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1.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(12)2019 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775249

RESUMO

TNXB-related classical-like Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (TNXB-clEDS) is an ultrarare type of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome due to biallelic null variants in TNXB, encoding tenascin-X. Less than 30 individuals have been reported to date, mostly of Dutch origin and showing a phenotype resembling classical Ehlers-Danlos syndrome without atrophic scarring. TNXB-clEDS is likely underdiagnosed due to the complex structure of the TNXB locus, a fact that complicates diagnostic molecular testing. Here, we report two unrelated Italian women with TNXB-clEDS due to compound heterozygosity for null alleles in TNXB. Both presented soft and hyperextensible skin, generalized joint hypermobility and related musculoskeletal complications, and chronic constipation. In addition, individual 1 showed progressive finger contractures and shortened metatarsals, while individual 2 manifested recurrent subconjunctival hemorrhages and an event of spontaneous rupture of the brachial vein. Molecular testing found the two previously unreported c.8278C > T p.(Gln2760*) and the c.(2358 + 1_2359 - 1)_(2779 + 1_2780 - 1)del variants in Individual 1, and the novel c.1150dupG p.(Glu384Glyfs*57) and the recurrent c.11435_11524+30del variants in Individual 2. mRNA analysis confirmed that the c.(2358 + 1_2359 - 1)_(2779 + 1_2780 - 1)del variant causes a frameshift leading to a predicted truncated protein [p.(Thr787Glyfs*40)]. This study refines the phenotype recently delineated in association with biallelic null alleles in TNXB, and adds three novel variants to its mutational repertoire. Unusual digital anomalies seem confirmed as possibly peculiar of TNXB-clEDS, while vascular fragility could be more than a chance association also in this Ehlers-Danlos syndrome type.

2.
Glycoconj J ; 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529350

RESUMO

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are genetic diseases characterized by deficient synthesis (CDG type I) and/or abnormal processing (CDG type II) of glycan moieties linked to protein and lipids. The impact of the molecular defects on protein glycosylation and in turn on the clinical phenotypes of patients with CDG is not yet understood. ALG12-CDG is due to deficiency of ALG12 α1,6-mannosyltransferase that adds the eighth mannose residue on the dolichol-PP-oligosaccharide precursor in the endoplasmic reticulum. ALG12-CDG is a severe multisystem disease associated with low to deficient serum immunoglobulins and recurrent infections. We thoroughly investigated the glycophenotype in a patient with novel ALG12 variants and immunodeficiency. We analyzed serum native transferrin, as first line test for CDG and we profiled serum IgG and total serum N-glycans by a combination of consolidated (N-glycan analysis by MALDI MS) and innovative mass spectrometry-based protocols, such as GlycoWorks RapiFluor N-glycan analysis coupled with LC-ESI MS. Intact serum transferrin showed, as expected for a CDG type I defect, underoccupancy of N-glycosylation sites. Surprisingly, total serum proteins and IgG N-glycans showed some specific changes, consisting in accumulating amounts of definite high-mannose and hybrid structures. As a whole, ALG12-CDG behaves as a dual CDG (CDG-I and II defects) and it is associated with distinct, abnormal glycosylation of total serum and IgG N-glycans. Glycan profiling of target glycoproteins may endorse the molecular defect unraveling the complex clinical phenotype of CDG patients.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(5): 914-924, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982611

RESUMO

Glypicans are a family of cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans that regulate growth-factor signaling during development and are thought to play a role in the regulation of morphogenesis. Whole-exome sequencing of the Australian family that defined Keipert syndrome (nasodigitoacoustic syndrome) identified a hemizygous truncating variant in the gene encoding glypican 4 (GPC4). This variant, located in the final exon of GPC4, results in premature termination of the protein 51 amino acid residues prior to the stop codon, and in concomitant loss of functionally important N-linked glycosylation (Asn514) and glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor (Ser529) sites. We subsequently identified seven affected males from five additional kindreds with novel and predicted pathogenic variants in GPC4. Segregation analysis and X-inactivation studies in carrier females provided supportive evidence that the GPC4 variants caused the condition. Furthermore, functional studies of recombinant protein suggested that the truncated proteins p.Gln506∗ and p.Glu496∗ were less stable than the wild type. Clinical features of Keipert syndrome included a prominent forehead, a flat midface, hypertelorism, a broad nose, downturned corners of mouth, and digital abnormalities, whereas cognitive impairment and deafness were variable features. Studies of Gpc4 knockout mice showed evidence of the two primary features of Keipert syndrome: craniofacial abnormalities and digital abnormalities. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that GPC4 is most closely related to GPC6, which is associated with a bone dysplasia that has a phenotypic overlap with Keipert syndrome. Overall, we have shown that pathogenic variants in GPC4 cause a loss of function that results in Keipert syndrome, making GPC4 the third human glypican to be linked to a genetic syndrome.

