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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(24)2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34944915

RESUMO

Drug-induced tumor mutational burden (TMB) may contribute to unleashing the immune response in relatively "immune-cold" tumors, such as sarcomas. We previously showed that PARP1 inhibition perpetuates the DNA damage induced by the chemotherapeutic agent trabectedin in both preclinical models and sarcoma patients. In the present work, we explored acquired genetic changes in DNA repair genes, mutational signatures, and TMB in a translational platform composed of cell lines, xenografts, and tumor samples from patients treated with trabectedin and olaparib combination, compared to cells treated with temozolomide, an alkylating agent that induces hypermutation. Whole-exome and targeted panel sequencing data analyses revealed that three cycles of trabectedin and olaparib combination neither affected the mutational profiles, DNA repair gene status, or copy number alterations, nor increased TMB both in homologous recombinant-defective and proficient cells or in xenografts. Moreover, TMB was not increased in tumor specimens derived from trabectedin- and olaparib-treated patients (5-6 cycles) when compared to pre-treatment biopsies. Conversely, repeated treatments with temozolomide induced a massive TMB increase in the SJSA-1 osteosarcoma model. In conclusion, a trabectedin and olaparib combination did not show mutagenic effects and is unlikely to prime subsequent immune-therapeutic interventions based on TMB increase. On the other hand, these findings are reassuring in the increasing warning of treatment-induced hematologic malignancies correlated to PARP1 inhibitor use.

2.
Cells ; 10(11)2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34831119

RESUMO

Bone sarcomas are a group of heterogeneous malignant mesenchymal tumors. Complete surgical resection is still the cornerstone of treatment, but, in the advanced/unresectable setting, their management remains challenging and not significantly improved by target- and immuno-therapies. We focused on the tyrosine kinase Eph type-A receptor-2 (EphA2), a key oncoprotein implicated in self-renewal, angiogenesis, and metastasis, in several solid tumors and thus representing a novel potential therapeutic target. Aiming at better characterizing its expression throughout the main bone sarcoma histotypes, we investigated EPHA2 expression in the Cancer Cell Lines Encyclopedia and in public datasets with clinical annotations. looking for correlations with molecular, histopathological and patients' features and clinical outcomes in a total of 232 osteosarcomas, 197 Ewing's sarcomas, and 102 chondrosarcomas. We observed EPHA2 expression in bone sarcoma cell lines. We demonstrated higher EPHA2 expression in tumor tissues when compared to normal counterparts. A significant correlation was found between EPHA2 expression and Huvos grade (osteosarcoma) and with worse overall survival (dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma). Next, we characterized EPHA2 expression and activation in bone sarcoma primary tissues and in patient-derived xenografts generated in our laboratory to verify their reliability as in vivo models of osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma and chondrosarcoma. Furthermore, for the first time, we demonstrated EPHA2 expression in chondrosarcoma, suggesting its potential key role in this histotype. Indeed, we observed a significant dose-dependent antitumor effect of the EphA2-inhibitor ALW-II-41-27 in patient-derived in vitro models. In conclusion, EphA2 targeting represents a promising novel therapeutic strategy against bone sarcomas.

3.
Target Oncol ; 16(6): 789-799, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34755244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Real-world data on extended follow-up of patients with BRAF V600-mutant metastatic melanoma are limited. We investigated dabrafenib plus trametinib (dab + tram) outside of a clinical trial setting (Individual Patient Program; DESCRIBE Italy). OBJECTIVE: To describe the baseline features, treatment patterns, efficacy, and safety outcomes in patients with BRAF V600-mutant unresectable or metastatic melanoma who had received dab + tram as part of the Managed Access Program (MAP) in Italy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An observational, retrospective chart review was conducted in Italian patients with BRAF V600-mutant unresectable stage III/IV melanoma receiving dab + tram as part of the MAP. Baseline features, treatment patterns, efficacy, and safety outcomes were evaluated. RESULTS: Overall, 499 patients were included in this analysis. BRAF V600E mutation was seen in 81.4% of patients. Overall response rate achieved in 243 of the 390 evaluable patients was 62.3% (95% CI 57.5-67.1). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 9.3 months (95% CI 8.6-10.6). Subgroup analyses revealed that patients with normal lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and ≤ three metastatic sites without brain metastases at baseline had better outcomes. With normal LDH at baseline, median PFS for patients with one or two metastatic sites other than cerebral was 18 months. No new safety signals were observed. Treatment was permanently discontinued because of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) in 9.2% of patients, and pyrexia (27.3%) was the most common TEAE, with a lower incidence than that in the phase 3 studies of dab + tram. CONCLUSION: Treatment of BRAF V600E-mutant metastatic melanoma with dab + tram in the real-world setting was effective and safe, including the unselected population with several patients having a high tumor burden - concordant with the results of the pivotal phase 3 studies of dab + tram.

