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1.
Ambio ; 52(10): 1603-1617, 2023 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37261644

RESUMO

Although protected areas (PAs) are designed to safeguard natural ecosystems from anthropic modifications, many PAs worldwide are subjected to numerous human-induced impacts. We evaluated whether the establishment of PAs in the Upper Paraná River floodplain region could reduce anthropic landscape changes and whether there is a difference in protection when using different PA restriction categories. We analyzed the overall landscape dynamics using 30 years of land-use time series data and evaluated the change intensity via a partial land-use intensity analysis. Despite the increasing landscape anthropization, the PAs seemed to relieve the general change process, protecting natural areas mainly from agricultural expansion. Concerning the degree of use restriction, more restricted protection led to less human-induced changes. Finally, accessing PA effectiveness is a multidisciplinary challenge for researchers; however, this knowledge is crucial to avoid misunderstandings or poorly crafted public policies or decisions that may harm the environment.


Assuntos
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Biodiversidade , Agricultura , Brasil
2.
Biota Neotrop. (Online, Ed. ingl.) ; 23(2): 1-6, 2023-05-16.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1436969

RESUMO

Every activity that involves exploitation of natural resources, such as fishing, needs to be organized and conducted based on information from monitoring programs to allow continuous evaluation. With the increasing fishing pressure in Brazil, the understanding of the importance of fisheries monitoring programs and how they can inform and assist in conservation decision-making remains limited. Based on the literature on fisheries and participatory conservation, we call attention to the need to generate information on the national fisheries sector in order to improve fisheries in the country. Given the context of the need to generate information on fishing stocks under exploitation, as well as to identify potential alternative fisheries and carry out various sectoral analyses in compliance with the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, we present and discuss in the present paper the lack of a system of continuous fishing monitoring in Brazil and its effects on the fisheries sustainability in the country.


Toda atividade que atua envolvendo a exploração de recursos naturais, como a pesca, precisa ser organizada e conduzida com base nas informações dos programas de monitoramento para permitir uma avaliação contínua. Com o aumento da pressão pesqueira no Brasil, o entendimento da importância dos programas de monitoramento da pesca e como eles podem informar e auxiliar na tomada de decisões de conservação permanece limitado. Com base na literatura sobre pesca e conservação participativa, chamamos a atenção para a necessidade de gerar informações sobre o setor pesqueiro nacional para melhorar a pesca no país. Dado o contexto da necessidade de gerar informações sobre os estoques pesqueiros em exploração, bem como identificar potenciais alternativas de pesca e realizar diversas análises setoriais em conformidade com a Agenda 2030 para o Desenvolvimento Sustentável, é apresentada e discutida no presente trabalho a falta de um sistema de monitoramento contínuo da pesca no Brasil e seus efeitos na sustentabilidade da pesca no país.

3.
J Environ Manage ; 307: 114571, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35085970

RESUMO

The enormous biodiversity of tropical freshwater combined with a considerable increase in the construction of reservoirs urges to understand the ecological effects caused by damming. Using rarely available data obtained before (one year) and after (four years) the filling of a hydroelectric plant on the Teles Pires River (Amazon River basin), the effects on abundance, biomass, and diversity of the fish assemblage were evaluated using two complementary approaches: a BACI (before-after-control-impact) design with mixed models and analyses of covariance. Significant Before-After × Control-Impact interactions in abundance, biomass, and species richness were observed, with decreases of abundance and species richness and more stable biomass after filling. Some abundant species, such as Jupiaba polylepis, Jupiaba acanthogaster, Knodus cf. heteresthes, and Moenkhausia lepidura among others, declined in abundance or disappeared from the impact sites. However, temporal and particularly spatial variation independent of damming explained more variation in all the response variables analyzed, including species composition, and analyses of covariance demonstrated general negative trends irrespective of damming. This study illustrates the usefulness of BACI designs to assess the effects of damming but also that other statistical approaches are complementary, given the difficulty of identifying control sites and the short length of most ecological time series. The results also suggest that preserving tributaries upstream of reservoirs and natural regimes of spatial and temporal environmental variation might help to mitigate the impacts of damming in tropical ecosystems.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Animais , Biodiversidade , Peixes , Água Doce
4.
Environ Manage ; 68(4): 445-452, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341867

RESUMO

The Tocantins-Araguaia Basin is one of the largest river systems in South America, located entirely within Brazilian territory. In the last decades, capital-concentrating activities such as agribusiness, mining, and hydropower promoted extensive changes in land cover, hydrology, and environmental conditions. These changes are jeopardizing the basin's biodiversity and ecosystem services. Threats are escalating as poor environmental policies continue to be formulated, such as environmentally unsustainable hydropower plants, large-scale agriculture for commodity production, and aquaculture with non-native fish. If the current model persists, it will deepen the environmental crisis in the basin, compromising broad conservation goals and social development in the long term. Better policies will require thought and planning to minimize growing threats and ensure the basin's sustainability for future generations.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Rios , Animais , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Política Ambiental
5.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(3): e210037, 2021. tab, graf, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279497

