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1.
Leukemia ; 34(2): 589-603, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31595039

RESUMO

The reason why a few myeloma cells egress from the bone marrow (BM) into peripheral blood (PB) remains unknown. Here, we investigated molecular hallmarks of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to identify the events leading to myeloma trafficking into the bloodstream. After using next-generation flow to isolate matched CTCs and BM tumor cells from 32 patients, we found high correlation in gene expression at single-cell and bulk levels (r ≥ 0.94, P = 10-16), with only 55 genes differentially expressed between CTCs and BM tumor cells. CTCs overexpressed genes involved in inflammation, hypoxia, or epithelial-mesenchymal transition, whereas genes related with proliferation were downregulated in CTCs. The cancer stem cell marker CD44 was overexpressed in CTCs, and its knockdown significantly reduced migration of MM cells towards SDF1-α and their adhesion to fibronectin. Approximately half (29/55) of genes differentially expressed in CTCs were prognostic in patients with newly-diagnosed myeloma (n = 553; CoMMpass). In a multivariate analysis including the R-ISS, overexpression of CENPF and LGALS1 was significantly associated with inferior survival. Altogether, these results help understanding the presence of CTCs in PB and suggest that hypoxic BM niches together with a pro-inflammatory microenvironment induce an arrest in proliferation, forcing tumor cells to circulate in PB and seek other BM niches to continue growing.

2.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(11)2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739588

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a hematological malignancy characterized by uncontrolled proliferation, differentiation arrest, and accumulation of immature myeloid progenitors. Although clinical advances in AML have been made, especially in young patients, long-term disease-free survival remains poor, making this disease an unmet therapeutic challenge. Epigenetic alterations and mutations in epigenetic regulators contribute to the pathogenesis of AML, supporting the rationale for the use of epigenetic drugs in patients with AML. While hypomethylating agents have already been approved in AML, the use of other epigenetic inhibitors, such as histone deacetylases (HDAC) inhibitors (HDACi), is under clinical development. HDACi such as Panobinostat, Vorinostat, and Tricostatin A have been shown to promote cell death, autophagy, apoptosis, or growth arrest in preclinical AML models, yet these inhibitors do not seem to be effective as monotherapies, but rather in combination with other drugs. In this review, we discuss the rationale for the use of different HDACi in patients with AML, the results of preclinical studies, and the results obtained in clinical trials. Although so far the results with HDACi in clinical trials in AML have been modest, there are some encouraging data from treatment with the HDACi Pracinostat in combination with DNA demethylating agents.

3.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(10)2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554341

RESUMO

Gene regulation through DNA methylation is a well described phenomenon that has a prominent role in physiological and pathological cell-states. This epigenetic modification is usually grouped in regions denominated CpG islands, which frequently co-localize with gene promoters, silencing the transcription of those genes. Recent genome-wide DNA methylation studies have challenged this paradigm, demonstrating that DNA methylation of regulatory regions outside promoters is able to influence cell-type specific gene expression programs under physiologic or pathologic conditions. Coupling genome-wide DNA methylation assays with histone mark annotation has allowed for the identification of specific epigenomic changes that affect enhancer regulatory regions, revealing an additional layer of complexity to the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. In this review, we summarize the novel evidence for the molecular and biological regulation of DNA methylation in enhancer regions and the dynamism of these changes contributing to the fine-tuning of gene expression. We also analyze the contribution of enhancer DNA methylation on the expression of relevant genes in acute myeloid leukemia and chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms. The characterization of the aberrant enhancer DNA methylation provides not only a novel pathogenic mechanism for different tumors but also highlights novel potential therapeutic targets for myeloid derived neoplasms.

4.
Nat Med ; 25(7): 1073-1081, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270502

RESUMO

Bladder cancer is lethal in its advanced, muscle-invasive phase with very limited therapeutic advances1,2. Recent molecular characterization has defined new (epi)genetic drivers and potential targets for bladder cancer3,4. The immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown remarkable efficacy but only in a limited fraction of bladder cancer patients5-8. Here, we show that high G9a (EHMT2) expression is associated with poor clinical outcome in bladder cancer and that targeting G9a/DNMT methyltransferase activity with a novel inhibitor (CM-272) induces apoptosis and immunogenic cell death. Using an immunocompetent quadruple-knockout (PtenloxP/loxP; Trp53loxP/loxP; Rb1loxP/loxP; Rbl1-/-) transgenic mouse model of aggressive metastatic, muscle-invasive bladder cancer, we demonstrate that CM-272 + cisplatin treatment results in statistically significant regression of established tumors and metastases. The antitumor effect is significantly improved when CM-272 is combined with anti-programmed cell death ligand 1, even in the absence of cisplatin. These effects are associated with an endogenous antitumor immune response and immunogenic cell death with the conversion of a cold immune tumor into a hot tumor. Finally, increased G9a expression was associated with resistance to programmed cell death protein 1 inhibition in a cohort of patients with bladder cancer. In summary, these findings support new and promising opportunities for the treatment of bladder cancer using a combination of epigenetic inhibitors and immune checkpoint blockade.