4.
J Clin Oncol ; : JCO2101015, 2021 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637336

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nivolumab received US Food and Drug Administration approval as a single agent or in combination with ipilimumab in patients with microsatellite instability-high/mismatch repair-deficient (MSI-H/dMMR) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) that progressed following treatment with a fluoropyrimidine, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan based on CheckMate 142. Presented are results of nivolumab plus low-dose ipilimumab in the first-line therapy cohort from the phase II CheckMate 142 study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with no prior treatment in the metastatic setting for MSI-H/dMMR CRC were treated with nivolumab every 2 weeks plus low-dose ipilimumab every 6 weeks until disease progression. The primary end point was objective response rate (investigator assessment; RECIST v1.1). RESULTS: Median age of treated patients was 66 years (N = 45). Median follow-up was 29.0 months. Objective response rate and disease control rate were 69% (95% CI, 53 to 82) and 84% (95% CI, 70.5 to 93.5), respectively, with 13% complete response rate. Median duration of response was not reached; 74% of responders had ongoing responses at data cutoff. Median progression-free survival and median overall survival were not reached with minimum follow-up of 24.2 months (24-month rates, 74% and 79%, respectively). Clinical benefit was observed regardless of baseline demographic and tumor characteristics, including BRAF or KRAS mutation status. In a post hoc analysis, of 14 patients who discontinued treatment and did not receive subsequent therapy, 10 remained progression-free. Patient-reported outcomes were stable over the treatment period. Grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events occurred in 22% of patients; 13% discontinued because of any-grade treatment-related adverse events. CONCLUSION: Nivolumab plus low-dose ipilimumab demonstrated robust and durable clinical benefit and was well tolerated as a first-line treatment for MSI-H/dMMR mCRC. Based on these promising data, randomized studies are warranted.

5.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 70(12): 3679-3692, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351436

