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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 17623, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077767

RESUMO

The purpose was to review the incidence of in situ carcinoma in Iceland after initiating population-based mammography screening in 1987 and to compare management of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) between Iceland and the Uppsala-Örebro region (UÖR) in Central Sweden. The Icelandic Cancer Registry provided data on in situ breast carcinomas for women between 1957 and 2017. Clinical data for women with DCIS between 2008 and 2014 was extracted from hospital records and compared to women diagnosed in UÖR. In Iceland, in situ carcinoma incidence increased from 7 to 30 per 100 000 women per year, following the introduction of organised mammography screening. The proportion of in situ carcinoma of all breast carcinomas increased from 4 to 12%. More than one third (35%) of women diagnosed with DCIS in Iceland were older than 70 years versus 18% in UÖR. In Iceland, 49% of all DCIS women underwent mastectomy compared to 40% in UÖR. The incidence of in situ carcinoma in Iceland increased four-fold after the uptake of population-based mammography screening causing considerable risk of overtreatment. Differences in treatment of DCIS were seen between Iceland and UÖR, revealing the importance of quality registration for monitoring patterns of management.

2.
Laeknabladid ; 106(9): 397-402, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Islandês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32902398

RESUMO

PURPOSE: As part of the implementation of quality registration in Iceland we used retrospective data to compare diagnosis and treatment of invasive breast cancer between Iceland and Sweden. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information on all patients diagnosed with invasive breast cancer in Iceland 2016-2017 was obtained from the Icelandic Cancer Registry. Hospital records were used to register variables in an electronic form adapted from the Swedish quality registration, and compared with data from Sweden for the same period. A chi-square test was used to compare ratios. RESULTS: A total of 486 cases of breast cancer were diagnosed in Iceland and 15.325 in Sweden. A lower proportion of 40-69 year old women were diagnosed within the screening programme in Iceland (46%) compared to Sweden (60%) (p<0.01). Multidisciplinary tumor board meetings held before and after surgery were less frequent in Iceland (92% vs. 96%) compared to Sweden (98% vs. 99%) in 2016 (p<0,01) but no difference was seen in 2017. A sentinel node surgery was done in 69% of the cases in Iceland compared to 94% in Sweden (p<0,01). For cancers ≤30mm breast conserving surgery was done in 48% cases in Iceland but 80% in Sweden (p<0,01). In Iceland 87% of the cases had radiation therapy after breast conserving surgery but 94% in Sweden (p<0,01). Among mastectomy patients with lymph node metastases, 49% received radiation therapy in Iceland compared to 83% in Sweden (p<0,01). CONCLUSION: Differences were seen in several areas of diagnosis and treatment of invasive breast cancer between Iceland and Sweden. With quality registration it will be possible to monitor and set goals for the diagnosis and treatment, with the aim of providing the best treatment to as many patients as possible.

3.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(8): 1218-1230, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614418

RESUMO

Importance: The limited data on cancer phenotypes in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) have hampered the development of evidence-based recommendations for early cancer detection and risk reduction in this population. Objective: To compare the cancer spectrum and frequencies between male BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 6902 men, including 3651 BRCA1 and 3251 BRCA2 PV carriers, older than 18 years recruited from cancer genetics clinics from 1966 to 2017 by 53 study groups in 33 countries worldwide collaborating through the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Clinical data and pathologic characteristics were collected. Main Outcomes and Measures: BRCA1/2 status was the outcome in a logistic regression, and cancer diagnoses were the independent predictors. All odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, country of origin, and calendar year of the first interview. Results: Among the 6902 men in the study (median [range] age, 51.6 [18-100] years), 1634 cancers were diagnosed in 1376 men (19.9%), the majority (922 of 1,376 [67%]) being BRCA2 PV carriers. Being affected by any cancer was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2, rather than a BRCA1, PV carrier (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.81-3.70; P < .001), as well as developing 2 (OR, 7.97; 95% CI, 5.47-11.60; P < .001) and 3 (OR, 19.60; 95% CI, 4.64-82.89; P < .001) primary tumors. A higher frequency of breast (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 4.06-7.37; P < .001) and prostate (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P = .008) cancers was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Among cancers other than breast and prostate, pancreatic cancer was associated with a higher probability (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.55-5.81; P = .001) and colorectal cancer with a lower probability (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.78; P = .003) of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Conclusions and Relevance: Significant differences in the cancer spectrum were observed in male BRCA2, compared with BRCA1, PV carriers. These data may inform future recommendations for surveillance of BRCA1/2-associated cancers and guide future prospective studies for estimating cancer risks in men with BRCA1/2 PVs.

