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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5071, 2021 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417470

RESUMO

Identification of causal variants and genes underlying genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci is essential to understand the biology of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and drinks per week (DPW). Multi-omics integration approaches have shown potential for fine mapping complex loci to obtain biological insights to disease mechanisms. In this study, we use multi-omics approaches, to fine-map AUD and DPW associations at single SNP resolution to demonstrate that rs56030824 on chromosome 11 significantly reduces SPI1 mRNA expression in myeloid cells and lowers risk for AUD and DPW. Our analysis also identifies MAPT as a candidate causal gene specifically associated with DPW. Genes prioritized in this study show overlap with causal genes associated with neurodegenerative disorders. Multi-omics integration analyses highlight, genetic similarities and differences between alcohol intake and disordered drinking, suggesting molecular heterogeneity that might inform future targeted functional and cross-species studies.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feto/metabolismo , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Loci Gênicos , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34235496

RESUMO

Background: Vulnerability to COVID-19 hospitalization has been linked to behavioral risk factors, including combustible psychoactive substance use (e.g., tobacco smoking). Paralleling the COVID-19 crisis have been increasingly permissive laws for recreational cannabis use. Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD) is a psychiatric disorder that is heritable and genetically correlated with respiratory disease, independent of tobacco smoking. We examined the genetic relationship between CUD and COVID-19 hospitalization. Methods: We estimated the genetic correlation between CUD (n case=14,080, n control=343,726) and COVID-19 hospitalization (n case=9,373, n control=1,197,256) using summary statistics from genome-wide association studies (GWASs). Using independent GWASs conducted prior to the pandemic, we controlled for several covariates (i.e., tobacco use phenotypes, problematic alcohol use, BMI, fasting glucose, forced expiration volume, education attainment, risk-taking, ADHD, and Townsend Deprivation Index; as well as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes) using genomic structural equation modeling. Genetic causality between CUD and COVID-19 hospitalization was estimated using latent causal variable models. Results: Genetic vulnerability to COVID-19 was correlated with genetic liability to CUD (rG=0.423(.0965), p=1.33e-6); this association remained when accounting for genetic liability to related risk factors and covariates (b = 0.381 - 0.539, p=0.012 - 0.049). Latent causal variable analysis revealed causal effect estimates that were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Problematic cannabis use and vulnerability to serious COVID-19 complications share genetic underpinnings that are unique from common correlates. While CUD may plausibly contribute to severe COVID-19 presentations, causal inference models yielded no evidence of putative causation. Curbing excessive cannabis use may mitigate COVID-19's impact.

3.
Psychol Med ; : 1-9, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34231451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorder (AUD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) frequently co-occur, and large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified significant genetic correlations between these disorders. METHODS: We used the largest published GWAS for AUD (total cases = 77 822) and SCZ (total cases = 46 827) to identify genetic variants that influence both disorders (with either the same or opposite direction of effect) and those that are disorder specific. RESULTS: We identified 55 independent genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms with the same direction of effect on AUD and SCZ, 8 with robust effects in opposite directions, and 98 with disorder-specific effects. We also found evidence for 12 genes whose pleiotropic associations with AUD and SCZ are consistent with mediation via gene expression in the prefrontal cortex. The genetic covariance between AUD and SCZ was concentrated in genomic regions functional in brain tissues (p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings provide further evidence that SCZ shares meaningful genetic overlap with AUD.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271214