RESUMO

Debate is around the optimal immunization regimen for cancer vaccines since too intense vaccination schedules may exhaust reactive lymphocytes. GX301 is a telomerase-based cancer vaccine whose safety and immunological effects were tested in a phase I trial applying an eight administrations schedule. Main objective of this study was to comparatively analyse safety and immunological response to three GX301 regimens in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients with response/disease stability after docetaxel chemotherapy. This was a multicentre, randomized, parallel-group, open-label trial registered with EudraCT (2014-000095-26) and ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02293707, 2014). Ninety-eight patients were randomized to receive either eight (regimen 1), four (regimen 2) or two (regimen 3) vaccine administrations. Sixty-three patients were assessable for the primary immunological end-point. Vaccine-specific immune responses were evaluated by intracellular staining for IFN, elispot and cytotoxic assay at 90 and 180 days from baseline. No major side effects were recorded. A 54% overall immune responder rate was observed with 95% of patients showing at least one vaccine-specific immune response. Rate of immunological responders and number of immunizations were proportionally related, suggesting superiority of regimens 1 and 2 over regimen 3. Overall survival did not differ among regimens in both immunological responders and non-responders and was inversely associated (P = 0.002) with increase in the number of circulating CD8 + T regulatory cells at 180 days. These data indicate that GX301 cancer vaccine is safe and immunogenic in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients. Schedules with high number of administrations should be preferred in future studies due to their better immunological outcome.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/imunologia , Neoplasias de Próstata Resistentes à Castração/terapia , Telomerase/imunologia , Idoso , Antineoplásicos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Docetaxel/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade/imunologia , Imunização/métodos , Masculino , Antígeno Prostático Específico/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia
6.
Eur J Cancer ; 155: 56-63, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34358777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-clinical data suggest that docetaxel and enzalutamide interfere with androgen receptor translocation and signalling. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of their concurrent administration in the first-line treatment for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: In this open-label, randomised, phase II trial, previously untreated mCRPC patients were randomised 1:1 to receive eight 21-d courses of docetaxel 75 mg/m2, oral prednisone 5 mg twice daily and oral enzalutamide 160 mg/d (arm DE), or the same treatment without enzalutamide (arm D). The primary end-point was the percentage of patients without investigator-assessed disease progression 6 months after the first docetaxel administration. RESULTS: The 246 eligible patients were randomly assigned to receive docetaxel, prednisone and enzalutamide (n = 120) or docetaxel and prednisone (n = 126). The 6-month progression rate was 12.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] 8.1-20.6) in arm DE and 27.8% (95% CI 22.8-39.4) in arm D (chi-squared test 10.01; P = 0.002). The most frequent grade III-IV adverse events were fatigue (12.5% in arm DE versus 5.6% in arm D), febrile neutropenia (9.3% versus 4.0%) and neutropenia (7.6% versus 5.6%). CONCLUSIONS: The combination of enzalutamide and docetaxel appears to be more clinically beneficial than docetaxel alone in previously untreated mCRPC patients, although serious adverse events were more frequent. Our findings suggest that first-line treatment with this combination could lead to an additional clinical benefit when prompt and prolonged disease control is simultaneously required. Clearly, these results should be considered cautiously because of the study's phase II design and the absence of an overall survival benefit. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBERS: EudraCT 2014-000175-43 - NCT02453009.

7.
Acta Oncol ; 60(10): 1317-1324, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Standard treatment of advanced biliary tract cancer (aBTC) is represented by first-line chemotherapy (CT1). However, some patients do not gain any benefit from CT1, contributing to the overall dismal prognosis of aBTC. The present study aimed to devise a prognostic model in aBTC patients receiving CT1. METHODS: A large panel of clinical, laboratory, and pathology variables, available before the start of CT1, were retrospectively assessed in a multi-centric cohort to determine their prognostic value on univariate and multivariate regression analysis. The variables that showed a significant correlation with overall survival (OS) were computed in a three-tier prognostic score. External validation of the prognostication performance was carried out. RESULTS: Clinical histories of 935 patients (median OS 10.3 months), with diagnosis dates ranging from 2001 to 2017, were retrieved from 14 institutions. According to multivariate analysis, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, carbohydrate antigen 19.9, albumin levels, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio were strongly associated with OS (p <0.01). The prognostic score could generate a highly significant stratification (all between-group p values ≤0.001) into groups of favorable (comprising 51.5% of the sample), intermediate (39.2%), and poor prognosis (9.3%): median OS was 12.7 (CI95% 11.0-14.4), 7.1 (CI95% 5.8-8.4), and 3.2 months (CI95% 1.7-4.7), respectively. This OS gradient was replicated in the validation set (129 patients), with median OS of 12.7 (CI95% 11.0-14.3), 7.5 (CI95% 6.1-8.9), and 1.4 months (CI95% 0.1-2.7), respectively (all between-group p values ≤0.05). CONCLUSION: A prognostic score, derived from a limited set of easily-retrievable variables, efficiently stratified a large population of unselected aBTC patients undergoing CT1. This tool could be useful to clinicians, to ascertain the potential benefit from CT1 at the start of treatment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica , Neoplasias do Sistema Biliar/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Linfócitos , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos
8.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(13)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282766