4.
Cancer Res ; 80(3): 624-638, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31723001

RESUMO

Pathogenic sequence variants (PSV) in BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) are associated with increased risk and severity of prostate cancer. We evaluated whether PSVs in BRCA1/2 were associated with risk of overall prostate cancer or high grade (Gleason 8+) prostate cancer using an international sample of 65 BRCA1 and 171 BRCA2 male PSV carriers with prostate cancer, and 3,388 BRCA1 and 2,880 BRCA2 male PSV carriers without prostate cancer. PSVs in the 3' region of BRCA2 (c.7914+) were significantly associated with elevated risk of prostate cancer compared with reference bin c.1001-c.7913 [HR = 1.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-2.52; P = 0.001], as well as elevated risk of Gleason 8+ prostate cancer (HR = 3.11; 95% CI, 1.63-5.95; P = 0.001). c.756-c.1000 was also associated with elevated prostate cancer risk (HR = 2.83; 95% CI, 1.71-4.68; P = 0.00004) and elevated risk of Gleason 8+ prostate cancer (HR = 4.95; 95% CI, 2.12-11.54; P = 0.0002). No genotype-phenotype associations were detected for PSVs in BRCA1. These results demonstrate that specific BRCA2 PSVs may be associated with elevated risk of developing aggressive prostate cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: Aggressive prostate cancer risk in BRCA2 mutation carriers may vary according to the specific BRCA2 mutation inherited by the at-risk individual.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica/métodos , Mutação , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Associação Genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
6.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 5: 38, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700994

RESUMO

Breast cancer is a common disease partially caused by genetic risk factors. Germline pathogenic variants in DNA repair genes BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, ATM, and CHEK2 are associated with breast cancer risk. FANCM, which encodes for a DNA translocase, has been proposed as a breast cancer predisposition gene, with greater effects for the ER-negative and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtypes. We tested the three recurrent protein-truncating variants FANCM:p.Arg658*, p.Gln1701*, and p.Arg1931* for association with breast cancer risk in 67,112 cases, 53,766 controls, and 26,662 carriers of pathogenic variants of BRCA1 or BRCA2. These three variants were also studied functionally by measuring survival and chromosome fragility in FANCM -/- patient-derived immortalized fibroblasts treated with diepoxybutane or olaparib. We observed that FANCM:p.Arg658* was associated with increased risk of ER-negative disease and TNBC (OR = 2.44, P = 0.034 and OR = 3.79; P = 0.009, respectively). In a country-restricted analysis, we confirmed the associations detected for FANCM:p.Arg658* and found that also FANCM:p.Arg1931* was associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk (OR = 1.96; P = 0.006). The functional results indicated that all three variants were deleterious affecting cell survival and chromosome stability with FANCM:p.Arg658* causing more severe phenotypes. In conclusion, we confirmed that the two rare FANCM deleterious variants p.Arg658* and p.Arg1931* are risk factors for ER-negative and TNBC subtypes. Overall our data suggest that the effect of truncating variants on breast cancer risk may depend on their position in the gene. Cell sensitivity to olaparib exposure, identifies a possible therapeutic option to treat FANCM-associated tumors.