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) often precede the development of later severe psychopathology. This study examined whether childhood PLEs are associated with several psychopathology-related polygenic scores (PGSs) and additionally examined possible neural and behavioral mechanisms. METHODS: Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study baseline data from children with European ancestry (n = 4650, ages 9-10 years, 46.8% female) were used to estimate associations between PLEs (i.e., both total and presence of significantly distressing) and PGSs for psychopathology (i.e., schizophrenia, psychiatric cross-disorder risk, PLEs) and related phenotypes (i.e., educational attainment [EDU], birth weight, inflammation). We also assessed whether variability in brain structure indices (i.e., volume, cortical thickness, surface area) and behaviors proximal to PGSs (e.g., cognition for EDU) indirectly linked PGSs to PLEs using mediational models. RESULTS: Total and significantly distressing PLEs were associated with EDU and cross-disorder PGSs (all %ΔR2s = 0.202%-0.660%; false discovery rate-corrected ps < .006). Significantly distressing PLEs were also associated with higher schizophrenia and PLE PGSs (both %ΔR2 = 0.120%-0.216%; false discovery rate-corrected ps < .03). There was evidence that global brain volume metrics and cognitive performance indirectly linked EDU PGS to PLEs (estimated proportion mediated = 3.33%-32.22%). CONCLUSIONS: Total and significantly distressing PLEs were associated with genomic risk indices of broad-spectrum psychopathology risk (i.e., EDU and cross-disorder PGSs). Significantly distressing PLEs were also associated with genomic risk for psychosis (i.e., schizophrenia, PLEs). Global brain volume metrics and PGS-proximal behaviors represent promising putative intermediary phenotypes that may indirectly link genomic risk to psychopathology. Broadly, polygenic scores derived from genome-wide association studies of adult samples generalize to indices of psychopathology risk among children.

5.
Brain Imaging Behav ; 2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34287779

RESUMO

Associations between brain structure and problematic alcohol use may reflect alcohol-induced toxicity and/or preexisting risk. Here, we applied a latent causal variable approach to genome-wide association study summary statistics of problematic alcohol use (n = 435,563) and magnetic resonance imaging-derived brain structure phenotypes (e.g., cortical volume, cortical thickness, white matter volume; ns ranging from 17,706 to 51,665) to test whether variability in brain structure may plausibly contribute to problematic alcohol use and/or whether problematic alcohol use influences brain structure. After correction for multiple testing within each modality, we find evidence that greater volume of the pars opercularis, greater thickness of the cuneus, and lower volume of the basal forebrain may plausibly contribute to problematic alcohol use. All other nominally-significant associations identify brain structure as a potential causal contributor to problematic alcohol use; there was no evidence suggesting that problematic alcohol use may cause differences in brain structure. Collectively, these results challenge common interpretations that associations between alcohol use and brain structure reflect consequences of alcohol, instead supporting emerging work suggesting that brain structure may reflect a predispositional risk factor for alcohol involvement.

6.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 45(8): 1616-1623, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120358

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) often co-occurs with alcohol consumption (AC) and alcohol use disorder (AUD). However, it is unknown whether the same etiologic influences that underlie PTSD co-occurring with AUD are those that underlie PTSD and AC individually. METHODS: This study used large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) data to test whether PTSD and drinks per week [DPW]/AUD are causally related to one another, and, if so, whether PTSD precedes DPW/AUD and/or vice versa. We used Mendelian Randomization methods to analyze European ancestry GWAS summary statistics from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC; PTSD), GWAS & Sequencing Consortium of Alcohol and Nicotine Use (GSCAN; DPW), and the Million Veteran Program (MVP; AUD). RESULTS: PTSD exerted a potentially causal effect on AUD (ß = 0.039, SE = 0.014, p = 0.005), but not on DPW (ß = 0.002, SE = 0.003, p = 0.414). Additionally, neither DPW (ß = 0.019, SE = 0.041, p = 0.637) nor AUD (ß = 8.87 × 10-4 , SE = 0.001, p = 0.441) exerted a causal effect on PTSD. CONCLUSIONS: These findings are consistent with the self-medication model, in which individuals misuse alcohol to cope with aversive trauma-related symptoms. These findings extend latent analysis and molecular findings of shared and correlated risk between PTSD and alcohol phenotypes. Given the health behaviors associated with these phenotypes, these findings are important in that they suggest groups to prioritize for prevention efforts. Further, they provide a rationale for future preclinical and clinical studies examining the biological mechanisms by which PTSD may impact AUD.