RESUMO

Agnostic biomarkers such as gene fusions allow to address cancer patients to targeted therapies; however, the low prevalence of these alterations across common malignancies poses challenges and needs a feasible and sensitive diagnostic process. RNA-based targeted next generation sequencing was performed on 125 samples of patients affected either by colorectal carcinoma, melanoma, or lung adenocarcinoma lacking genetic alterations in canonical driver genes, or by a colorectal carcinoma with microsatellite instability. Gene fusion rates were compared with in silico data from MSKCC datasets. For NTRK gene fusion detection we also employed a multitarget qRT-PCR and pan-TRK immunohistochemistry. Gene fusions were detected in 7/55 microsatellite instable colorectal carcinomas (12.73%), and in 4/70 of the "gene driver free" population (5.71%: 3/28 melanomas, 10.7%, and 1/12 lung adenocarcinomas, 8.3%). Fusion rates were significantly higher compared with the microsatellite stable and "gene driver positive" MSKCC cohorts. Pan-TRK immunohistochemistry showed 100% sensitivity, 91.7% specificity, and the occurrence of heterogeneous and/or subtle staining patterns. The enrichment of gene fusions in this "real-world" cohort highlights the feasibility of a workflow applicable in clinical practice. The heterogeneous expression in NTRK fusion positive tumours unveils challenging patterns to recognize and raises questions on the effective translation of the chimeric protein.

9.
J Chemother ; : 1-10, 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34313188

RESUMO

Advanced biliary tract cancer (aBTC) comprises a heterogeneous group of rare malignancies with dismal prognosis. Given the scarcity of prospective evidence, the aim of this study was to derive clinically useful insights and prognostic factors from a large, real-world series of aBTC. Clinicopathologic variables and treatment outcomes were retrospectively collected involving 940 patients diagnosed with aBTC between 2001 and 2017, and treated with first-line chemotherapy (CT1) at 14 Italian medical oncology institutions. Median overall survival (OS) was 10.3 months (CI95% 9.5-11.1). CT1 with gemcitabine-Platinum salts doublets achieved OS of 11.7 months vs 7.5 with gemcitabine alone (HR 0.67, p < 0.001). However, a clear temporal trend towards improved OS could not be demonstrated. Radical surgery of recurrent disease achieved a relapse-free survival of 5.9 months. A substantial minority (44.5%) of patients were able to receive a second-line chemotherapy, which achieved a response rate of 7.6%, and disease control in 30% of patients with no significant differences between combination regimens and monotherapies. In a large retrospective series of real-world aBTC, outcomes of standard CT1 closely resembled those of the registrational trials. A limited set of easily retrievable independent prognostic factors was defined. Further research is needed on second-line regimens.

10.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 865, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320944

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is an aggressive disease with poor prognosis. A molecular classification based on mutational, methylation and transcriptomic features could allow identifying tailored therapies to improve CCA patient outcome. Proteomic remains partially unexplored; here, we analyzed the proteomic profile of five intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) derived from Italian patients undergone surgery and one normal bile duct cell line. METHODS: Proteome profile was investigated by using 2D electrophoresis followed by Mass Spectrometry (MS). To validate proteomic data, the expression of four overexpressed proteins (CAT, SOD, PRDX6, DBI/ACBP) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in an independent cohort of formalin fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) ICC tissues. We also compared proteomic data with those obtained by transcriptomic profile evaluated by microarray analysis of the same tissues. RESULTS: We identified 19 differentially expressed protein spots, which were further characterized by MS; 13 of them were up- and 6 were down-regulated in ICC. These proteins are mainly involved in redox processes (CAT, SODM, PRDX2, PRDX6), in metabolism (ACBP, ACY1, UCRI, FTCD, HCMS2), and cell structure and organization (TUB2, ACTB). CAT is overexpressed in 86% of patients, PRDX6 in 73%, SODM in 100%, and DBI/ACBP in 81% compared to normal adjacent tissues. A concordance of 50% between proteomic and transcriptomic data was observed. CONCLUSIONS: This study pointed out that the impairment of the metabolic and antioxidant systems, with a subsequent accumulation of free radicals, might be a key step in CCA development and progression.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Colangiocarcinoma/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Oxirredução , Proteoma , Proteômica , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/genética , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Colangiocarcinoma/genética , Colangiocarcinoma/patologia , Eletroforese em Gel Bidimensional , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Proteômica/métodos
11.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200267