7.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(11)2019 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683985

RESUMO

Mutations in BRCA1 result in predisposal to breast and ovarian cancers, but many variants exist with unknown clinical significance (VUS). One is BRCA1 c.4096+3A>G, which affects production of the full-length BRCA1 transcript, while augmenting transcripts lacking most or all of exon 11. Nonetheless, homozygosity of this variant has been reported in a healthy woman. We saw this variant cosegregate with breast and ovarian cancer in several family branches of four Icelandic pedigrees, with instances of phenocopies and a homozygous woman with lung cancer. We found eight heterozygous carriers (0.44%) in 1820 unselected breast cancer cases, and three (0.15%) in 1968 controls (p = 0.13). Seeking conclusive evidence, we studied tumors from carriers in the pedigrees for wild-type-loss of heterozygosity (wtLOH) and BRCA1-characteristic prevalence of estrogen receptor (ER) negativity. Of 15 breast and six ovarian tumors, wtLOH occurred in nine breast and all six ovarian tumours, and six of the nine breast tumors with wtLOH were ER-negative. These data accord with a pathogenic BRCA1-mutation. Our findings add to the current knowledge of BRCA1, and the role of its exon 11 in cancer pathogenicity, and will be of use in clinical genetic counselling.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Homozigoto , Mutação Puntual , Adulto , Idoso , Éxons , Feminino , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/patologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Islândia , Perda de Heterozigosidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem
8.
Br J Cancer ; 121(2): 180-192, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m2 increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.


Assuntos
Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Heterozigoto , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais
9.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(4): 350-364, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30312457

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1/2 mutations confer high lifetime risk of breast cancer, although other factors may modify this risk. Whether height or body mass index (BMI) modifies breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers remains unclear. METHODS: We used Mendelian randomization approaches to evaluate the association of height and BMI on breast cancer risk, using data from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 with 14 676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, including 11 451 cases of breast cancer. We created a height genetic score using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score using 93 BMI-associated variants. We examined both observed and genetically determined height and BMI with breast cancer risk using weighted Cox models. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Observed height was positively associated with breast cancer risk (HR = 1.09 per 10 cm increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0 to 1.17; P = 1.17). Height genetic score was positively associated with breast cancer, although this was not statistically significant (per 10 cm increase in genetically predicted height, HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.93 to 1.17; P = .47). Observed BMI was inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase, HR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.90 to 0.98; P = .007). BMI genetic score was also inversely associated with breast cancer risk (per 5 kg/m2 increase in genetically predicted BMI, HR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76 to 0.98; P = .02). BMI was primarily associated with premenopausal breast cancer. CONCLUSION: Height is associated with overall breast cancer and BMI is associated with premenopausal breast cancer in BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Incorporating height and BMI, particularly genetic score, into risk assessment may improve cancer management.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Mutação , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
10.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 4568, 2018 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410027

RESUMO

Benign prostatic hyperplasia and associated lower urinary tract symptoms (BPH/LUTS) are common conditions affecting the majority of elderly males. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of symptomatic BPH/LUTS in 20,621 patients and 280,541 controls of European ancestry, from Iceland and the UK. We discovered 23 genome-wide significant variants, located at 14 loci. There is little or no overlap between the BPH/LUTS variants and published prostate cancer risk variants. However, 15 of the variants reported here also associate with serum levels of prostate specific antigen (PSA) (at a Bonferroni corrected P < 0.0022). Furthermore, there is a strong genetic correlation, rg = 0.77 (P = 2.6 × 10-11), between PSA and BPH/LUTS, and one standard deviation increase in a polygenic risk score (PRS) for BPH/LUTS increases PSA levels by 12.9% (P = 1.6×10-55). These results shed a light on the genetic background of BPH/LUTS and its substantial influence on PSA levels.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Antígeno Prostático Específico/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/sangue , Hiperplasia Prostática/genética , Acetilação , Idoso , Biologia Computacional , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Islândia , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/sangue , Sintomas do Trato Urinário Inferior/genética , Lisina/metabolismo , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido
11.
Br J Cancer ; 115(7): 776-83, 2016 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27537391