Assuntos
Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cisplatino/uso terapêutico , Proteína Potenciadora do Homólogo 2 de Zeste/fisiologia , Feminino , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Camundongos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/imunologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/patologia
5.
Haematologica ; 2019 Jun 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221779

RESUMO

Cell identity relies on the cross-talk between genetics and epigenetics and their impact on gene expression. Oxidation of 5-methylcytosine into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is the first step of an active DNA demethylation process occurring mainly at enhancers and gene bodies and, as such, participates in processes governing cell identity in normal and pathological conditions. Although genetic alterations are well documented in multiple myeloma, epigenetic alterations associated with this disease have not yet been thoroughly analyzed. To gain insight into the biology of multiple myeloma, genome-wide 5-hydroxymethylcytosine profiles were obtained and showed that regions enriched in this modified base overlap with multiple myeloma enhancers and super enhancers and are close to highly expressed genes. Through the definition of a multiple myeloma-specific 5-hydroxymethylcytosine signature, we identified FAM72D as a poor prognostic gene located on 1q21, a region amplified in high risk myeloma. We further uncovered that FAM72D functions as part of the FOXM1 transcription factor network controlling cell proliferation and survival and evidenced an increased sensitivity of cells expressing high levels of FOXM1 and FAM72 to epigenetic drugs targeting histone deacetylases and DNA methyltransferases.

6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 821, 2019 02 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30778059

RESUMO

lncRNAs make up a majority of the human transcriptome and have key regulatory functions. Here we perform unbiased de novo annotation of transcripts expressed during the human humoral immune response to find 30% of the human genome transcribed during this process, yet 58% of these transcripts manifest striking differential expression, indicating an lncRNA phylogenetic relationship among cell types that is more robust than that of coding genes. We provide an atlas of lncRNAs in naive and GC B-cells that indicates their partition into ten functionally categories based on chromatin features, DNase hypersensitivity and transcription factor localization, defining lncRNAs classes such as enhancer-RNAs (eRNA), bivalent-lncRNAs, and CTCF-associated, among others. Specifically, eRNAs are transcribed in 8.6% of regular enhancers and 36.5% of super enhancers, and are associated with coding genes that participate in critical immune regulatory pathways, while plasma cells have uniquely high levels of circular-RNAs accounted for by and reflecting the combinatorial clonal state of the Immunoglobulin loci.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/fisiologia , Imunidade Humoral/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/imunologia , Genoma Humano , Humanos , RNA
7.
Haematologica ; 104(8): 1572-1579, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655376

RESUMO

In this study we interrogated the DNA methylome of myelofibrosis patients using high-density DNA methylation arrays. We detected 35,215 differentially methylated CpG, corresponding to 10,253 genes, between myelofibrosis patients and healthy controls. These changes were present both in primary and secondary myelofibrosis, which showed no differences between them. Remarkably, most differentially methylated CpG were located outside gene promoter regions and showed significant association with enhancer regions. This aberrant enhancer hypermethylation was negatively correlated with the expression of 27 genes in the myelofibrosis cohort. Of these, we focused on the ZFP36L1 gene and validated its decreased expression and enhancer DNA hypermethylation in an independent cohort of patients and myeloid cell-lines. In vitro reporter assay and 5'-azacitidine treatment confirmed the functional relevance of hyper-methylation of ZFP36L1 enhancer. Furthermore, in vitro rescue of ZFP36L1 expression had an impact on cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in SET-2 cell line indicating a possible role of ZFP36L1 as a tumor suppressor gene in myelofibrosis. Collectively, we describe the DNA methylation profile of myelofibrosis, identifying extensive changes in enhancer elements and revealing ZFP36L1 as a novel candidate tumor suppressor gene.