RESUMO

In resectable gastric or gastroesophageal junction cancer (GC/GEJC), the powerful positive prognostic effect and the potential predictive value for a lack of benefit from the combination of adjuvant/peri-operative chemotherapy for the MSI-high status was demonstrated. Given the high sensitivity of MSI-high tumors for immunotherapy, exploratory trials showed that combination immunotherapy induces a high rate of complete pathological response (pCR), potentially achieving cancer cure without surgery. INFINITY is an ongoing phase II, multicentre, single-arm, multi-cohort trial investigating the activity and safety of tremelimumab and durvalumab as neoadjuvant (Cohort 1) or potentially definitive (Cohort 2) treatment for MSI-high/dMMR/EBV-negative, resectable GC/GEJC. About 310 patients will be pre-screened, to enroll a total of 31 patients, 18 and 13 in Cohort 1 and 2, at 25 Italian Centres. The primary endpoint of Cohort 1 is rate of pCR (ypT0N0) and negative ctDNA after neoadjuvant immunotherapy, of Cohort 2 is 2-year complete response rate, defined as absence of macroscopic or microscopic residual disease (locally/regionally/distantly) at radiological examinations, tissue and liquid biopsy, during non-operative management without salvage gastrectomy. The ongoing INFINITY proof-of-concept study may provide evidence on immunotherapy and the potential omission of surgery in localized/locally advanced GC/GEJC patients selected for dMMR/MSI-high status eligible for radical resection.

12.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(10)2021 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065007

RESUMO

Cancer adoptive cell therapy (ACT) with HLA-independent tumor killer lymphocytes is a promising approach, with intrinsic features potentially addressing crucial tumor-escape mechanisms of checkpoint inhibitors. Cytokine-induced Killer (CIK) and Natural Killer (NK) lymphocytes share similar tumor-killing mechanisms, with preclinical evidence of intense activity against multiple solid tumors and currently testing in clinical studies. To improve the effective clinical translation of such ACT approaches, several fundamental questions still need to be addressed within appropriate preclinical contexts, capable of overcoming limitations imposed by most traditional two-dimensional assays. Here, we developed a novel experimental approach to explore, dissect, and visualize the interactions of CIK and NK lymphocytes with melanoma tumors in vitro in 3D. Primary melanoma cells were assembled into small tumors that were dispersed in a 3D matrix and challenged with patient-derived CIK or the NK-92 cell line. By means of imaging-based methods, we reported, visualized, and quantitatively measured the recruitment of CIK and NK on the 3D targets, their infiltration, and cytotoxic activity. Our results support the effective tumor recruitment and tumor infiltration by CIK and NK. Such features appeared dependent on the specific geometric aspects of the environment but can be explained in terms of directional migration toward the tumor, without invoking major feedback components. Overall, our 3D platform allows us to monitor the processes of tumor recruitment, infiltration, and killing by means of live measurements, revealing important kinetic aspects of ACT with CIK and NK against melanoma.

13.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(10)2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070224

RESUMO

The dabrafenib plus trametinib (dab + tram) combination has demonstrated durable long-term efficacy in patients with BRAF V600-mutant metastatic melanoma. However, real-world data characterizing patients with long-term benefit are limited. DESCRIBE III was a global, observational, retrospective, chart review study in patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma treated with dab monotherapy and/or dab + tram combination therapy as part of the Named Patient Program or Individual Patient Program. Overall, 509 patients were enrolled. Patients were categorized into three groups based on their observed treatment duration: long-term (on therapy ≥12 months), intermediate (on therapy ≥6 months and <12 months), and short-term (on therapy <6 months) duration of benefit. More patients in the short-term duration of benefit group had baseline characteristics associated with poor prognosis compared with the other two groups. Median lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (368 U/L) at baseline were also higher in the short-term duration of benefit group. No new safety signals were identified. DESCRIBE III identified baseline characteristics associated with long-term benefit of dab + tram. Lower LDH level and <3 metastatic sites at baseline were associated with a longer duration of benefit, confirming that the findings from COMBI-d and COMBI-v are relevant to patients treated in a real-world setting.