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of an inherited BRCA2 mutation on the prognosis of women with breast cancer has not been well documented. We studied the effects of oestrogen receptor (ER) status, other prognostic factors and treatments on survival in a large cohort of BRCA2 mutation carriers. METHODS: We identified 285 breast cancer patients with a 999del5 BRCA2 mutation and matched them with 570 non-carrier patients. Clinical information was abstracted from patient charts and pathology records and supplemented by evaluation of tumour grade and ER status using archived tissue specimens. Univariate and multivariate hazard ratios (HR) were estimated for breast cancer-specific survival using Cox regression. The effects of various therapies were studied in patients treated from 1980 to 2012. RESULTS: Among mutation carriers, positive ER status was associated with higher risk of death than negative ER status (HR=1.94; 95% CI=1.22-3.07, P=0.005). The reverse association was seen for non-carriers (HR=0.71; 95% CI: 0.51-0.97; P=0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Among BRCA2 carriers, ER-positive status is an adverse prognostic factor. BRCA2 carrier status should be known at the time when treatment decisions are made.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estrogênios , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação , Neoplasias Hormônio-Dependentes/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/química , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Mama/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Hormônio-Dependentes/química , Neoplasias Hormônio-Dependentes/mortalidade , Neoplasias Hormônio-Dependentes/terapia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/mortalidade , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/terapia , Prognóstico , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0158801, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27463617

RESUMO

Population-based genome wide association studies have identified a locus at 9p22.2 associated with ovarian cancer risk, which also modifies ovarian cancer risk in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. We conducted fine-scale mapping at 9p22.2 to identify potential causal variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers. Genotype data were available for 15,252 (2,462 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA1 and 8,211 (631 ovarian cancer cases) BRCA2 mutation carriers. Following genotype imputation, ovarian cancer associations were assessed for 4,873 and 5,020 SNPs in BRCA1 and BRCA 2 mutation carriers respectively, within a retrospective cohort analytical framework. In BRCA1 mutation carriers one set of eight correlated candidate causal variants for ovarian cancer risk modification was identified (top SNP rs10124837, HR: 0.73, 95%CI: 0.68 to 0.79, p-value 2× 10-16). These variants were located up to 20 kb upstream of BNC2. In BRCA2 mutation carriers one region, up to 45 kb upstream of BNC2, and containing 100 correlated SNPs was identified as candidate causal (top SNP rs62543585, HR: 0.69, 95%CI: 0.59 to 0.80, p-value 1.0 × 10-6). The candidate causal in BRCA1 mutation carriers did not include the strongest associated variant at this locus in the general population. In sum, we identified a set of candidate causal variants in a region that encompasses the BNC2 transcription start site. The ovarian cancer association at 9p22.2 may be mediated by different variants in BRCA1 mutation carriers and in the general population. Thus, potentially different mechanisms may underlie ovarian cancer risk for mutation carriers and the general population.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 9 , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Feminino , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 50(6): 1111-1117, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27334108

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Acute thoracic aortic dissection (ATAD) is a devastating condition associated with a high mortality rate. Recent reports suggest that its incidence is rising. Utilizing nationwide data comprising the whole Icelandic population, we aimed to determine the incidence, mortality rate and time-dependent mortality risk of ATAD. METHODS: Data were retrospectively collected using centralized hospital discharge registries, autopsy records and Cause of Death Registry in Iceland from 1992 to 2013. RESULTS: Age- and gender-adjusted incidence of ATAD was 2.53/100 000/year, and no significant change in incidence was observed during the study period. The mean age was 66.9 ± 13.6 years and 66.0% (101/153) were Stanford type A. Of the whole group, 17.6% (27/153) died prior to hospital arrival, whereas the risk of death for patients who arrived alive to a hospital was 21.4% (27/126) within 24 h and 45.2% (57/126) at 30 days. During the course of the study, patients with type A dissection were more likely to undergo an operation and the management of type B dissection changed from open to endovascular repair. The 30-day mortality rate declined every year and the 5-year survival rate improved in the last third of the study. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of ATAD was 2.53/100 000/year and remained constant throughout the study, contradicting recent perceptions of a rising incidence. ATAD, type A in particular, remains a highly lethal condition: Over half of all patients die within 30 days of the index event. A reduced 30-day mortality rate and an increased long-term survival rate indicate improved overall outcomes in patients with this complex condition.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Dissecante/epidemiologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Aneurisma Dissecante/mortalidade , Aneurisma Dissecante/cirurgia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/mortalidade , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Irlanda/epidemiologia , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
Hum Mol Genet ; 25(5): 1008-18, 2016 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26740556