RESUMO

Albeit massive fish mortality has an extraordinary visual impact and is certainly a fatality, we still have rudimentary understanding on how addressing this problem in the Neotropical region. The processes that lead to fish die-off events are complex and sometimes ephemeral, which can lead to incorrect diagnosis. In this review, we discuss these events in Neotropical freshwaters, both in areas impacted by dams and natural environment, with a focus on deaths mediated by the lack of oxygen (anoxia) or the excess of dissolved gases (gas supersaturation). We examine the available knowledge about the related mechanisms, lethal thresholds for dissolved oxygen (DO) and total dissolved gases (TDG) for fish, and the sequelae of gas bubble disease (GBD). An assessment of the main mortality events in Brazil in the last 10 years is also presented, as well as the best practices for monitoring, prevention, and mitigation. Finally, it is concluded that the proliferation of hydroelectric plants in the Neotropical region might contribute to the expansion of these events and, consequently, increasing of impacts on fish conservation. We consider urgent the inclusion of this topic in the licensing processes for new hydropower projects by the environmental agencies.(AU)


Embora mortandades massivas de peixes tenham impacto visual extraordinário e sejam certamente uma fatalidade, estamos ainda engatinhando no entendimento e na solução desse problema. Os processos que levam aos eventos de mortes de peixes são complexos e algumas vezes efêmeros, o que explica diagnoses incorretas. Nessa revisão nós discutimos esses eventos em bacias hidrográficas neotropicais, tanto em barragens como em ambientes naturais, porém com o foco nas mortes por falta de oxigênio (anoxia) ou excesso de gases dissolvidos (supersaturação gasosa). Em particular são examinados o conhecimento disponível acerca dos processos que levam a essas condições, os limiares letais de oxigênio dissolvido (OD) e gases totais dissolvidos (GTD) para os peixes e as sequelas da doença das bolhas de gás (DBG). Uma avaliação dos principais eventos de mortandade que ocorreram no Brasil nos últimos 10 anos é também apresentada, bem como discutidas as melhores práticas para o monitoramento, prevenção e mitigação. Conclui-se, finalmente, que a proliferação de hidrelétricas deve contribuir com a expansão desses eventos e consequentemente com mais um fator de ameaça à biodiversidade. Consideramos urgente a inclusão desse tema nos processos de licenciamento de novos empreendimentos pelo órgão ambiental.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Barragens , Mortalidade , Peixes/fisiologia , Hipóxia/mortalidade , Oxigênio Dissolvido , Reservatórios de Água , Biodiversidade
6.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 19(3): e210034, 2021. graf, mapas, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1340234

RESUMO

Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of protected areas (PAs) in the Paraná-Paraguay basin on multiple facets of ichthyofauna, both currently and in future climate change scenarios, based on reaching the 17% of conserved terrestrial and inland water defined by Aichi Target 11. Analyses were carried out vis-à-vis a distribution of 496 native species, modeling for the present and for the future, and in moderate and pessimistic scenarios of greenhouse gases. We calculated species richness, functional richness, and phylogenetic diversity, overlapping the combination of these facets with the PAs. The results indicate that the current PAs of the Paraná-Paraguay basin are not efficient in protecting the richest areas of ichthyofauna in their multiple facets. While there is a larger overlap between PAs and the richest areas in phylogenetic diversity, the values are too low (2.37%). Currently, the overlap between PAs and areas with larger species richness, functional richness, and phylogenetic diversity is only 1.48%. Although this value can increase for future projections, the values of the indices decrease substantially. The relevant aquatic environments, biological communities, and climate change should be considered as part of the systematic planning of PAs that take into consideration the terrestrial environments and their threats.(AU)


Nosso objetivo foi avaliar a efetividade das áreas protegidas da bacia Paraná-Paraguai sobre múltiplas facetas da ictiofauna, atualmente e em cenários futuros de mudanças climáticas baseado em alcançar 17% de áreas protegidas, de acordo com os objetivos de Aichi. Análises foram feitas a partir da distribuição de 496 espécies para o presente e futuro, em diferentes cenários climáticos. Foram calculadas a riqueza de espécies, a riqueza funcional e a diversidade filogenética, sobrepondo a combinação destas facetas com as áreas protegidas. Os resultados indicaram que as áreas protegidas da bacia Paraná-Paraguai não são eficientes em proteger as áreas mais ricas em ictiofauna considerando diversas facetas. A maior sobreposição se dá entre as áreas protegidas e as áreas mais ricas em diversidade filogenética, mas os valores são muito baixos (2,37%). A sobreposição entre as áreas protegidas e os 17% das áreas com maior riqueza de espécies, riqueza funcional e diversidade filogenética é de apenas 1,48%. Para o futuro as projeções indicaram que a sobreposição pode aumentar, mas os valores dos índices caem consideravelmente. Os ambientes aquáticos e as mudanças climáticas são componentes que devem ser considerados no planejamento sistemático de áreas protegidas que consideram essencialmente ambientes terrestres e suas ameaças.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Mudança Climática , Áreas Protegidas/análise , Peixes , Filogenia , Variação Genética
7.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0225128, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31774852

RESUMO

This study uses species distribution modeling and physiological and functional traits to predict the impacts of climate change on native freshwater fish in the Murray-Darling Basin, Australia. We modelled future changes in taxonomic and functional diversity in 2050 and 2080 for two scenarios of carbon emissions, identifying areas of great interest for conservation. Climatic-environmental variables were used to model the range of 23 species of native fish under each scenario. The consensus model, followed by the physiological filter of lethal temperature was retained for interpretation. Our study predicts a severe negative impact of climate change on both taxonomic and functional components of ichthyofauna of the Murray-Darling Basin. There was a predicted marked contraction of species ranges under both scenarios. The predictions showed loss of climatically suitable areas, species and functional characters. There was a decrease in areas with high values of functional richness, dispersion and uniqueness. Some traits are predicted to be extirpated, especially in the most pessimistic scenario. The climatic refuges for fish fauna are predicted to be in the southern portion of the basin, in the upper Murray catchment. Incorporating future predictions about the distribution of ichthyofauna in conservation management planning will enhance resilience to climate change.