14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34033000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The need to estimate prognosis of advanced BTC (aBTC) patients treated with first-line chemotherapy is compelling. The aim of the study is to evaluate the ECSIPOT (psECogSIiPnigOT) index, influenced by PECS (PsECogSii) index, prognostic nutritional index (PNI), and GOT. METHODS: This international study was conducted on a training cohort of 126 patients and in three validation cohorts, both European and Korean. ECSIPOT index formula: (PECS:0 = 1 point; PECS:1 = 1.4 points; PECS:2 = 3.2 points) + (PNI > 36.7 = 1 point; PNI < 36.7 = 2 points) + (GOT < 100 = 1 point; GOT > 100 = 2 points). Event-time distributions were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and survival curves were compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: In the training cohort, mOS was 12.9, 6.3, and 2.8 months for patients with ECSIPOT-0, ECSIPOT-1, and ECSIPOT-2, respectively (ECSIPOT-0: HR 1; ECSIPOT-1: HR 2.11; ECSIPOT-2: HR 4.93; p < 0.0001). In the first validation cohort, mOS was 11.5, 7.3, and 3.3 months for ECSIPOT-0, ECSIPOT-1, and ECSIPOT-2, respectively (ECSIPOT-0: HR 1; ECSIPOT-1: HR 1.74; ECSIPOT-2: HR 3.41; p < 0.0001). In the second validation cohort, mOS was 25.2, 12.5, and 3.0 months for ECSIPOT-0, ECSIPOT-1, and ECSIPOT-2, respectively (ECSIPOT-0: HR = 1; ECSIPOT-1: HR 2.33; ECSIPOT-2: HR 8.46; p < 0.0001). In the third validation cohort, mOS was 11.8, 8.1, and 4.6 months for ECSIPOT-0, ECSIPOT-1, and ECSIPOT-2, respectively (ECSIPOT-0: HR = 1; ECSIPOT-1: HR 1.47; ECSIPOT-2: HR 3.17; p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis in all cohorts confirmed the ECSIPOT index as an independent prognostic factor for OS. CONCLUSION: The easy assessment and good risk-stratification performance make the ECSIPOT index a promising tool to comprehensively estimate the prognosis of aBTC patients.

15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 13(9)2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922695

RESUMO

Chemotherapy resistance is a relevant clinical issue in tumor treatment, in particular in biliary tract carcinoma (BTC), for which there are no effective therapies, neither in the first nor in the second line. The development of chemoresistant cell lines as experimental models to investigate the mechanisms of resistance and identify alternative druggable pathways is mandatory. In BTC, in which genetics and biological behavior depend on the etiology, ethnicity, and anatomical site of origin, the creation of models that better recapitulate these characteristics is even more crucial. Here we have established and characterized an intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) cell line derived from an Italian patient, called 82.3. Cells were isolated from a patient-derived xenograft (PDX) and, after establishment, immunophenotypic, biological, genetic, molecular characteristics, and tumorigenicity in vivo in NOD/SCID mice were investigated. 82.3 cells exhibited epithelial morphology and cell markers (EPCAM, CK7, and CK19); they also expressed different cancer stem markers (CD44, CD133, CD49b, CD24, Stro1, PAX6, FOXA2, OCT3/4), α-fetoprotein and under anchorage-independent and serum-free conditions were capable of originating cholangiospheres. The population doubling time was approximately 53 h. In vitro, they demonstrated a poor ability to migrate; in vivo, 82.3 cells retained their tumorigenicity, with a long latency period (16 weeks). Genetic identity using DNA fingerprinting analysis revealed 16 different loci, and the cell line was characterized by a complex hyperdiploid karyotype. Furthermore, 82.3 cells showed cross-resistance to gemcitabine, 5-fluorouracil, carboplatin, and oxaliplatin; in fact, their genetic profile showed that 60% of genes (n = 168), specific for drug resistance and related to the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, were deregulated in 82.3 cells compared to a control iCCA cell line sensitive to chemotherapeutics. RNA sequencing analysis revealed the enrichment for genes associated with epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), vasculature development, and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, underlining an aggressive phenotype. In conclusion, we have created a new iCCA cell line of Caucasian origin: this could be exploited as a preclinical model to study drug resistance mechanisms and to identify alternative therapies to improve the prognosis of this tumor type.