4.
Ital J Pediatr ; 45(1): 49, 2019 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999961

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) is characterized by alveolar hypoventilation increasing during sleep and affected patients are unable to perceive and respond to hypercarbia with increased ventilation and arousal during sleep. PHOX2B gene mutations are considered as responsible for CCHS. Most of patients with CCHS are heterozygous for polyalanine expansion mutations (PARMs) in exon 3, but 10% of patients with classic CCHS are heterozygous for non-polyalanine expansion mutations (NPARMs) of the PHOX2B gene. METHODS: Data are collected on 3 patients affected by CCHS who referred to the Paediatric Pulmonology Unit of Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital (Rome, Italy) for a multidisciplinary follow-up program between 2000 and 2017. RESULTS: We describe three cases of patients affected by CCHS for which two novel mutations on exon 3 of PHOX2B gene were detected. CONCLUSIONS: The description of these novel mutations and related clinical phenotypes allows to expand the knowledge into NPARM spectrum. Since the presence of Hirschsprung disease is related to NPARMs and the number of alanine repeats, we suggest performing CCHS genetic investigation and periodical assessment also in patients without a clear history of CCHS but affected by Hirschsprung disease. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Data are retrospectively collected.


Assuntos
Éxons , Doença de Hirschsprung/complicações , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Hipoventilação/congênito , Mutação , Apneia do Sono Tipo Central/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Hipoventilação/genética , Lactente , Masculino
5.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 86, 2019 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922288

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Progressive lung involvement in Filamin A (FLNA)-related cerebral periventricular nodular heterotopia (PVNH) has been reported in a limited number of cases. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a new pathogenic FLNA gene variant (c.7391_7403del; p.Val2464Alafs*5) in a male infant who developed progressive lung disease with emphysematous lesions and interstitial involvement. Following lobar resection, chronic respiratory failure ensued necessitating continuous mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy. Cerebral periventricular nodular heterotopia was also present. CONCLUSIONS: We report a novel variant of the FLNA gene, associated with a severe lung disorder and PNVH. The lung disorder led to respiratory failure during infancy and these pulmonary complications may be the first sign of this disorder. Early recognition with thoracic imaging is important to guide genetic testing, neuroimaging and to define optimal timing of potential therapies, such as lung transplant in progressive lung disease.

6.
Psychiatr Genet ; 29(3): 86-90, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30724859

RESUMO

About one child in 68 is affected by the autism spectrum disorder (ASD), one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders linked to intellectual disability, especially in males, intellectual disability being diagnosable in about 60-70% of autistic individuals. The biological bases of ASD are not yet fully known, but they are generally considered multifactorial, although many genes and genomic loci have been proposed to be possibly associated with this condition. In this report, we describe the case of a 14-year-old female Italian proband affected by ASD, carrying a novel ~ 270 kb interstitial microduplication, localized at the distal portion of the 4q13.1 region. The rearrangement was inherited from a mild symptomatic father and included a large part of the single EPHA5 gene, a receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the neural development, already indicated to be linked to ASD by previous Genome Wide Association Studies. This imbalance represents, to the best of our knowledge, the smallest duplication identified to date that only impacts the EPHA5 gene. We hypothesize that the duplication of this gene may alter EPHA5 expression and that this may impact the autistic phenotype of the patient.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Receptor EphA5/genética , Adolescente , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , Feminino , Duplicação Gênica/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Itália , Fenótipo , Receptor EphA5/fisiologia
7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(2): 317-321, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30561154

RESUMO

Kyphoscoliotic Ehlers-Danlos syndrome associated with FKBP14 (FKBP14-kEDS) is an ultrarare autosomal recessive disorder reported in less than 30 individuals so far. In its original description, emphasis was put on the mild muscle involvement. Further reports confirm that FKBP14-kEDS is distinguishable from primary muscle disorders by the lack of progressive muscle disease. We report a 15-year-old girl with FKBP14-kEDS as a result of the recurrent c.362dupC variant, who also showed severe involvement of the lower limb muscles. She never attained autonomous walking and presented significant lower limb weakness. Lower limb magnetic resonance imaging showed a pattern of multiple muscle involvement. Further musculoskeletal assessment revealed significant bone mass density reduction of the spine, unilateral congenital hip dysplasia, and occipitoatlantoaxial instability. This patient points out the existence of a wider phenotypic spectrum of FKBP14-kEDS to include early onset muscle disease.