Assuntos
Peixes/classificação , Peixes/fisiologia , Animais , Austrália , Biodiversidade , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Demografia , Modelos Biológicos , Reprodução
8.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 17(3): e190030, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040663

RESUMO

Brycon orbignyanus is an endemic species from La Plata basin whose stocks have been presenting significant reductions throughout the Paraná River. Brycon orbignyanus is categorized as an endangered species. This study evaluated aspects of the bio-ecology of this species that may be related to this threat, highlighting its distribution, abundance, and diet as well as the corresponding relationships between its recruitment and flood regimes. Data were obtained from different parts of the upper Paraná River (stretches free and regulated by dams) from 1986 to 2010 with more detailed data collected from the free remnant of this basin. The results indicate that no records for species exist at more than half of the sampling points located in dam-regulated sections of the Paraná River, whereas specimens were collected from 75% sites in the free plain remnant. We observed a remarkable effect of the hydrological regime on recruitment as well as distinct food demands during ontogenetic development, with adults almost exclusively consuming fruits and seeds, revealing that these individuals are supported by riparian vegetation. Thus, it is concluded that changes in the natural flood regime as well as riparian vegetation removal threaten B. orbignyanus populations in the Paraná River basin.(AU)


Brycon orbignyanus é uma espécie endêmica da bacia do rio da Prata, cujos estoques vêm apresentando redução relevante em todo o rio Paraná, e está classificada como espécie ameaçada. Este estudo avaliou aspectos da bio-ecologia da espécie, relacionados a essa ameaça, destacando sua distribuição, abundância, dieta e relação entre o recrutamento e o regime de inundação. Os dados foram obtidos em diferentes partes da bacia do alto rio Paraná (trechos regulados por barragens e trechos livres) de 1986 a 2010, com detalhes no remanescente livre desse segmento (planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná). Os resultados indicam que não existem registros da espécie em mais da metade dos pontos de amostragem localizados nos trechos da bacia do rio Paraná reguladas por barragens, enquanto a espécie foi capturada em 75% dos locais amostrados na planície (remanescente livre de barragem). Foi observado um efeito marcante do regime hidrológico sobre o recrutamento de B. orbignyanus, bem como o uso de diferentes alimentos durante seu desenvolvimento ontogenético, com adultos consumindo quase exclusivamente frutos e sementes, revelando que esses indivíduos são sustentados pela vegetação ripária. Assim, conclui-se que mudanças no regime natural de inundação, bem como a remoção da vegetação ripária, ambas decorrentes de ações antropogênicas, ameaçam B. orbignyanus na bacia do rio Paraná.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Caraciformes/genética , Caraciformes/microbiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências
9.
Ambio ; 47(4): 427-440, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29306998

RESUMO

The Convention on Biological Diversity proposed the Aichi Biodiversity Targets to improve conservation policies and to balance economic development, social welfare, and the maintenance of biodiversity/ecosystem services. Brazil is a signatory of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets and is the most diverse country in terms of freshwater fish, but its national policies have supported the development of unsustainable commercial and ornamental aquaculture, which has led to serious disturbances to inland ecosystems and natural resources. We analyzed the development of Brazilian aquaculture to show how current aquaculture expansion conflicts with all 20 Aichi Targets. This case suggests that Brazil and many other megadiverse developing countries will not meet international conservation targets, stressing the need for new strategies, such as the environmental management system, to improve biodiversity conservation.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Biodiversidade , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Animais , Brasil , Ecossistema , Água Doce
10.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 16(2): [e170150], jun. 2018. mapas, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-948585

RESUMO

The Paranapanema River is a major tributary of the upper Paraná river basin. Eleven hydropower dams regulate its main course, but no study has investigated fish diversity in these impoundments at the basin-scale. The present study investigated spatial patterns of richness, composition, and abundance of native (non-migratory and migratory) and non-native fishes in the cascade of reservoirs along the Paranapanema River. The study is based on data collected from 34 independent studies conducted in nine reservoirs (47 samples). The compilation recorded 161 species, being 111 native (14 migratory) and 50 non-native. Total richness ranged between 56 and 112 species/reservoir, with a mean of 72 (49.9 non-migratory, 8.1 migratory and 14 non-native). The number of non-migratory species showed no spatial trend along the cascade system, but migratory and non-native richness increased toward downstream reaches. We also observed spatial variation in species composition along the cascade system, but some non-native fishes were widely distributed. Migratory fishes showed low relative abundance (usually < 10%), while non-native species were common and more abundant, especially in reservoirs downstream. Our results revealed a high diversity of fishes in the cascade of impoundments, but indicated that migratory fishes are rare, while non-native species are common or dominant.(AU)