RESUMO

Transcriptional and splicing anomalies have been observed in intron 8 of the CASP8 gene (encoding procaspase-8) in association with cutaneous basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) and linked to a germline SNP rs700635. Here, we show that the rs700635[C] allele, which is associated with increased risk of BCC and breast cancer, is protective against prostate cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 0.91, P = 1.0 × 10(-6)]. rs700635[C] is also associated with failures to correctly splice out CASP8 intron 8 in breast and prostate tumours and in corresponding normal tissues. Investigation of rs700635[C] carriers revealed that they have a human-specific short interspersed element-variable number of tandem repeat-Alu (SINE-VNTR-Alu), subfamily-E retrotransposon (SVA-E) inserted into CASP8 intron 8. The SVA-E shows evidence of prior activity, because it has transduced some CASP8 sequences during subsequent retrotransposition events. Whole-genome sequence (WGS) data were used to tag the SVA-E with a surrogate SNP rs1035142[T] (r(2) = 0.999), which showed associations with both the splicing anomalies (P = 6.5 × 10(-32)) and with protection against prostate cancer (OR = 0.91, P = 3.8 × 10(-7)).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Carcinoma Basocelular/genética , Caspase 8/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Processamento de RNA , Retroelementos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Sequência de Bases , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Carcinoma Basocelular/metabolismo , Carcinoma Basocelular/patologia , Caspase 8/metabolismo , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Íntrons , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Proteção , Neoplasias Cutâneas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
15.
Gynecol Oncol ; 141(2): 386-401, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25940428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Clinical genetic testing is commercially available for rs61764370, an inherited variant residing in a KRAS 3' UTR microRNA binding site, based on suggested associations with increased ovarian and breast cancer risk as well as with survival time. However, prior studies, emphasizing particular subgroups, were relatively small. Therefore, we comprehensively evaluated ovarian and breast cancer risks as well as clinical outcome associated with rs61764370. METHODS: Centralized genotyping and analysis were performed for 140,012 women enrolled in the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium (15,357 ovarian cancer patients; 30,816 controls), the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (33,530 breast cancer patients; 37,640 controls), and the Consortium of Modifiers of BRCA1 and BRCA2 (14,765 BRCA1 and 7904 BRCA2 mutation carriers). RESULTS: We found no association with risk of ovarian cancer (OR=0.99, 95% CI 0.94-1.04, p=0.74) or breast cancer (OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.94-1.01, p=0.19) and results were consistent among mutation carriers (BRCA1, ovarian cancer HR=1.09, 95% CI 0.97-1.23, p=0.14, breast cancer HR=1.04, 95% CI 0.97-1.12, p=0.27; BRCA2, ovarian cancer HR=0.89, 95% CI 0.71-1.13, p=0.34, breast cancer HR=1.06, 95% CI 0.94-1.19, p=0.35). Null results were also obtained for associations with overall survival following ovarian cancer (HR=0.94, 95% CI 0.83-1.07, p=0.38), breast cancer (HR=0.96, 95% CI 0.87-1.06, p=0.38), and all other previously-reported associations. CONCLUSIONS: rs61764370 is not associated with risk of ovarian or breast cancer nor with clinical outcome for patients with these cancers. Therefore, genotyping this variant has no clinical utility related to the prediction or management of these cancers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/enzimologia , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário , Feminino , Humanos
16.
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther ; 30(6): 464-7, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24734973