7.
Genes Brain Behav ; : e12756, 2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092032

RESUMO

Brain imaging-derived structural correlates of alcohol involvement have largely been speculated to arise as a consequence of alcohol exposure. However, they may also reflect predispositional risk. In substance naïve children of European ancestry who completed the baseline session of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study (n = 3013), mixed-effects models estimated whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for problematic alcohol use (PAU-PRS) and drinks per week (DPW-PRS) are associated with magnetic resonance imaging-derived brain structure phenotypes (i.e., total and regional: cortical thickness, surface area and volume; subcortical volume; white matter volume, fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity). Follow-up analyses evaluated whether any identified regions were also associated with polygenic risk among substance naïve children of African ancestry (n = 898). After adjustment for multiple testing correction, polygenic risk for PAU was associated with lower volume of the left frontal pole and greater cortical thickness of the right supramarginal gyrus (|ßs| > 0.009; ps < 0.001; psfdr < 0.046; r2 s < 0.004). PAU PRS and DPW PRS showed nominally significant associations with a host of other regional brain structure phenotypes (e.g., insula surface area and volume). None of these regions showed any, even nominal association among children of African ancestry. Genomic liability to alcohol involvement may manifest as variability in brain structure during middle childhood prior to alcohol use initiation. Broadly, alcohol-related variability in brain morphometry may partially reflect predisposing genomic influence. Larger discovery genome-wide association studies and target samples of diverse ancestries are needed to determine whether observed associations may generalize across ancestral origins.

8.
Addiction ; 116(11): 3227-3234, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: While epidemiological studies support a role for heavy, high-potency cannabis use on first-episode psychosis, genetic models of causation suggest reverse causal effects of schizophrenia on cannabis use liability. We estimated the genetic relationship between cannabis use disorder (CUD) and schizophrenia (SCZ) and tested whether liability for CUD is causally associated with increased liability to SCZ while adjusting for tobacco smoking. DESIGN: This study used summary statistics from published genome-wide association studies (GWAS). We used genomic structural equation modeling, latent causal variable analysis, and multivariable Mendelian randomization to examine genetic relationships between CUD, cannabis ever-use, ever-smoked tobacco regularly, nicotine dependence and SCZ, and to test for a causal relationship between liability to CUD and liability to SCZ. SETTING: Genome-wide association studies were published previously as part of international consortia. PARTICIPANTS: Sample sizes of the GWAS summary statistics used in this study ranged from 161 405 to 357 806 individuals of European ancestry. MEASUREMENTS: Genome-wide summary statistics for CUD and SCZ were the primary measurements, while summary statistics for cannabis ever-use, ever-smoked tobacco regularly and nicotine dependence were included as additional variables in the genomic structural equation models and the multivariable Mendelian randomization analyses. FINDINGS: Genetic liability to CUD was significantly associated with SCZ [ß = 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.11, 0.46, P = 0.001], even when accounting for cannabis ever-use, ever-smoked tobacco regularly and nicotine dependence as simultaneous predictors. We found mixed evidence of a causal relationship, with the latent causal variable analysis finding no evidence of causality (genetic causality proportion = -0.08, 95% CI = -0.40, 0.23, P = 0.87) but the multivariable Mendelian randomization analyses suggesting a significant, risk-increasing effect of CUD on liability to SCZ (ß = 0.10, 95% CI = 0.02, 0.18, P = 0.02), accounting for the additional risk factors (cannabis ever-use, ever-smoked tobacco regularly and nicotine dependence). CONCLUSIONS: Genetic liability for cannabis use disorder appears to be robustly associated with schizophrenia, above and beyond tobacco smoking and cannabis ever-use, with mixed evidence to support a causal relationship between cannabis use disorder and schizophrenia.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Esquizofrenia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/genética
9.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp202020091390, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), a 10-item screen for alcohol use disorder (AUD), have elucidated novel loci for alcohol consumption and misuse. However, these studies also revealed that GWASs can be influenced by numerous biases (e.g., measurement error, selection bias), which may have led to inconsistent genetic correlations between alcohol involvement and AUD, as well as paradoxically negative genetic correlations between alcohol involvement and psychiatric disorders and/or medical conditions. The authors used genomic structural equation modeling to elucidate the genetics of alcohol consumption and problematic consequences of alcohol use as measured by AUDIT. METHODS: To explore these unexpected differences in genetic correlations, the authors conducted the first item-level and the largest GWAS of AUDIT items (N=160,824) and applied a multivariate framework to mitigate previous biases. RESULTS: The authors identified novel patterns of similarity (and dissimilarity) among the AUDIT items and found evidence of a correlated two-factor structure at the genetic level ("consumption" and "problems," rg=0.80). Moreover, by applying empirically derived weights to each of the AUDIT items, the authors constructed an aggregate measure of alcohol consumption that was strongly associated with alcohol dependence (rg=0.67), moderately associated with several other psychiatric disorders, and no longer positively associated with health and positive socioeconomic outcomes. Lastly, by conducting polygenic analyses in three independent cohorts that differed in their ascertainment and prevalence of AUD, the authors identified novel genetic associations between alcohol consumption, alcohol misuse, and health. CONCLUSIONS: This work further emphasizes the value of AUDIT for both clinical and genetic studies of AUD and the importance of using multivariate methods to study genetic associations that are more closely related to AUD.