8.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(1): 113-117, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30569626

RESUMO

Kabuki syndrome (KS) is an extremely rare genetic disorder, mainly caused by germline mutations at specific epigenetic modifier genes, including KMT2D. Because the tumor suppressor gene KMT2D is also frequently altered in many cancer types, it has been suggested that KS may predispose to the development of cancer. However, KS being a rare disorder, few data are available on the incidence of cancer in KS patients. Here, we report the case of a 5-year-old boy affected by KS who developed Burkitt lymphoma (BL). Genetic analysis revealed the presence of a novel heterozygous mutation in the splice site of the intron 4 of KMT2D gene in both peripheral blood-extracted DNA and tumour cells. In addition, the tumour sample of the patient was positive for the classical somatic chromosomal translocation t(8;14) involving the c-MYC gene frequently identified in BL. We propose that the mutated KMT2D gene contributes to the development of both KS and BL observed in our patient and we suggest that strict surveillance must be performed in KS patients.

9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(50): e13033, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30557962

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) play a crucial role in both the maintenance of pulmonary integrity and the pathogenesis of lung disease. Lung involvement has been reported in patients with the filamin A (FLNA) gene mutation. Considering FLNA's role in the intrinsic mechanical properties of MSC, we characterized MSCs isolated from FLNA-defective lung tissue, in order to define their pathogenetic role in pulmonary damage. PATIENT CONCERNS: A male infant developed significant lung disease resulting in emphysematous lesions and perivascular and interstitial fibrosis. He also exhibited general muscular hypotonia, bilateral inguinal hernia, and deformities of the lower limbs (pes tortus congenitalis and hip dysplasia). Following lobar resection, chronic respiratory failure occurred. DIAGNOSIS: Genetic testing was performed during the course of his clinical care and revealed a new pathogenic variant of the FLNA gene c.7391_7403del; (p.Val2464AlafsTer5). Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed periventricular nodular heterotopia. INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOMES: Surgical thoracoscopic lung biopsy was performed in order to obtain additional data on the pathological pulmonary features. A small portion of the pulmonary tissue was used for MSC expansion. Morphology, immunophenotype, differentiation capacity, and proliferative growth were evaluated. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSC) were employed as a control. MSCs presented the typical MSC morphology and phenotype while exhibiting higher proliferative capacity (P <.001) and lower migration potential (P=.02) compared to control BM-MSC. LESSONS: The genetic profile and altered features of the MSCs isolated from FLNA-related pediatric lung tissue could be directly related to defects in cell migration during embryonic lung development and pulmonary damage described in FLNA-defective patients.


Assuntos
Filaminas/genética , Pneumopatias/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/patologia , Biópsia/métodos , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Itália , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino
10.
Front Oncol ; 8: 526, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30488019

RESUMO

Low-grade gliomas (LGG) are the most common central nervous system tumors in children. Prognosis depends on complete surgical resection. For patients not amenable of gross total resection (GTR) new approaches are needed. The BRAF mutation V600E is critical for the pathogenesis of pediatric gliomas and specific inhibitors of the mutated protein, such as Vemurafenib, are available. We investigated the safety and efficacy of Vemurafenib as single agent in pediatric patients with V600E+ LGG. From November 2013 to May 2018, 7 patients have been treated in our Institution; treatment was well-tolerated, the main concern being dermatological toxicity. The best responses to treatment were: 1 complete response, 3 partial responses, 1 stable disease, only one patient progressed; in one patient, the follow-up is too short to establish the clinical response. Two patients discontinued treatment, and, in both cases, immediate progression of the disease was observed. In one case the treatment was discontinued due to toxicity, in the other one the previously assessed BRAF V600E mutation was not confirmed by further investigation. Two patients, after obtaining a response, progressed during treatment, suggesting the occurrence of resistance mechanisms. Clinical response, with improvement of the neurologic function, was observed in all patients a few weeks after the therapy was started. Despite the limitations inherent to a small and heterogeneous cohort, this experience, suggests that Vemurafenib represents a treatment option in pediatric patients affected by LGG and carrying BRAF mutation V600E.