8.
Hepatology ; 69(2): 587-603, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014490

RESUMO

Epigenetic modifications such as DNA and histone methylation functionally cooperate in fostering tumor growth, including that of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Pharmacological targeting of these mechanisms may open new therapeutic avenues. We aimed to determine the therapeutic efficacy and potential mechanism of action of our dual G9a histone-methyltransferase and DNA-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) inhibitor in human HCC cells and their crosstalk with fibrogenic cells. The expression of G9a and DNMT1, along with that of their molecular adaptor ubiquitin-like with PHD and RING finger domains-1 (UHRF1), was measured in human HCCs (n = 268), peritumoral tissues (n = 154), and HCC cell lines (n = 32). We evaluated the effect of individual and combined inhibition of G9a and DNMT1 on HCC cell growth by pharmacological and genetic approaches. The activity of our lead compound, CM-272, was examined in HCC cells under normoxia and hypoxia, human hepatic stellate cells and LX2 cells, and xenograft tumors formed by HCC or combined HCC+LX2 cells. We found a significant and correlative overexpression of G9a, DNMT1, and UHRF1 in HCCs in association with poor prognosis. Independent G9a and DNMT1 pharmacological targeting synergistically inhibited HCC cell growth. CM-272 potently reduced HCC and LX2 cells proliferation and quelled tumor growth, particularly in HCC+LX2 xenografts. Mechanistically, CM-272 inhibited the metabolic adaptation of HCC cells to hypoxia and induced a differentiated phenotype in HCC and fibrogenic cells. The expression of the metabolic tumor suppressor gene fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1), epigenetically repressed in HCC, was restored by CM-272. Conclusion: Combined targeting of G9a/DNMT1 with compounds such as CM-272 is a promising strategy for HCC treatment. Our findings also underscore the potential of differentiation therapy in HCC.

9.
Blood ; 132(7): e13-e23, 2018 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967128

RESUMO

The biological role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) initiation and progression remains largely unknown. We characterized EVs secreted by 5 DLBCL cell lines, a primary DLBCL tumor, and a normal control B-cell sample, optimized their purification, and analyzed their content. We found that DLBCLs secreted large quantities of CD63, Alix, TSG101, and CD81 EVs, which can be extracted using an ultracentrifugation-based method and traced by their cell of origin surface markers. We also showed that tumor-derived EVs can be exchanged between lymphoma cells, normal tonsillar cells, and HK stromal cells. We then examined the content of EVs, focusing on isolation of high-quality total RNA. We sequenced the total RNA and analyzed the nature of RNA species, including coding and noncoding RNAs. We compared whole-cell and EV-derived RNA composition in benign and malignant B cells and discovered that transcripts from EVs were involved in many critical cellular functions. Finally, we performed mutational analysis and found that mutations detected in EVs exquisitely represented mutations in the cell of origin. These results enhance our understanding and enable future studies of the role that EVs may play in the pathogenesis of DLBCL, particularly with regards to the exchange of genomic information. Current findings open a new strategy for liquid biopsy approaches in disease monitoring.


Assuntos
Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , RNA Neoplásico/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Vesículas Extracelulares/genética , Vesículas Extracelulares/patologia , Humanos , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/genética , Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células B/patologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , RNA Neoplásico/genética
10.
J Med Chem ; 61(15): 6518-6545, 2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29953809

RESUMO

Using knowledge- and structure-based approaches, we designed and synthesized reversible chemical probes that simultaneously inhibit the activity of two epigenetic targets, histone 3 lysine 9 methyltransferase (G9a) and DNA methyltransferases (DNMT), at nanomolar ranges. Enzymatic competition assays confirmed our design strategy: substrate competitive inhibitors. Next, an initial exploration around our hit 11 was pursued to identify an adequate tool compound for in vivo testing. In vitro treatment of different hematological neoplasia cell lines led to the identification of molecules with clear antiproliferative efficacies (GI50 values in the nanomolar range). On the basis of epigenetic functional cellular responses (levels of lysine 9 methylation and 5-methylcytosine), an acceptable therapeutic window (around 1 log unit) and a suitable pharmacokinetic profile, 12 was selected for in vivo proof-of-concept ( Nat. Commun. 2017 , 8 , 15424 ). Herein, 12 achieved a significant in vivo efficacy: 70% overall tumor growth inhibition of a human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) xenograft in a mouse model.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Desenho de Drogas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos/farmacocinética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/química , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/metabolismo , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacocinética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/química , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/química , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Conformação Proteica , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
12.
J Med Chem ; 61(15): 6546-6573, 2018 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29890830

RESUMO

Epigenetic regulators that exhibit aberrant enzymatic activities or expression profiles are potential therapeutic targets for cancers. Specifically, enzymes responsible for methylation at histone-3 lysine-9 (like G9a) and aberrant DNA hypermethylation (DNMTs) have been implicated in a number of cancers. Recently, molecules bearing a 4-aminoquinoline scaffold were reported as dual inhibitors of these targets and showed a significant in vivo efficacy in animal models of hematological malignancies. Here, we report a detailed exploration around three growing vectors born by this chemotype. Exploring this chemical space led to the identification of features to navigate G9a and DNMT1 biological spaces: not only their corresponding exclusive areas, selective compounds, but also common spaces. Thus, we identified from selective G9a and first-in-class DNMT1 inhibitors, >1 log unit between their IC50 values, with IC50 < 25 nM (e.g., 43 and 26, respectively) to equipotent inhibitors with IC50 < 50 nM for both targets (e.g., 13). Their ADME/Tox profiling and antiproliferative efficacies, versus some cancer cell lines, are also reported.