16.
J Clin Med ; 10(6)2021 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799685

RESUMO

Combined direct antineoplastic activity and the long-lasting immunological effects of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) can cure many hematological malignancies, but broad adoption requires non-relapse mortality (NRM) rates and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) control. Recently, posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) given after a bone marrow transplant significantly reduced GVHD-incidence, while PTCy given with tacrolimus/mofetil mycophenolate (T/MMF) showed activity following allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (alloPBSCT). Here, we report the experience of a larger cohort (85 consecutive patients) and expanded follow-up period (03/2011-12/2019) with high-risk hematological malignancies who received alloPBSCT from Human-Leukocyte-Antigens HLA-matched unrelated/related donors. GVHD-prophylaxis was PTCy 50 mg/kg (days+3 and +4) combined with T/MMF (day+5 forward). All patients stopped MMF on day+28 with day+110 = median tacrolimus discontinuation. Cumulative incidences were 12% for acute and 7% for chronic GVHD- and no GVHD-attributed deaths. For surviving patients, the 12, 24, and 36-month probabilities of being off immunosuppression were 92, 96, and 96%, respectively. After a 36-month median follow-up, NRM was 4%; median event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) had yet to occur. One- and two-year chronic GVHD-EFS results were 57% (95% CI, 46-68%) and 53% (95% CI, 45-61%), respectively, with limited late infections and long-term organ toxicities. Disease relapse caused the most treatment failures (38% at 2 years), but low transplant toxicity allowed many patients (14/37, 38%) to receive donor lymphocyte infusions as a post-relapse strategy. We confirmed that PTCy+T/MMF treatment effectively prevented acute and chronic GVHD and limited NRM to unprecedented low rates without loss of disease control efficacy in an expanded patient cohort. This trial is registered at U.S. National Library of Medicine as #NCT02300571.

17.
Cells ; 10(3)2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806296

RESUMO

The term "cancer stem cells" (CSCs) commonly refers to a subset of tumor cells endowed with stemness features, potentially involved in chemo-resistance and disease relapses. CSCs may present peculiar immunogenic features influencing their homeostasis within the tumor microenvironment. The susceptibility of CSCs to recognition and targeting by the immune system is a relevant issue and matter of investigation, especially considering the multiple emerging immunotherapy strategies. Adoptive cellular immunotherapies, especially those strategies encompassing the genetic redirection with chimeric antigen receptors (CAR), hold relevant promise in several tumor settings and might in theory provide opportunities for selective elimination of CSC subsets. Initial dedicated preclinical studies are supporting the potential targeting of CSCs by cellular immunotherapies, indirect evidence from clinical studies may be derived and new studies are ongoing. Here we review the main issues related to the putative immunogenicity of CSCs, focusing on and highlighting the existing evidence and opportunities for cellular immunotherapy approaches with T and non-T antitumor lymphocytes.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia/métodos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/imunologia , Humanos , Microambiente Tumoral
18.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33800511

RESUMO

Published data suggest that immunotherapy plays a role even in patients with very advanced tumours. We investigated the immune profile of end-stage cancer patients treated with immunotherapy to identify changes induced by treatment. Breast, colon, renal and prostate cancer patients were eligible. Treatment consisted of metronomic cyclophosphamide, low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) and a single radiation shot. A panel of 16 cytokines was assessed using automated ELISA before treatment (T0), after radiation (RT; T1), at cycle 2 (T2) and at disease progression (TPD). Receiving operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to identify cytokine cut-off related to overall survival (OS). Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify the immune profile correlating better with OS and progression-free survival. Twenty-three patients were enrolled. High IL-2, low IL-8 and CCL-2 correlated with OS. The PCA identified a cluster of patients, with high IL-2, IL-12 and IFN-γ levels at T0 having longer PFS and OS. In all cohorts, IL-2 and IL-5 increased from T0 to T2; a higher CCL-4 level compared to T2 and a higher IL-8 level compared to T0 were found at TPD. The progressive increase of the IL-10 level during treatment negatively correlated with OS. Our data suggested that baseline cytokine levels may predict patients' outcome and that the treatment may affect their kinetic even in end-stage patients. Cytokine profiling of end-stage patients might offer a tool for medical decisions (EUDRACT: 2016-000578-39).