10.
J Adolesc Health ; 69(3): 432-439, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814281

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study examined whether national trends in unstructured in-person socializing with peers (i.e., socializing without goals or supervision) among adolescents could help explain recent declines in adolescent risk behaviors (e.g., substance use, fighting, theft). METHODS: The sample contained of 44,842 U.S. 12th-grade students (aged 17-18 years) from the Monitoring the Future survey (years 1999-2017). Analyses examined (1) prevalence trends, (2) latent factor structure of risk behaviors and unstructured in-person socializing, and (3) whether trends in the unstructured in-person socializing factor accounted for the relationship between time (i.e., survey year) and the risk behavior factor. RESULTS: Adolescent risk behaviors and unstructured in-person socializing declined by approximately 30% in the U.S., and both formed coherent latent factors. After adjusting for sociodemographics, declines in unstructured in-person socializing accounted for approximately 86% of declines in risk behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of risk behaviors and unstructured in-person socializing behaviors declined among U.S. 12th graders from 1999 to 2017. It is unknown whether such effects are directly causal and/or influenced by unmeasured variables. However, the results provide evidence that national declines in unstructured in-person socializing are a likely component of the explanation for national declines in adolescent risk behaviors.

11.
Genes Brain Behav ; : e12738, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33893716

RESUMO

The National Institute on Drug Abuse and Joint Institute for Biological Sciences at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory hosted a meeting attended by a diverse group of scientists with expertise in substance use disorders (SUDs), computational biology, and FAIR (Findability, Accessibility, Interoperability, and Reusability) data sharing. The meeting's objective was to discuss and evaluate better strategies to integrate genetic, epigenetic, and 'omics data across human and model organisms to achieve deeper mechanistic insight into SUDs. Specific topics were to (a) evaluate the current state of substance use genetics and genomics research and fundamental gaps, (b) identify opportunities and challenges of integration and sharing across species and data types, (c) identify current tools and resources for integration of genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic data, (d) discuss steps and impediment related to data integration, and (e) outline future steps to support more effective collaboration-particularly between animal model research communities and human genetics and clinical research teams. This review summarizes key facets of this catalytic discussion with a focus on new opportunities and gaps in resources and knowledge on SUDs.