Assuntos
Aminoquinolinas/química , Aminoquinolinas/farmacologia , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Desenho de Drogas , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Aminoquinolinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/química , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/metabolismo , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/química , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/química , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Conformação Proteica
13.
Nat Med ; 24(6): 868-880, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29785028

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a frequent hematological neoplasm in which underlying epigenetic alterations are only partially understood. Here, we analyze the reference epigenome of seven primary CLLs and the regulatory chromatin landscape of 107 primary cases in the context of normal B cell differentiation. We identify that the CLL chromatin landscape is largely influenced by distinct dynamics during normal B cell maturation. Beyond this, we define extensive catalogues of regulatory elements de novo reprogrammed in CLL as a whole and in its major clinico-biological subtypes classified by IGHV somatic hypermutation levels. We uncover that IGHV-unmutated CLLs harbor more active and open chromatin than IGHV-mutated cases. Furthermore, we show that de novo active regions in CLL are enriched for NFAT, FOX and TCF/LEF transcription factor family binding sites. Although most genetic alterations are not associated with consistent epigenetic profiles, CLLs with MYD88 mutations and trisomy 12 show distinct chromatin configurations. Furthermore, we observe that non-coding mutations in IGHV-mutated CLLs are enriched in H3K27ac-associated regulatory elements outside accessible chromatin. Overall, this study provides an integrative portrait of the CLL epigenome, identifies extensive networks of altered regulatory elements and sheds light on the relationship between the genetic and epigenetic architecture of the disease.


Assuntos
Cromatina/metabolismo , Epigenômica , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Sequência de Bases , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos
14.
Oncotarget ; 9(16): 12842-12852, 2018 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29560114

RESUMO

Long Non-Coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are functional RNAs longer than 200 nucleotides in length. Several lncRNAs are involved in cell proliferation and are deregulated in several human tumors. Few lncRNAs have been described to play a role in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL). In this study, we carried out a genome wide lncRNA expression profiling in ALL samples and peripheral blood samples obtained from healthy donors. We detected 43 lncRNAs that were aberrantly expressed in ALL. Interestingly, among them, linc-PINT showed a significant downregulation in T and B-ALL. Re-expression of linc-PINT in ALL cells induced inhibition of leukemic cell growth that was associated with apoptosis induction and cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase. linc-PINT induced the transcription of HMOX1 which reduced the viability of ALL cells. Intriguingly, we observed that treatment with anti-tumoral epigenetic drugs like LBH-589 (Panobinostat) and Curcumin induced the expression of linc-PINT and HMOX1 in ALL. These results indicate that the downregulation of linc-PINT plays a relevant role in the pathogenesis of ALL, and linc-PINT re-expression may be one of the mechanisms exerted by epigenetic drugs to reduce cell proliferation in ALL.

15.
Mol Cell Oncol ; 5(1): e1389672, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29404389

RESUMO

The identification of therapeutic strategies exploiting the metabolic alterations of malignant cells is a relevant area in cancer research. Here, we discuss a novel computational method, based on the COBRA (COnstraint-Based Reconstruction and Analysis) framework for metabolic networks, to perform this task. Current and future steps are presented.

16.
PLoS One ; 12(12): e0190275, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29281720

RESUMO

The combination of defined factors with small molecules targeting epigenetic factors is a strategy that has been shown to enhance optimal derivation of iPSCs and could be used for disease modelling, high throughput screenings and/or regenerative medicine applications. In this study, we showed that a new first-in-class reversible dual G9a/DNMT1 inhibitor compound (CM272) improves the efficiency of human cell reprogramming and iPSC generation from primary cells of healthy donors and patient samples, using both integrative and non-integrative methods. Moreover, CM272 facilitates the generation of human iPSC with only two factors allowing the removal of the most potent oncogenic factor cMYC. Furthermore, we demonstrated that mechanistically, treatment with CM272 induces heterochromatin relaxation, facilitates the engagement of OCT4 and SOX2 transcription factors to OSKM refractory binding regions that are required for iPSC establishment, and enhances mesenchymal to epithelial transition during the early phase of cell reprogramming. Thus, the use of this new G9a/DNMT reversible dual inhibitor compound may represent an interesting alternative for improving cell reprogramming and human iPSC derivation for many different applications while providing interesting insights into reprogramming mechanisms.