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Dorzolamide nanoparticle γ-cyclodextrin eye drops may prolong the effect of dorzolamide on intraocular pressure. We test whether the nanoparticle drops have an irritating or toxic effect on the eye in an in vivo rabbit model. METHODS: Eighteen pigmented rabbits were divided into 4 groups receiving dorzolamide nanoparticle γ-cyclodextrin eye drops×1/day or×2/day, Trusopt® (dorzolamide HCl)×3/day, and untreated controls that received no drops. The rabbits received treatment for 1 month. After sacrifice, 33 eyes and 25 Harderian glands were evaluated for histopathology in a masked way. RESULTS: Mild inflammation was seen in 19/31 eyes and 13/23 Harderian glands. The difference in inflammation (n=eyes/n=glands)between the γ-cyclodextrin nanoparticle eye drops×1/day (n=5/5),×2/day (n=5/3), Trusopt (n=7/4), or untreated control (n=2/0) groups was nonsignificant in both eyes and glands (P=0.87 and P=0.92) Acute inflammation was seen in 1 Harderian gland that received γ-cyclodextrin nanoparticle eye drops×2/day. The difference in conjunctival injection between the groups was nonsignificant (P=0.30). CONCLUSIONS: Dorzolamide γ-cyclodextrin nanoparticle eye drops are no more locally toxic or irritating to the eye than Trusopt.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/toxicidade , Nanopartículas , Sulfonamidas/toxicidade , Tiofenos/toxicidade , gama-Ciclodextrinas/química , Animais , Inibidores da Anidrase Carbônica/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Glândula de Harder/efeitos dos fármacos , Glândula de Harder/patologia , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/patologia , Soluções Oftálmicas , Coelhos , Sulfonamidas/administração & dosagem , Tiofenos/administração & dosagem
17.
Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed ; 30(1): 25-34, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24255991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination of seawater baths and narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB) is a known treatment for psoriasis. This study evaluates two treatment regimens that combine bathing in geothermal seawater and NB-UVB therapy in comparison with NB-UVB monotherapy. METHODS: Sixty-eight psoriasis patients were randomly assigned to outpatient bathing in geothermal seawater combined with NB-UVB therapy three times a week, intensive daily treatment involving bathing in geothermal seawater combined with NB-UVB therapy, or NB-UVB therapy alone three times a week; treatment period was 6 weeks. Disease severity [Psoriasis Area Severity Index (PASI) and Lattice System Physician's Global Assessment scores], quality of life (Dermatology Life Quality Index) and histological changes were evaluated before, during and after treatment. The primary end point was the proportion of patients who achieved PASI 75 at 6 weeks. RESULTS: At 6 weeks, the percentage of patients who achieved PASI 75 and PASI 90 was significantly greater for both regimens, bathing in geothermal seawater three times a week (68.1% and 18.2%, respectively) and intensive treatment with geothermal seawater (73.1% and 42.3%, respectively) than for NB-UVB monotherapy (16.7% and 0%, respectively) (P < 0.05 in all comparisons). Clinical improvement was paralleled by improvement in quality of life and histological score and a reduction in NB-UVB doses. CONCLUSION: Bathing in geothermal seawater combined with NB-UVB therapy in psoriasis induces faster clinical and histological improvement, produces longer remission time and permits lower NB-UVB doses than UVB therapy alone.


Assuntos
Balneologia , Fontes Termais , Fototerapia , Psoríase/terapia , Água do Mar , Adulto , Terapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
18.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 92(2): 121-5, 2014 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23164069

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the incidence rate as well as causative diagnoses and surgical indications of enucleation in Iceland during the years 1992-2004. METHODS: A retrospective population-based incidence study involving the entire population of Iceland. Medical records of all patients who underwent enucleation in Iceland from January 1992 through December 2004 were reviewed. The annually updated Icelandic census was used as a denominator data. RESULTS: Fifty-six eyes were enucleated during 1992-2004. No eviscerations were done, and the three exenterations performed were not included in the study. The mean annual age-adjusted incidence rate of enucleation in Iceland was 1.48 enucleations per 100 000 population in comparison with 2.66 enucleations per 100 000 for the time period 1964-1991. With advancing age, a significant increasing linear trend existed (p < 0.001). The median age at enucleation was 51 years (SD 22; mean 55 years; 16-91 years). The three most common surgical indications for enucleation were blind painful eye, suspected ocular malignancy and acute trauma. The most common causative diagnosis for enucleation was traumatic lesion (39%). The annual incidence was 2.00 enucleations per 100 000 for men and 0.95 for women. There were significantly more men in the traumatic lesion group (p < 0.001), but no gender predominance was found in the other groups of causative diagnoses (p = 0.8). CONCLUSION: The overall mean annual incidence of enucleation in Iceland is continually decreasing, although the incidence of severe ocular trauma and ocular malignancy is fairly stable.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias/epidemiologia , Enucleação Ocular/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Oftalmopatias/cirurgia , Traumatismos Oculares/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Oculares/cirurgia , Neoplasias Oculares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Oculares/cirurgia , Dor Ocular/epidemiologia , Dor Ocular/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Islândia/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Implantes Orbitários , Implantação de Prótese , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Cancer Med ; 2(4): 437-46, 2013 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24156016