O rio Paranapanema é um dos principais afluentes da bacia do alto rio Paraná. Onze hidrelétricas regulam o seu canal principal, contudo, não existe estudo, em escala de bacia, que tenha investigado a diversidade de peixes nos represamentos. O presente estudo investigou padrões espaciais de riqueza, composição e abundância de peixes nativos (não-migradores e migradores) e não-nativos na cascata de reservatórios do rio Paranapanema. O estudo se baseou em dados coletados por 34 estudos independentes conduzidos em nove reservatórios (47 amostras). Registramos 161 espécies, sendo 111 nativas (14 migradoras) e 50 não-nativas. A riqueza total variou entre 56 e 112 espécies/reservatório, com média de 72 (49,9 nativas, 8,1 migradoras e 14 não-nativas). O número de espécies não-migradoras não apresentou padrão de variação ao longo do sistema em cascata, mas a riqueza de migradores e peixes não-nativos aumentou em direção aos trechos de jusante. A composição de espécies variou ao longo do gradiente longitudinal, porém algumas espécies não-nativas apresentaram ampla distribuição. Espécies migradoras apresentaram baixa abundância relativa (usualmente < 10%), enquanto que as não-nativas foram comuns e abundantes, especialmente em reservatórios de jusante. Os resultados revelaram alta diversidade de peixes na cascata de reservatórios, mas indicaram que peixes migradores são raros, enquanto que espécies não-nativas são comuns ou dominantes.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Reservatórios de Água/análise , Biodiversidade , Peixes/classificação , Fauna Aquática/análise
11.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 16(4): e180022, out. 2018. tab, graf, mapas
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976295

RESUMO

In floodplain communities, beta diversity is influenced by different factors; however, environmental heterogeneity and floods are believed to be particularly influential. The influence of environmental heterogeneity and floods on beta diversity may vary among guilds that present different ecological traits. This study evaluated the correlation between the environmental heterogeneity and flood periods and the beta diversity of trophic and reproductive guilds of fish assemblages. Sampling was conducted quarterly between 2000 and 2012 in the upper Paraná River floodplain. The environmental heterogeneity and period (i.e., dry or flood) were associated with the beta diversity of each guild based on the results of generalized least squares linear models. Only guilds with parental care were influenced by the interaction between environmental heterogeneity and period. The beta diversity of the other guilds presented no relationship between environmental heterogeneity and period. It is likely that species with parental care presented less dispersal capacity, which increased the dissimilarity among assemblages. The higher dispersion rates of the other guilds may be responsible for the lack of relationship between the beta diversity and the environmental heterogeneity and period. In sum, these results suggest that reproductive guilds influence how environmental heterogeneity and floods affect beta diversity variation.(AU)


A diversidade beta é influenciada por diferentes fatores em comunidades de planícies de inundação; contudo, acredita-se que a heterogeneidade ambiental e inundações sejam particularmente influentes. A influência da heterogeneidade ambiental e inundações na diversidade beta podem variar entre guildas que apresentam diferentes características ecológicas. Este estudo avaliou a correlação entre heterogeneidade ambiental, os períodos de inundação e a diversidade beta de guildas tróficas e reprodutivas de peixes. A amostragem foi realizada trimestralmente entre 2000 e 2012 na planície de inundação do Alto rio Paraná. Heterogeneidade ambiental e o período (i.e., seca ou cheia) foram associados à diversidade beta de cada guilda por modelos lineares de quadrados mínimos generalizados. Somente guildas com cuidados parentais foram influenciadas pela interação entre heterogeneidade ambiental e período. A diversidade beta das outras guildas não apresentou relação com heterogeneidade ambiental e período. É provável que espécies com cuidados parentais apresentem menor capacidade de dispersão, o que aumenta a diferença entre as assembleias. As maiores taxas de dispersão de outras guildas podem ser responsáveis pela ausência de relação entre a diversidade beta e heterogeneidade ambiental e o período. Em suma, os resultados sugerem que as guildas reprodutivas influenciam a forma como a heterogeneidade ambiental e as inundações afetam a variação da diversidade beta.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Biodiversidade , Peixes/genética , Zoneamento de Áreas de Inundação
12.
Zootaxa ; 4353(3): 540-550, 2017 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29245502

RESUMO

The early development of Tatia neivai (Ihering 1930) was analyzed (i) to characterize its morphological, morphometric and meristic development; and (ii) to examine its possible ontogenic variation as a result of the development of structures and organs necessary for survival. Samples were collected in the Baía River, basin Paraná River, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, between February 1999 and April 2000. After identification, the specimens were separated according to notochord development, and the morphometric and meristic characters were measured and counted. Forty-seven larvae and one juvenile with standard length ranging from 6.10 to 23.10 mm were analyzed. Larvae exhibit a cylindrical and highly pigmented body, small eyes, short intestine, terminal mouth, one pair of maxillary barbels and two pairs of mentonian barbels (relatively short). The juveniles presented a body shape similar to their adults. The total number of myomeres (33-35, 12 to 14 pre-anal and 20 to 23 postanal). Number of fin rays: dorsal I+4, anal I+9; pectoral I+5 and ventral six. During ontogeny, morphological changes observed in T. neivai have important ecological consequences, especially between flexion and postflexion stages (metamorphosis) when the larvae develop all necessary structures for its survival, such as locomotion and feeding.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Animais , Brasil , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Larva , Rios
13.
PLoS One ; 12(1): e0169813, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28122040