Assuntos
Reprogramação Celular , Genoma Humano , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/citologia , Proteínas Repressoras/antagonistas & inibidores , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade , Humanos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
17.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 14358, 2017 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29084986

RESUMO

Constraint-based modeling for genome-scale metabolic networks has emerged in the last years as a promising approach to elucidate drug targets in cancer. Beyond the canonical biosynthetic routes to produce biomass, it is of key importance to focus on metabolic routes that sustain the proliferative capacity through the regulation of other biological means in order to improve in-silico gene essentiality analyses. Polyamines are polycations with central roles in cancer cell proliferation, through the regulation of transcription and translation among other things, but are typically neglected in in silico cancer metabolic models. In this study, we analysed essential genes for the biosynthesis of polyamines. Our analysis corroborates the importance of previously known regulators of the pathway, such as Adenosylmethionine Decarboxylase 1 (AMD1) and uncovers novel enzymes predicted to be relevant for polyamine homeostasis. We focused on Adenine Phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) and demonstrated the detrimental consequence of APRT gene silencing on different leukaemia cell lines. Our results highlight the importance of revisiting the metabolic models used for in-silico gene essentiality analyses in order to maximize the potential for drug target identification in cancer.


Assuntos
Adenina Fosforribosiltransferase/metabolismo , Adenina Fosforribosiltransferase/fisiologia , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Adenosilmetionina Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Fenômenos Bioquímicos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células , Simulação por Computador , Genes Essenciais/genética , Homeostase , Humanos , Leucemia/genética , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Neoplasias/genética
18.
Nat Commun ; 8(1): 459, 2017 09 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28878380

RESUMO

Synthetic lethality is a promising concept in cancer research, potentially opening new possibilities for the development of more effective and selective treatments. Here, we present a computational method to predict and exploit synthetic lethality in cancer metabolism. Our approach relies on the concept of genetic minimal cut sets and gene expression data, demonstrating a superior performance to previous approaches predicting metabolic vulnerabilities in cancer. Our genetic minimal cut set computational framework is applied to evaluate the lethality of ribonucleotide reductase catalytic subunit M1 (RRM1) inhibition in multiple myeloma. We present a computational and experimental study of the effect of RRM1 inhibition in four multiple myeloma cell lines. In addition, using publicly available genome-scale loss-of-function screens, a possible mechanism by which the inhibition of RRM1 is effective in cancer is established. Overall, our approach shows promising results and lays the foundation to build a novel family of algorithms to target metabolism in cancer.Exploiting synthetic lethality is a promising approach for cancer therapy. Here, the authors present an approach to identifying such interactions by finding genetic minimal cut sets (gMCSs) that block cancer proliferation, and apply it to study the lethality of RRM1 inhibition in multiple myeloma.


Assuntos
Simulação por Computador , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Mutações Sintéticas Letais/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Inativação Gênica , Genes Neoplásicos , Humanos
19.
Mol Cell Oncol ; 4(4): e1342748, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28868353

RESUMO

Epigenetic drug discovery is an emerging strategy for the treatment of cancer and other pathologies. Here, we discuss our recent discovery of first-in-class dual reversible inhibitors of the histone methyltransferase activity of G9a/EHMT2 and DNA methyltransferases showing in vivo efficacy in human tumors. Current and future investigation lines are presented.

20.
Nat Commun ; 8: 15424, 2017 05 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28548080

RESUMO

The indisputable role of epigenetics in cancer and the fact that epigenetic alterations can be reversed have favoured development of epigenetic drugs. In this study, we design and synthesize potent novel, selective and reversible chemical probes that simultaneously inhibit the G9a and DNMTs methyltransferase activity. In vitro treatment of haematological neoplasia (acute myeloid leukaemia-AML, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia-ALL and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma-DLBCL) with the lead compound CM-272, inhibits cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis, inducing interferon-stimulated genes and immunogenic cell death. CM-272 significantly prolongs survival of AML, ALL and DLBCL xenogeneic models. Our results represent the discovery of first-in-class dual inhibitors of G9a/DNMTs and establish this chemical series as a promising therapeutic tool for unmet needs in haematological tumours.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Desenho de Drogas , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/tratamento farmacológico , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Apoptose/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/genética , Cristalografia por Raios X , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/química , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/genética , Metilases de Modificação do DNA/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/imunologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/química , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade/metabolismo , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/química , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Interferons/imunologia , Interferons/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Microssomos Hepáticos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
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