11.
J Med Genet ; 55(12): 837-846, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30323018

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome (WRS) is a form of segmental progeria presenting neonatally, characterised by growth retardation, sparse scalp hair, generalised lipodystrophy with characteristic local fatty tissue accumulations and unusual face. We aimed to understand its molecular cause. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing in two families, targeted sequencing in 10 other families and performed in silico modelling studies and transcript processing analyses to explore the structural and functional consequences of the identified variants. RESULTS: Biallelic POLR3A variants were identified in eight affected individuals and monoallelic variants of the same gene in four other individuals. In the latter, lack of genetic material precluded further analyses. Multiple variants were found to affect POLR3A transcript processing and were mostly located in deep intronic regions, making clinical suspicion fundamental to detection. While biallelic POLR3A variants have been previously reported in 4H syndrome and adolescent-onset progressive spastic ataxia, recurrent haplotypes specifically occurring in individuals with WRS were detected. All WRS-associated POLR3A amino acid changes were predicted to perturb substantially POLR3A structure/function. CONCLUSION: Biallelic mutations in POLR3A, which encodes for the largest subunit of the DNA-dependent RNA polymerase III, underlie WRS. No isolated functional sites in POLR3A explain the phenotype variability in POLR3A-related disorders. We suggest that specific combinations of compound heterozygous variants must be present to cause the WRS phenotype. Our findings expand the molecular mechanisms contributing to progeroid disorders.

12.
Clin Genet ; 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30288735

RESUMO

Biallelic exostosin-2 (EXT2) pathogenic variants have been described as the cause of the Seizures-Scoliosis-Macrocephaly syndrome (OMIM 616682) characterized by intellectual disability, facial dysmorphisms and seizures. More recently, it has been proposed to rename this disorder with the acronym AREXT2 (autosomal recessive EXT2-related syndrome). Here, we report the third family affected by AREXT2 syndrome, harboring compound missense variants in EXT2, p.Asp227Asn, and p.Tyr608Cys. In addition, our patients developed multiple exostoses, which were not observed in the previously described families. AREXT2 syndrome can be considered as a multiorgan Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation caused by a significant, but non-lethal, decrease in EXT2 expression, thereby affecting the synthesis of the heparan sulfate proteoglycans, which is relevant in many physiological processes. Our finding expands the clinical and molecular spectrum of the AREXT2 syndrome and suggests a possible genotype/phenotype correlation in the development of the exostoses.

13.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 6(3): 446-451, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29500860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fowler syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by hydranencephaly-hydrocephaly and multiple pterygium due to fetal akinesia. To date, around 45 cases from 27 families have been reported, and the pathogenic bi-allelic mutations in FLVCR2 gene described in 15 families. The pathogenesis of this condition has not been fully elucidated so far. METHODS: We report on an additional family with two affected fetuses carrying a novel homozygous mutation in FLVCR2 gene, and describe the impact of known mutants on the protein structural and functional impairment. RESULTS: The present report confirms the genetic homogeneity of Fowler syndrome and describes a new FLVCR2 mutation affecting the protein function. The structural analysis of the present and previously published FLVCR2 mutations supports the hypothesis of a reduced heme import as the underlying disease's mechanism due to the stabilization of the occluded conformation or a protein misfolding. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest the hypothesis of heme deficiency as the major pathogenic mechanism of Fowler syndrome.


Assuntos
Hidranencefalia/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Receptores Virais/genética , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos/genética , Feto/patologia , Heme/genética , Heme/metabolismo , Humanos , Hidranencefalia/fisiopatologia , Hidrocefalia/genética , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/fisiologia , Mutação , Receptores Virais/fisiologia , Doenças Vasculares/genética
14.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 22(3): 552-557, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29475819

RESUMO

A recent syndromic condition with craniofacial dysmorphisms, comprising congenital ocular defect and neurodevelopmental delay named Helsmoortel-Van der Aa Syndrome (HVDAS) (OMIM#615873), has been described and molecularly defined, identifying pathogenic mutations in the ADNP gene (OMIM#611386) as biological cause. We report on two children, displaying intellectual disability (ID) and peculiar congenital eyes anomalies, both carrying a de novo nonsense mutation in the ADNP gene. The review of present and literature reports, suggests that the diagnosis of HVDAS should be suspected in patients with ID accompanied by behavioral features in the Autism Spectrum Disorder and distinctive craniofacial phenotype. Among dysmorphisms due to malformation of the periorbital region, ptosis appears to be particularly recurrent in HVDAS. Furthermore, the present patients could support the inclusion of the HVDAS associated with specific mutations clustering within a small ADNP genomic region among clinical conditions reminiscent of the blepharophimosis/mental retardation syndromes (BMRS).