RESUMO

Cannibalism has been commonly observed in fish from northern and alpine regions and less frequently reported for subtropical and tropical fish in more diverse communities. Assuming all else being equal, cannibalism should be more common in communities with lower species richness because the probability of encountering conspecific versus heterospecific prey would be higher. A global dataset was compiled to determine if cannibalism occurrence is associated with species richness and latitude. Cannibalism occurrence, local species richness and latitude were recorded for 4,100 populations of 2,314 teleost fish species. Relationships between cannibalism, species richness and latitude were evaluated using generalized linear mixed models. Species richness was an important predictor of cannibalism, with occurrences more frequently reported for assemblages containing fewer species. Cannibalism was positively related with latitude for both marine and freshwater ecosystems in the Northern Hemisphere, but not in the Southern Hemisphere. The regression slope for the relationship was steeper for freshwater than marine fishes. In general, cannibalism is more frequent in communities with lower species richness, and the relationship between cannibalism and latitude is stronger in the Northern Hemisphere. In the Southern Hemisphere, weaker latitudinal gradients of fish species richness may account for the weak relationship between cannibalism and latitude. Cannibalism may be more common in freshwater than marine systems because freshwater habitats tend to be smaller and more closed to dispersal. Cannibalism should have greatest potential to influence fish population dynamics in freshwater systems at high northern latitudes.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Canibalismo , Ecossistema , Peixes , Modelos Biológicos , Animais , Dinâmica Populacional
14.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 14(1)2016. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-794402

RESUMO

The increase in abundance of small-sized fishes is common after a reservoir is formed. There is an increase in the consumption of fish, from typically piscivorous fish to opportunistic species that take advantage of abundant resources. This study aims to evaluate the effects of diet changes induced by damming on the feeding activity and condition factor of typically piscivorous (Hoplias aff. malabaricus and Oligosarcus longirostris ) and opportunistic (Astyanax lacustris (ex Astyanax altiparanae ) and Pimelodus britskii ). Sampling was conducted before and after the impoundment in the Iguaçu River in the region of Salto Caxias, Paraná State, Brazil. Stomach contents were analysed by the volumetric method. Feeding activity and body condition were inferred by the mean stomach repletion index and the mean condition factor. Typically piscivorous species presented a general tendency of decreased feeding activity and increased condition factor, while opportunistic species, presented a decrease in condition and feeding activity in the most affected sites. The increase in the condition factor of piscivorous fish suggests that these species benefit by the increased abundance of small size prey fish. Some opportunist species that do not have adjustments for the piscivorous diet, regardless of the intensity of consumption and resource availability, can suffer negative reflex when adopting a piscivorous diet.


O aumento na abundância de peixes de pequeno porte é comum logo após a formação de um reservatório, levando a um aumento no consumo de peixes, tanto por peixes piscívoros como oportunistas que se aproveitam do recurso abundante. Esse estudo visa avaliar os efeitos da mudança de dieta induzida pelo represamento na atividade alimentar e condição nutricional, tanto de espécies piscívoras (Hoplias aff. malabaricus e Oligosarcus longirostris ) quanto de espécies oportunistas (Astyanax lacustris (ex Astyanax altiparanae ) e Pimelodus britskii ). Para tanto, foram realizadas amostragens nas fases pré e pós-represamento no rio Iguaçu na região de Salto Caxias, Paraná, Brasil. Os conteúdos estomacais foram avaliados pelo método volumétrico. A atividade alimentar foi determinada pelo índice de repleção estomacal e a condição nutricional através do fator de condição relativo. As espécies tipicamente piscívoras apresentaram, em geral, incremento no fator de condição e queda na atividade alimentar e a espécie mais oportunista apresentou queda no fator de condição e índice de repleção nas regiões mais afetadas pelo represamento. O aumento no fator de condição de espécies piscívoras sugere que estas se beneficiam pelo aumento de abundância das espécies de pequeno porte. Enquanto espécies que não possuem adaptações para uma dieta piscívora, independente da intensidade de consumo e disponibilidade desse recurso, podem sofrer reflexos negativos em sua condição nutricional, em detrimento da ausência de pré-adaptações à piscivoria.


Assuntos
Animais , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Peixes/metabolismo , Barragens/análise , Barragens/efeitos adversos , Composição Corporal , Ração Animal/análise
16.
Rev. biol. trop ; 63(1): 139-153, Jan.-Mar. 2015. ilus, graf, mapas, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-753781