RESUMO

Amplification of 8p12-p11 is relatively common in breast cancer and several genes within the region have been suggested to affect breast tumor progression. The aim of the study was to map the amplified 8p12-p11 region in a large set of breast tumors in an effort to identify the genetic driver and to explore its impact on tumor progression and prognosis. Copy number alterations (CNAs) were mapped in 359 tumors, and gene expression data from 577 tumors (359 tumors included) were correlated with CNA, clinical-pathological factors, and protein expression (39 tumors). 8p12-p11 was amplified in 11.4% of tumors. The smallest region of amplification harbored one full-length gene, ZNF703. ZNF703 mRNA expression was significantly higher in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive than ER-negative tumors (P = 2 × 10(-16)), a reflection of high expression in luminal tumors. Forty-eight percent of tumors with ZNF703 amplification were luminal B tumors in which the best correlation between DNA copy number and mRNA was seen (P = 1.2 × 10(-7)) as well as correlation between mRNA and protein expression (P = 0.02). High ZNF703 mRNA correlated with poor survival in patients with ER-positive luminal B tumors (log rank P = 0.04). Furthermore, high ZNF703 mRNA expression correlated with poor outcome in patients with ZNF703 copy number neutral, ER-positive, luminal B tumors (log rank P = 0.004). The results support ZNF703 as the driver gene of the 8p12 amplification and suggest that independent of amplification, high expression of the gene affects prognosis in luminal B tumors.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Amplificação de Genes , Expressão Gênica , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/mortalidade , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8 , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Prognóstico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
20.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 140(2): 375-84, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23857704

RESUMO

It is not well known to what extent carrying a BRCA2 mutation affects the survival of women with breast cancer and prognostic factors among BRCA2-positive women warrant investigation. Using a record linkage approach we compared the long-term survival in carriers and noncarriers of an inherited BRCA2 founder mutation (999del5), and sought to identify prognostic factors among the BRCA2 mutation-positive subset, including markers of genetic instability (aneuploidy) and mitotic activity (S-phase fraction). We established the genetic status of 2,967 Icelandic breast cancer patients (215 mutation carriers and 2,752 noncarriers) diagnosed from 1955 to 2004, representing 72 % of all cases diagnosed in the country during this period. Tumour ploidy and S-phase fraction were assessed on tumour cells by DNA flow cytometry. Prognostic factors were assessed blindly with respect to mutation status. Univariate and multivariate hazard ratios (HR) were estimated for breast cancer-specific survival by BRCA2 status, using Cox regression. After a median follow-up of 9.5 years, BRCA2 mutation carriers had a higher risk of death from breast cancer than noncarriers (HR 1.64, 95 % CI 1.24-2.16, p < 0.001). The risk increase was restricted to women with diploid tumours (HR 3.03, 95 % CI 1.91-4.79, p < 0.001). Among breast cancer patients with aneuploid tumours, survival of carriers was similar to that of noncarriers (HR 0.76, 95 % CI 0.41-1.41, p = 0.38). Increased tumour size and a positive nodal status predicted worse prognosis in all patients, whereas the highly correlated prognostic factors diploidy, low proliferative activity and a positive estrogen receptor status had reverse effects in mutation carriers and noncarriers. Breast cancer patients who carry the Icelandic founder BRCA2 mutation have inferior long-term survival than noncarriers, but the adverse prognosis is restricted to mutation carriers with diploid, slowly proliferating tumours.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Diploide , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Prognóstico
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