12.
Psychol Med ; : 1-8, 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33455586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drug classes are grouped based on their chemical and pharmacological properties, but prescription and illicit drugs differ in other important ways. Potential differences in genetic and environmental influences on the (mis)use of prescription and illicit drugs that are subsumed under the same class should be examined. Opioid and stimulant classes contain prescription and illicit forms differentially associated with salient risk factors (common route of administration, legality), making them useful comparators for addressing this etiological issue. METHODS: A total of 2410 individual Australian twins [Mage = 31.77 (s.d. = 2.48); 67% women] were interviewed about prescription misuse and illicit use of opioids and stimulants. Univariate and bivariate biometric models partitioned variances and covariances into additive genetic, shared environmental, and unique environmental influences across drug types. RESULTS: Variation in the propensity to misuse prescription opioids was attributable to genes (41%) and unique environment (59%). Illicit opioid use was attributable to shared (71%) and unique (29%) environment. Prescription stimulant misuse was attributable to genes (79%) and unique environment (21%). Illicit stimulant use was attributable to genes (48%), shared environment (29%), and unique environment (23%). There was evidence for genetic influence common to both stimulant types, but limited evidence for genetic influence common to both opioid types. Bivariate correlations suggested that prescription opioid use may be more genetically similar to prescription stimulant use than to illicit opioid use. CONCLUSIONS: Prescription opioid misuse may share little genetic influence with illicit opioid use. Future research may consider avoiding unitary drug classifications, particularly when examining genetic influences.

13.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 186(3): 183-192, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33491855

RESUMO

Treatment strategies for alcohol use disorder (AUD) aim for abstinence or harm reduction. While deranged biochemical parameters reverse with alcohol abstinence, whether molecular changes at the epigenetic level reverse is not clearly understood. We investigated whether the reduction from high alcohol use reflects DNA methylation at the gene-specific and global level. In subjects seeking treatment for severe AUD, we assessed gene-specific (aldehyde dehydrogenase [ALDH2]/methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase [MTHFR]) and global (long interspersed elements [LINE-1]) methylation across three-time points (baseline, after detoxification and at an early remission period of 3 months), in peripheral blood leukocytes. We observed that both gene-specific and global DNA methylation did not change over time, irrespective of the drinking status at 3 months (52% abstained from alcohol). Further, we also compared DNA methylation in AUD subjects with healthy controls. At baseline, there was a significantly higher gene-specific DNA methylation (ALDH2: p < .001 and MTHFR: p = .001) and a significant lower global methylation (LINE-1: p = .014) in AUD as compared to controls. Our results suggest that epigenetic changes at the DNA methylation level associated with severe AUD persist for at least 3 months of treatment.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/genética , Alcoolismo/patologia , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Adulto , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
Addiction ; 116(5): 1101-1112, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33463859

RESUMO

AIMS: To identify drug use typologies based on substances used and persistence of use over two time points, use a genetically informed design to explore twin concordance of and genetic influence on the use typologies and compare patterns of declined/discontinued ("desistant") and persistent drug use on drug use correlates. DESIGN: Latent class analysis was applied to data from a cross-sectional self-report survey on current and past drug use. Use characteristics, use disorder, and psychiatric problems were compared across classes. SETTING: Computer-assisted telephone interview in respondents' homes. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3785 individual twins and siblings (1365 men, 2420 women; Mage  = 32) from the Australian Twin Registry Cohort III. MEASUREMENTS: A comprehensive interview assessed prior to past year and past year use of cannabis, stimulants, cocaine/crack, hallucinogens, opioids, sedatives, inhalants, dissociatives, and solvents; age of first use; opportunity to use; peer drug use; attention deficit/hyperactivity, conduct, antisocial personality, depressive, and substance use disorders; and suicidality. FINDINGS: A five-class solution emerged: no/low use (50%), desistant cannabis use (23%), desistant party drug use (18%), persistent prescription drug misuse (4%), and persistent polydrug use (5%). Twin concordances were higher among monozygotic (k = 0.30-0.35) than dizygotic pairs (same-sex k = 0.19-0.20; opposite sex k = 0.07), and biometric modeling suggested that the persistent polydrug use class, in particular, was highly heritable (a2  = 0.94). Conduct disorder (OR = 2.40), antisocial personality disorder (OR = 3.27), and suicidal ideation (OR = 1.98) increased persistent polydrug use risk; depression (OR = 2.38) and lifetime suicide attempt (OR = 2.31) increased persistent prescription misuse risk. Relative to persistent prescription drug misuse, persistent polydrug use was associated with higher rates of cannabis and stimulant use disorder (OR = 6.14-28.01), younger first substance use (OR = 0.82-0.83), more drug use opportunity (OR = 10.66-66.06), and more drug-using peers (OR = 4.66-9.20). CONCLUSIONS: Unique patterns of declined/discontinued ("desistant") and persistent drug use are differentially heritable and differentially associated with risk factors, psychiatric symptoms, and substance use disorder outcomes.