RESUMO

The Neotropical region exhibits the largest diversity of fish worldwide; however, little is known about the early development of fish species from this region. Therefore, to contribute to this knowledge, this study aimed to morphologically describe the early stages of development (eggs, larvae and juveniles) of S. pappaterra using morphometric and meristic traits, and to assess changes in growth rates throughout larval and juvenile development by analyzing the relationships between various morphometric traits using analytical regression models. Both juvenile and adult individuals with mouth-brooded offspring were collected along the basins of the Cuiabá and Manso Rivers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil between March 2000 and March 2004. After the adults were identified, the offspring were classified according to its stage (embryonic, larval or juvenile period), and various morphometric and meristic variables were individually measured (when possible). The eggs of this species are yellow in color, oval shaped, show dendritic pigmentation within their yolk, have small to moderately sized perivitelline spaces and lack a mucous membrane and oil droplets. The horizontal and vertical diameters of the sample yolks ranged from 1.43mm to 2.70mm and 1.05mm to 1.68mm, respectively. The standard length of the larval period varied from 4.30mm to 7.16mm, and the standard length of the juvenile period varied from 10.29mm to 24.57mm. Larvae exhibit yolk sacs with internal dendritic pigmentation and dark punctate pigmentation in the dorsal and ventral body regions, whereas irregular transverse spots along the flanks are observed during the juvenile period. Adhesive organs are only present during the yolk-sac stage and at the beginning of the flexion stage. The mouth is terminal during all stages of development. The myomere number varied from 22 to 29 (9 to 16 pre-anal and 10 to 16 post-anal), and the maximal numbers of fin rays and spines were as follows: dorsal, XVI+10; anal, IV+8; pectoral, 16; and pelvic, I+8. Growth analyses identified periods of important change in larval morphology (i.e., metamorphosis), particularly during the flexion and post-flexion stages and in juveniles. Therefore, the morphological development of S. pappaterra is consistent with the ecological requirements of this species, which primarily occurs in structured lentic environments with aquatic macrophytes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 63 (1): 139-153. Epub 2015 March 01.


La región Neotropical exhibe la mayor diversidad de peces en todo el mundo. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre el desarrollo temprano de las especies de peces de esta región. Para contribuir a este conocimiento, este estudio tuvo como objetivo describir morfológicamente las primeras etapas de desarrollo (huevos, larvas y juveniles) de S. pappaterra usando rasgos morfométricos y merísticos. Además de evaluar los cambios en las tasas de crecimiento en el desarrollo larval y juvenil, mediante el análisis de las relaciones entre los diferentes rasgos morfométricos utilizando modelos de regresión analíticos. Tanto los individuos juveniles y adultos con crías de incubación bucal se recogieron a lo largo de las cuencas de los ríos Cuiabá y Manso en el estado de Mato Grosso, Brasil, entre marzo 2000 y marzo 2004. Después de identificar los adultos, las crías se clasificaron de acuerdo a su etapa (embrionaria, período larval o juvenil), y diversas variables morfométricas y merísticas se midieron de forma individual (cuando fue posible). Los huevos de esta especie son de color amarillo, ovalados, muestran pigmentación dendrítica dentro de su yema, tienen espacios perivitelinos de tamaño pequeño a moderado y carecen de una membrana mucosa y gotas de aceite. Los diámetros horizontales y verticales de las yemas oscilaron entre 1.43-2.70mm y 1.05-1.68mm, respectivamente. La longitud estándar del período larval varió de 4.30-7.16mm, y la longitud estándar del período juvenil varió entre 10.29-24.57mm. Las larvas exhibieron sacos vitelinos con pigmentación dendrítica interna y pigmentación puntiforme oscura en las regiones dorsal y ventral del cuerpo, mientras que se observaron manchas transversales irregulares a lo largo de los flancos durante el periodo juvenil. Órganos adhesivos solo estan presentes durante la etapa de saco vitelino y al comienzo de la etapa de flexión. La boca es terminal durante todas las etapas de desarrollo. El número de miomeros varió entre 22 y 29 (9 a 16 pre-anal y 10 a 16 post-anal), y los números máximos de radios de las aletas y espinas fueron los siguientes: dorsal, XVI+10; anal, IV+8; pectoral, 16; y pélvica, I+8. El análisis del crecimiento identificó periodos de cambios importantes en la morfología larval (es decir, la metamorfosis), especialmente durante las etapas de flexión y post-flexión y en los juveniles. Por lo tanto, el desarrollo morfológico de S. pappaterra es consistente con las exigencias ecológicas de esta especie, que se encuentran principalmente en ambientes de estructura léntica con macrófitos acuáticos.


Assuntos
Animais , Ciclídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ciclídeos/classificação , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Pigmentação
17.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 11(2): 413-424, jun. 2013. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-679352

RESUMO

The effects of the duration of the floods on abiotic variables and attributes of species tolerant and intolerant to hypoxia (STH and SIH respectively) were evaluated in rivers and lakes of the upper Paraná River. Fish were sampled once a year, in six sampling stations, during the high water period from 2000 to 2003. There were overall reductions in dissolved oxygen levels and increases in transparency of water in lakes in years of moderate floods. The duration of floods influenced species differentially based on their tolerance to hypoxia: in moderate floods, richness of STH increased and numerical abundance and biomass of SIH reduced significantly. Opposite relationships were detected between dissolved oxygen and the attributes of STH and SIH. Dissolved oxygen was the best predictor of variability of STH and SIH in years of moderate floods, whereas water transparency predicted significant amounts of STH in years of short floods. Being positively affected by dissolved oxygen reductions, STH seem to take advantages in persisting in seasonally harsh lentic habitats. The incorporation of abiotic data as well the differential tolerance of species to hypoxia would improve further investigations of the effects of interannual variations in the flood pulse on tropical fish assemblages.


