which makes it difficult to diagnose. Therefore, it seems that the sequencing of the entire UNC13D gene (coding and non-coding regions) is the most appropriate way to accurate diagnosis of FHL3 patients.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693771

RESUMO

Predominantly antibody deficiencies (PADs) are a heterogeneous group of primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs), consisting of recurrent infections, autoimmunity, inflammation, and other immune complications. In the recent years, several immunological and genetic defects have been recognized in PADs. Currently, 45 distinct PAD disorders with 40 different genetic defects have been identified based on the 2019 IUIS classification. Genetic analysis is helpful for diagnosing PIDs; however, genetic studies are expensive, time-consuming, and unavailable in everywhere. Flow cytometry is a highly sensitive tool for evaluating the immune system and diagnosing PADs. In addition to cell populations and subpopulations assay, flow cytometry can measure cell surface, intracellular and intranuclear proteins, biological changes associated with specific immune defects, and certain functional immune abnormalities. These capabilities help in rapid diagnostic and prognostic assessment as well as in evaluating the pathogenesis of PADs. For the first time, this review particularly provides an overview of the application of flow cytometry for diagnosis, immunophenotyping, and determining the pathogenesis of PADs.

17.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol ; 16(7): 717-732, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32720819

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: During the last 4 decades, registration of patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PID) has played an essential role in different aspects of these diseases worldwide including epidemiological indexes, policymaking, quality controls of care/life, facilitation of genetic studies and clinical trials as well as improving our understanding about the natural history of the disease and the immune system function. However, due to the limitation of sustainable resources supporting these registries, inconsistency in diagnostic criteria and lack of molecular diagnosis as well as difficulties in the documentation and designing any universal platform, the global perspective of these diseases remains unclear. AREAS COVERED: Published and unpublished studies from January 1981 to June 2020 were systematically reviewed on PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. Additionally, the reference list of all studies was hand-searched for additional studies. This effort identified a total of 104614 registered patients and suggests identification of at least 10590 additional PID patients, mainly from countries located in Asia and Africa. Molecular defects in genes known to cause PID were identified and reported in 13852 (13.2% of all registered) patients. EXPERT OPINION: Although these data suggest some progress in the identification and documentation of PID patients worldwide, achieving the basic requirement for the global PID burden estimation and registration of undiagnosed patients will require more reinforcement of the progress, involving both improved diagnostic facilities and neonatal screening.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32533820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Immunodeficiency, centromeric instability and facial dysmorphism )ICF) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive immune disorder presenting with hypogammaglobulinemia, developmental delay, and facial anomalies. The ICF type 1, type 2, type 3 and type 4 are characterized by mutations in DNMT3B, ZBTB24, CDCA7 or HELLS gene, respectively. This study aimed to present a comprehensive description of the clinical, immunologic and genetic features of patients with ICF syndrome. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched systemically to find eligible studies. RESULTS: Forty-eight studies with 118 ICF patients who met the inclusion criteria were included in our study. Among these patients, 60% reported with ICF-1, 30% with ICF-2, 4% with ICF-3, and 6% with ICF-4. The four most common symptoms reported in patients with ICF syndrome were: delay in motor development, low birth weight, chronic infections, and diarrhea. Intellectual disability and preterm birth among patients with ICF-2 and failure to thrive, sepsis and fungal infections among patients with ICF-1 were also more frequent. Moreover, the median levels of all three immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM) were markedly reduced within four types of ICF syndrome. CONCLUSION: The frequency of diagnosed patients with ICF syndrome has increased. Early diagnosis of ICF is important since immunoglobulin supplementation or allogeneic stem cell transplantation can improve the disease-free survival rate.

19.
Immunol Invest ; : 1-17, 2020 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32584193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIGM syndrome is a rare form of primary immunodeficiencies characterized by normal/increased amounts of serum IgM and decreased serum levels of other switched immunoglobulin classes. Since the affected patients are continuously infected with various types of pathogens and are susceptible for cancers, diagnostic and therapeutic tests including imaging techniques are recommended for the diagnosis and treatment of these patients, which predispose them to higher accumulated doses of radiation. Given the evidence of class switching recombination machinery defect and its association with an increased rate of DNA repair, we aimed to evaluate radiation sensitivity among a group of patients diagnosed with HIGM syndrome. METHODS: 19 HIGM patients (14 CD40 L and 3 AID deficiencies and 2 unsolved cases without known genetic defects) and 17 control subjects (10 healthy subjects as negative control group, 7 ataxia-telangiectasia patients as positive control group) were enrolled. G2 assay was carried out for the determination of radiosensitivity. RESULTS: Based on radiation-induced chromosomal changes among the studied HIGM patients and their comparison with the controls, almost all (95%) the patients had degrees of radiosensitivity: 6 patients with low to moderate, 1 patient with moderate, 11 patients with severe and 1 patient without radiation sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Today, X-ray radiation plays a very important role in diagnostic and therapeutic procedures; while increased exposure has devastating effects especially in radiosensitive patients. Considering higher sensitivity in HIGM patients, utilizing radiation-free techniques could partly avoid unnecessary and high-level exposure to radiation, thus preventing or reducing its harmful effects on the affected patients.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384040

RESUMO

Agammaglobulinemia is a type of primary antibody deficiencies, characterized by severe reduction in serum level of all types of immunoglobulins level and absence of B cells in the peripheral blood. X-linked and various autosomal recessive/dominant mutations have been identified underlying the pathogenesis of this disorder. Affected patients present a broad range of clinical manifestations, including respiratory infections, gastrointestinal complications, Enterovirus infections, autoimmunity, and malignancies. This disease can be controlled by different therapeutic strategies. In this review, we describe different aspects of agammaglobulinemia such as epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical phenotype, diagnosis, management, and prognosis of congenital agammaglobulinemia.

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