Assuntos
Drogas Ilícitas , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Gêmeos Monozigóticos
15.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 186(3): 151-161, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32652861

RESUMO

African Americans (AA) have lower prevalence of alcohol dependence and higher subjective response to alcohol than European Americans. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genes/variants associated with alcohol dependence specifically in AA; however, the sample sizes are still not large enough to detect variants with small effects. Admixture mapping is an alternative way to identify alcohol dependence genes/variants that may be unique to AA. In this study, we performed the first admixture mapping of DSM-IV alcohol dependence diagnosis, DSM-IV alcohol dependence criterion count, and two scores from the self-rating of effects of ethanol (SRE) as measures of response to alcohol: the first five times of using alcohol (SRE-5) and average of SRE across three times (SRE-T). Findings revealed a region on chromosome 4 that was genome-wide significant for SRE-5 (p value = 4.18E-05). Fine mapping did not identify a single causal variant to be associated with SRE-5; instead, conditional analysis concluded that multiple variants collectively explained the admixture mapping signal. PPARGC1A, a gene that has been linked to alcohol consumption in previous studies, is located in this region. Our finding suggests that admixture mapping is a useful tool to identify genes/variants that may have been missed by current GWAS approaches in admixed populations.

16.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 78(1): 64-76, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965490

RESUMO

Importance: In light of increasing cannabis use among pregnant women, the US Surgeon General recently issued an advisory against the use of marijuana during pregnancy. Objective: To evaluate whether cannabis use during pregnancy is associated with adverse outcomes among offspring. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study, data were obtained from the baseline session of the ongoing longitudinal Adolescent Brain and Cognitive Development Study, which recruited 11 875 children aged 9 to 11 years, as well as a parent or caregiver, from 22 sites across the United States between June 1, 2016, and October 15, 2018. Exposure: Prenatal cannabis exposure prior to and after maternal knowledge of pregnancy. Main Outcomes and Measures: Symptoms of psychopathology in children (ie, psychotic-like experiences [PLEs] and internalizing, externalizing, attention, thought, and social problems), cognition, sleep, birth weight, gestational age at birth, body mass index, and brain structure (ie, total intracranial volume, white matter volume, and gray matter volume). Covariates included familial (eg, income and familial psychopathology), pregnancy (eg, prenatal exposure to alcohol and tobacco), and child (eg, substance use) variables. Results: Among 11 489 children (5997 boys [52.2%]; mean [SD] age, 9.9 [0.6] years) with nonmissing prenatal cannabis exposure data, 655 (5.7%) were exposed to cannabis prenatally. Relative to no exposure, cannabis exposure only before (413 [3.6%]) and after (242 [2.1%]) maternal knowledge of pregnancy were associated with greater offspring psychopathology characteristics (ie, PLEs and internalizing, externalizing, attention, thought and, social problems), sleep problems, and body mass index, as well as lower cognition and gray matter volume (all |ß| > 0.02; all false discovery rate [FDR]-corrected P < .03). Only exposure after knowledge of pregnancy was associated with lower birth weight as well as total intracranial volume and white matter volumes relative to no exposure and exposure only before knowledge (all |ß| > 0.02; all FDR-corrected P < .04). When including potentially confounding covariates, exposure after maternal knowledge of pregnancy remained associated with greater PLEs and externalizing, attention, thought, and social problems (all ß > 0.02; FDR-corrected P < .02). Exposure only prior to maternal knowledge of pregnancy did not differ from no exposure on any outcomes when considering potentially confounding variables (all |ß| < 0.02; FDR-corrected P > .70). Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that prenatal cannabis exposure and its correlated factors are associated with greater risk for psychopathology during middle childhood. Cannabis use during pregnancy should be discouraged.