Os efeitos da duração da cheia sobre algumas variáveis abióticas e atributos das assembleias de peixes (espécies tolerantes e intolerantes à hipóxia, STH e SIH, respectivamente) foram avaliados em rios e lagoas do alto rio Paraná. Os peixes foram amostrados uma vez ao ano, em seis localidades, durante o período de águas altas entre 2000 e 2003. Houve reduções generalizadas nos níveis de oxigênio dissolvido e aumentos na transparência da água em lagos em anos de cheias moderadas. A duração das cheias influenciou as espécies diferencialmente em função de sua tolerância à hipóxia: em anos de cheias moderadas, a riqueza das STH aumentou e a abundância numérica e de biomassa das SIH reduziram significativamente. Relações opostas foram detectadas entre o oxigênio dissolvido e os atributos das STH e SIH. O oxigênio dissolvido foi o melhor preditor da variabilidade de STH e SIH em anos de cheias moderadas, enquanto a transparência da água explicou uma significativa proporção das STH em anos de cheias curtas. Por serem positivamente afetadas pelas reduções no oxigênio dissolvido, as STH parecem ter vantagens em persistir em ambientes lênticos sazonalmente inóspitos. A incorporação de dados abióticos bem como da tolerância diferencial das espécies à hipóxia deve aprimorar as investigações dos efeitos das variações interanuais no pulso de inundação nas assembleias de peixes tropicais.


Assuntos
Animais , Inundações , Características da Água/análise , Oxigênio Dissolvido/análise , Peixes/fisiologia , Água Doce/análise
18.
Neotrop. ichthyol ; 10(4): 687-696, Oct. 2012. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-654927

RESUMO

Fish ladders are a strategy for conserving biodiversity, as they can provide connectivity between fragmented habitats and reduce predation on shoals that accumulate immediately below dams. Although the impact of predation downstream of reservoirs has been investigated, especially in juvenile salmonids during their downstream movements, nothing is known about predation on Neotropical fish in the attraction and containment areas commonly found in translocation facilities. This study analysed predation in a fish passage system at the Lajeado Dam on the Tocantins River in Brazil. The abundance, distribution, and the permanence (time spent) of large predatory fish along the ladder, the injuries imposed by piranhas during passage and the presence of other vertebrate predators were investigated. From December 2002 to October 2003, sampling was conducted in four regions (downstream, along the ladder, in the forebay, and upstream of the reservoir) using gillnets, cast nets and counts or visual observations. The captured fish were tagged with thread and beads, and any mutilations were registered. Fish, birds and dolphins were the main predator groups observed, with a predominance of the first two groups. The entrance to the ladder, in the downstream region, was the area with the highest number of large predators and was the only region with relevant non-fish vertebrates. The main predatory fish species were Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hydrolycus armatus, and Serrasalmus rhombeus. Tagged individuals were detected predating along the ladder for up to 90 days. Mutilations caused by Serrasalmus attacks were noted in 36% of species and 4% of individuals at the top of the ladder. Our results suggested that the high density of fish in the restricted ladder environment, which is associated with injuries suffered along the ladder course and the presence of multiple predator groups with different predation strategies, transformed the fish corridor into a hotspot for predation.


Passagens para peixes têm sido consideradas como estratégias para conservação da biodiversidade, visando além de assegurar os deslocamentos entre habitats fragmentados, atenuar a mortalidade por predação dos estratos populacionais que se concentram nos trechos imediatamente abaixo de barragens. Embora a mortalidade por predação no trecho a jusante de reservatórios tenha sido bem investigada, especialmente sobre os juvenis de salmonídeos em movimentos descendentes, nada se sabe acerca da predação de peixes neotropicais em áreas de atração e confinamento de peixes, eventos comuns a essas facilidades de transposição. Nesse estudo são analisados aspectos da predação em um sistema de transposição de peixes (barragem de Lajeado, rio Tocantins, Brasil), buscando avaliar a abundância, a distribuição e o tempo de permanência de grandes peixes predadores na escada, as injúrias impostas por piranhas durante a passagem e a ocorrência de outros vertebrados predadores. Para isso foram realizadas amostragens a jusante, ao longo da escada, no trecho imediatamente acima da barragem e a montante do reservatório, utilizando redes de espera, tarrafas e contagens ou registros visuais durante o período de um ano (Novembro de 2002 a Outubro de 2003). Marcações com linha e missanga e registro de mutilações foram também realizados em concomitância. Peixes, aves, quelônios e cetáceos foram os principais grupos de predadores observados, com predomínio dos dois primeiros. A área nas imediações da entrada da escada, a jusante, foi a região com maior número de grandes predadores, sendo a única de relevância para vertebrados não peixes. Indivíduos marcados permaneceram na escada exercendo a piscivoria por até 90 dias. Rhaphiodon vulpinus, Hydrolycus armatus e Serrasalmus rhombeus foram os principais peixes predadores. Mutilações por ataques de Serrasalmus atingiram 36% das espécies e alcançaram 4% dos indivíduos no topo da escada. Os resultados sugerem que a alta densidade ...