19.
Pharmacoecon Open ; 5(2): 285-298, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660227

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to compare the costs of a next-generation sequencing-based (NGS-based) panel testing strategy to those of a single-gene testing-based (SGT-based) strategy, considering different scenarios of clinical practice evolution. METHODS: Three Italian hospitals were analysed, and four different testing pathways (paths 1, 2, 3, and 4) were identified: two for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (aNSCLC) patients and two for unresectable metastatic colon-rectal cancer (mCRC) patients. For each path, we explored four scenarios considering the current clinical practice and its expected evolution. The 16 testing cases (4 scenarios × 4 paths) were then compared in terms of differential costs between the NGS-based and SGT-based approaches considering personnel, consumables, equipment, and overhead costs. Break-even and sensitivity analyses were performed. Data gathering, aimed at identifying the hospital setup, was performed through a semi-structured questionnaire administered to the professionals involved in testing activities. RESULTS: The NGS-based strategy was found to be a cost-saving alternative to the SGT-based strategy in 15 of the 16 testing cases. The break-even threshold, the minimum number of patients required to make the NGS-based approach less costly than the SGT-based approach, varied across the testing cases depending on molecular alterations tested, techniques adopted, and specific costs. The analysis found the NGS-based approach to be less costly than the SGT-based approach in nine of the 16 testing cases at any volume of tests performed; in six cases, the NGS-based approach was found to be less costly above a threshold (and in one case, it was found to be always more expensive). Savings obtained using an NGS-based approach ranged from €30 to €1249 per patient; in the unique testing case where NGS was more costly, the additional cost per patient was €25. CONCLUSIONS: An NGS-based approach may be less costly than an SGT-based approach; also, generated savings increase with the number of patients and different molecular alterations tested.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544375

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: The aim of the present study is to evaluate a new index (PECS (PsECogSii)index) influenced by PS ECOG and systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) in unresectable locally advanced or metastatic BTC patients treated with first-line chemotherapy. METHODS: This multicenter, international, study was conducted on a training cohort of 130 patients and in three European and Korean validation cohorts The PECS index was calculated as ECOG × SII index (neutrophil count × platelet count/lymphocyte count). Event-time distributions were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method and survival curves were compared using the log-rank test. RESULTS: In the training cohort, the median overall survival (mOS) was 13.2 months, 8.7 months, and 3.8 months for patients with PECS-0, PECS-1, and PECS-2, respectively (PECS-0: HR = 1; PECS-1: HR 1.41; PECS-2: HR 3.23) (p < 0.0001). In the first validation cohort, the mOS was 12.8 months, 10.1 months, and 5.3 months for patients with PECS-0, PECS-1, and PECS-2, respectively (PECS-0: HR = 1; PECS-1: HR 1.29; PECS-2: HR 2.40) (p < 0.0001). In the second validation cohort, the mOS was 21.2 months, 10.2 months, and 3.0 months for patients with PECS-0, PECS-1, and PECS-2, respectively (PECS-0: HR = 1; PECS-1: HR 2.25; PECS-2: HR 9.00) (p < 0.0001). In the third validation cohort, the median OS was 15.5 months, 7.5 months, and 3.7 months for patients with PECS-0, PECS-1, and PECS-2, respectively (PECS-0: ref HR = 1; PECS-1: HR 2.14; PECS-2: HR 5.00) (p < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis in all cohorts confirmed the PECS index as an independent prognostic factor for OS. CONCLUSIONS: The easy assessment, low cost, and reproducibility make PECS index a promising tool to assess the prognosis of BTC patients in future clinical practice.

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