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Pré-Escolar , Crianças com Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Mutação , Fenótipo , Síndrome
15.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 23(8): 1068-71, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25370043

RESUMO

Analysis of 786 NF1 mutation-positive subjects with clinical diagnosis of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) allowed to identify the heterozygous c.5425C>T missense variant (p.Arg1809Cys) in six (0.7%) unrelated probands (three familial and three sporadic cases), all exhibiting a mild form of disease. Detailed clinical characterization of these subjects and other eight affected relatives showed that all individuals had multiple cafè-au-lait spots, frequently associated with skinfold freckling, but absence of discrete cutaneous or plexiform neurofibromas, Lisch nodules, typical NF1 osseous lesions or symptomatic optic gliomas. Facial features in half of the individuals were suggestive of Noonan syndrome. Our finding and revision of the literature consistently indicate that the c.5425C>T change is associated with a distinctive, mild form of NF1, providing new data with direct impact on genetic counseling and patient management.


Assuntos
Neurofibroma/genética , Neurofibromatose 1/genética , Neurofibromina 1/genética , Síndrome de Noonan/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos/genética , Aconselhamento Genético , Humanos , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Neurofibroma/diagnóstico , Neurofibroma/patologia , Neurofibromatose 1/diagnóstico , Neurofibromatose 1/patologia , Síndrome de Noonan/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Noonan/patologia , Linhagem , Fenótipo
16.
J Invest Dermatol ; 134(8): 2146-2153, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24577405

RESUMO

Defective nectin-1 and -4 have been implicated in ectodermal dysplasia (ED) syndromes with variably associated features including orofacial and limb defects. In particular, nectin-1 mutations cause cleft lip/palate ED (CLPED1; OMIM#225060), whereas defective nectin-4 is associated with ED-syndactyly syndrome (EDSS1; OMIM#613573). Although the broad phenotypic overlap suggests a common mode of action of nectin-1 and -4, little is known about the pathogenic mechanisms involved. We report the identification of, to our knowledge, a previously undescribed nectin-4 homozygous p.Val242Met missense mutation in a patient with EDSS1. We used patient skin biopsy and primary keratinocytes, as well as nectin-4 ectopic expression in epithelial cell lines, to characterize functional consequences of p.Val242Met and p.Thr185Met mutations, the latter previously identified in compound heterozygosity with a truncating mutation. We show that nectin-4-altered expression perturbs nectin-1 clustering at keratinocyte contact sites and delays, but does not impede cell-cell aggregation and cadherin recruitment at adherens junctions (AJs). Moreover, trans-interaction of nectin-1 and -4 induces the activation of Rac1, a member of the Rho family of small GTPases, and regulates E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. These data outline a synergistic action of nectin-1 and -4 in the early steps of AJ formation and implicate this interaction in modulating the Rac1 signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Junções Aderentes/fisiologia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/fisiologia , Displasia Ectodérmica/fisiopatologia , Mutação , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Sindactilia/genética , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/fisiologia , Animais , Adesão Celular , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/análise , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/química , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Agregação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Cães , Displasia Ectodérmica/genética , Humanos , Cinética , Nectinas
18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 89(2): 289-94, 2011 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21782149

RESUMO

KBG syndrome is characterized by intellectual disability associated with macrodontia of the upper central incisors as well as distinct craniofacial findings, short stature, and skeletal anomalies. Although believed to be genetic in origin, the specific underlying defect is unknown. Through whole-exome sequencing, we identified deleterious heterozygous mutations in ANKRD11 encoding ankyrin repeat domain 11, also known as ankyrin repeat-containing cofactor 1. A splice-site mutation, c.7570-1G>C (p.Glu2524_Lys2525del), cosegregated with the disease in a family with three affected members, whereas in a simplex case a de novo truncating mutation, c.2305delT (p.Ser769GlnfsX8), was detected. Sanger sequencing revealed additional de novo truncating ANKRD11 mutations in three other simplex cases. ANKRD11 is known to interact with nuclear receptor complexes to modify transcriptional activation. We demonstrated that ANKRD11 localizes mainly to the nuclei of neurons and accumulates in discrete inclusions when neurons are depolarized, suggesting that it plays a role in neural plasticity. Our results demonstrate that mutations in ANKRD11 cause KBG syndrome and outline a fundamental role of ANKRD11 in craniofacial, dental, skeletal, and central nervous system development and function.