Assuntos
Animais , Migração Animal , Aves , Caraciformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Golfinhos , Salmonidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Equilíbrio Ecológico , Cadeia Alimentar
19.
Rev. biol. trop ; 60(2): 699-708, June 2012. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-657812

RESUMO

New impoundments provide opportunities to check whether species that present enough feeding flexibility in natural conditions may take advantage of this situation and, without reproductive restriction, can occupy the most conspicuous habitat in a large reservoir (open areas) and present higher success in the colonization of the new environment. We examined variations in the abundance and feeding of A. osteomystax in two environments, one natural (Sinha Mariana floodplain lake) and one dammed (Manso Reservoir), during two periods: the first year after the filling phase and three years later. Our goal was to evaluate the occupation of the new hábitat (Manso Reservoir), by this species, as well as to test the hypothesis that in the reservoir, unlike the natural environment, there are remarkable changes in diet between the periods. Fish were sampled monthly in the floodplain lake and in the reservoir during two annual periods using gillnets. To evaluate the differences in abundance of A. osteomystax we employed the Kruskal -Wallis test, and the diet analysis was carried out using frequency of occurrence and volumetric methods. Temporal differences in the diet were tested by Kruskal-Wallis test using the scores from a detrended correspondence analysis. A. osteomystax was significantly more abundant in the floodplain lake, where the captures were higher than in the reservoir in almost all months analyzed, and significant variations in abundance between the two periods were not recorded in either the reservoir or the floodplain lake. The diet variation between the two periods, which had a time lag of three years between them, was much less pronounced in the natural environment, where the resource availability is essentially regulated by seasonality. Thus, our hypothesis was accepted; that is, the interannual variations in the diet of A. osteomystax are more relevant in an artificial environment than in a natural one. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2): 699-708. Epub 2012 June 01.


Los embalses nuevos ofrecen la oportunidad de comprobar si especies que presentan suficiente flexibilidad en la alimentación en condiciones naturales pueden aprovechar esta situación y, sin restricciones de reproducción, ocupar la mayor parte del hábitat visible en un gran embalse (espacios abiertos), además, presentar un alto éxito en la colonización del nuevo entorno. Asimismo, examinamos variaciones en la abundancia y alimentación de A. osteomystax, en dos ambientes, uno natural (Sinha Mariana floodplain lake) y otro alterado (Embalse Manso), durante dos periodos: el primer ano después de la fase de llenado y tres años más tarde. Nuestro objetivo fue evaluar la ocupación del nuevo hábitat (Embalse Manso) por esta especie, así como probar la hipótesis de que en el embalse, a diferencia del ambiente natural, se producen cambios notables en la dieta entre los periodos. Los peces fueron muestreados mensualmente en el lago de la planicie de inundación y en el embalse durante dos periodos anuales con redes de enmalle. Para evaluar las diferencias en la abundancia de A. osteomystax empleamos la prueba de Kruskal-Wallis, y el análisis de la dieta se llevo a cabo con el uso de la frecuencia de ocurrencia y métodos volumétricos. Las diferencias temporales en la dieta fueron probadas con Kruskal-Wallis, se usaron los resultados a partir de un análisis de correspondencia sin tendencia. A. osteomystax fue significativamente más abundante en el lago de la llanura de inundación, donde las capturas fueron más altas, que en el embalse en casi todos los meses analizados, y no se registraron variaciones significativas en la abundancia entre los dos periodos tanto en el embalse como en el lago de inundación. La variación en la dieta entre los dos periodos, en los cuales habia un desfase de tres anos entre ellos, fue mucho menos pronunciada en el entorno natural, donde la disponibilidad de recursos es esencialmente regulada por la estacionalidad. Por lo tanto, nuestra hipótesis fue aceptada, es decir, las variaciones interanuales en la dieta de A. osteomystax son más relevantes en un ambiente artificial que en uno natural.


Assuntos
Animais , Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Peixes-Gato/classificação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano
20.
Rev Biol Trop ; 60(2): 699-708, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23894939

RESUMO

New impoundments provide opportunities to check whether species that present enough feeding flexibility in natural conditions may take advantage of this situation and, without reproductive restriction, can occupy the most conspicuous habitat in a large reservoir (open areas) and present higher success in the colonization of the new environment. We examined variations in the abundance and feeding of A. osteomystax in two environments, one natural (Sinhá Mariana floodplain lake) and one dammed (Manso Reservoir), during two periods: the first year after the filling phase and three years later. Our goal was to evaluate the occupation of the new habitat (Manso Reservoir), by this species, as well as to test the hypothesis that in the reservoir, unlike the natural environment, there are remarkable changes in diet between the periods. Fish were sampled monthly in the floodplain lake and in the reservoir during two annual periods using gillnets. To evaluate the differences in abundance of A. osteomystax we employed the Kruskal -Wallis test, and the diet analysis was carried out using frequency of occurrence and volumetric methods. Temporal differences in the diet were tested by Kruskal-Wallis test using the scores from a detrended correspondence analysis. A. osteomystax was significantly more abundant in the floodplain lake, where the captures were higher than in the reservoir in almost all months analyzed, and significant variations in abundance between the two periods were not recorded in either the reservoir or the floodplain lake. The diet variation between the two periods, which had a time lag of three years between them, was much less pronounced in the natural environment, where the resource availability is essentially regulated by seasonality. Thus, our hypothesis was accepted; that is, the interannual variations in the diet ofA. osteomystax are more relevant in an artificial environment than in a natural one.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Animais , Peixes-Gato/classificação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Água Doce , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Densidade Demográfica , Dinâmica Populacional , Estações do Ano
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