Assuntos
Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/complicações , Osso e Ossos/anormalidades , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Mutação/genética , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Anormalidades Dentárias/complicações , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Doenças do Desenvolvimento Ósseo/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Criança , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Éxons/genética , Facies , Feminino , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Proteínas Repressoras/química , Anormalidades Dentárias/genética , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 87(2): 265-73, 2010 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20691405

RESUMO

Ectodermal dysplasias form a large disease family with more than 200 members. The combination of hair and tooth abnormalities, alopecia, and cutaneous syndactyly is characteristic of ectodermal dysplasia-syndactyly syndrome (EDSS). We used a homozygosity mapping approach to map the EDSS locus to 1q23 in a consanguineous Algerian family. By candidate gene analysis, we identified a homozygous mutation in the PVRL4 gene that not only evoked an amino acid change but also led to exon skipping. In an Italian family with two siblings affected by EDSS, we further detected a missense and a frameshift mutation. PVRL4 encodes for nectin-4, a cell adhesion molecule mainly implicated in the formation of cadherin-based adherens junctions. We demonstrated high nectin-4 expression in hair follicle structures, as well as in the separating digits of murine embryos, the tissues mainly affected by the EDSS phenotype. In patient keratinocytes, mutated nectin-4 lost its capability to bind nectin-1. Additionally, in discrete structures of the hair follicle, we found alterations of the membrane localization of nectin-afadin and cadherin-catenin complexes, which are essential for adherens junction formation, and we found reorganization of actin cytoskeleton. Together with cleft lip and/or palate ectodermal dysplasia (CLPED1, or Zlotogora-Ogur syndrome) due to an impaired function of nectin-1, EDSS is the second known "nectinopathy" caused by mutations in a nectin adhesion molecule.


Assuntos
Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Displasia Ectodérmica/complicações , Displasia Ectodérmica/genética , Mutação/genética , Sindactilia/complicações , Sindactilia/genética , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Adulto , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/química , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Criança , Extremidades/embriologia , Família , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Cabelo/patologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Linhagem , Transporte Proteico , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Pele/patologia , Síndrome
20.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers ; 14(1): 17-22, 2010 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19929427

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to collect the practices of cytogenetic and molecular genetic testing and genetic counseling activities in Italy in the year 2007 and provide guidance to the national and regional health systems to improve the organization of genetic services. METHODS: A web-based survey was carried out to assess the total number and the type of analyses, the number and type of genetic counseling sessions, and the personnel attending these activities. The quality management system of the responding structures, in terms of certification and accreditation standards, was also investigated. The appropriateness of requests for genetic testing was evaluated for six disorders. RESULTS: Data were collected from 278 responding centers, half of which were located in the northern regions of the country. Twenty-eight percent of the total were certified according to quality standards. A total of 217 molecular genetic and 171 cytogenetic laboratories, and 102 clinical genetic services were surveyed. About 560,000 genetic tests, including 311,069 cytogenetic and 248,691 molecular genetic analyses of 556 genes, were recorded. The fetal karyotype was examined on either trophoblast or amniocytes in about one of every 4.4 pregnancies. Only 11.5% of cytogenetic analyses and 13.5% of molecular tests were accompanied by genetic counseling. Concerning the appropriateness of a request for genetic testing, a low congruity was found between the clinical diagnosis and the laboratory results. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the need for reorganizing the genetic structure network in Italy, which at present is oversized, improving the quality management systems, expanding the availability of testing for rare disease genes, and improving access to pretest and posttest genetic counseling.


Assuntos
Testes Genéticos , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético/organização & administração , Aconselhamento Genético/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Testes Genéticos/organização & administração , Testes Genéticos/normas , Testes Genéticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Gravidez , Diagnóstico Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
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