17.
Psychol Med ; 51(7): 1147-1156, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31955720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that alcohol consumption and alcohol use disorders have distinct genetic backgrounds. METHODS: We examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for consumption and problem subscales of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT-C, AUDIT-P) in the UK Biobank (UKB; N = 121 630) correlate with alcohol outcomes in four independent samples: an ascertained cohort, the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA; N = 6850), and population-based cohorts: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; N = 5911), Generation Scotland (GS; N = 17 461), and an independent subset of UKB (N = 245 947). Regression models and survival analyses tested whether the PRS were associated with the alcohol-related outcomes. RESULTS: In COGA, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with alcohol dependence, AUD symptom count, maximum drinks (R2 = 0.47-0.68%, p = 2.0 × 10-8-1.0 × 10-10), and increased likelihood of onset of alcohol dependence (hazard ratio = 1.15, p = 4.7 × 10-8); AUDIT-C PRS was not an independent predictor of any phenotype. In ALSPAC, the AUDIT-C PRS was associated with alcohol dependence (R2 = 0.96%, p = 4.8 × 10-6). In GS, AUDIT-C PRS was a better predictor of weekly alcohol use (R2 = 0.27%, p = 5.5 × 10-11), while AUDIT-P PRS was more associated with problem drinking (R2 = 0.40%, p = 9.0 × 10-7). Lastly, AUDIT-P PRS was associated with ICD-based alcohol-related disorders in the UKB subset (R2 = 0.18%, p < 2.0 × 10-16). CONCLUSIONS: AUDIT-P PRS was associated with a range of alcohol-related phenotypes across population-based and ascertained cohorts, while AUDIT-C PRS showed less utility in the ascertained cohort. We show that AUDIT-P is genetically correlated with both use and misuse and demonstrate the influence of ascertainment schemes on PRS analyses.

18.
Neuropsychopharmacology ; 46(1): 86-97, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791514

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies and other discovery genetics methods provide a means to identify previously unknown biological mechanisms underlying behavioral disorders that may point to new therapeutic avenues, augment diagnostic tools, and yield a deeper understanding of the biology of psychiatric conditions. Recent advances in psychiatric genetics have been made possible through large-scale collaborative efforts. These studies have begun to unearth many novel genetic variants associated with psychiatric disorders and behavioral traits in human populations. Significant challenges remain in characterizing the resulting disease-associated genetic variants and prioritizing functional follow-up to make them useful for mechanistic understanding and development of therapeutics. Model organism research has generated extensive genomic data that can provide insight into the neurobiological mechanisms of variant action, but a cohesive effort must be made to establish which aspects of the biological modulation of behavioral traits are evolutionarily conserved across species. Scalable computing, new data integration strategies, and advanced analysis methods outlined in this review provide a framework to efficiently harness model organism data in support of clinically relevant psychiatric phenotypes.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Transtornos Mentais , Técnicas Genéticas , Genômica , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Fenótipo
19.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236033

RESUMO

Behavioral and life style factors plausibly play a role in likelihood of being hospitalized for COVID-19. Genetic vulnerability to hospitalization after SARS-CoV2 infection may partially relate to comorbid behavioral risk factors, especially the use of combustible psychoactive substances. Paralleling the COVID-19 crisis has been increasingly permissive laws for recreational cannabis use. Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD) is a psychiatric disorder that is heritable and genetically correlated with respiratory disease, independent of tobacco smoking. By leveraging genome-wide association summary statistics of CUD and COVID-19, we find that at least 1/3 rd of the genetic vulnerability to COVID-19 overlaps with genomic liability to CUD (rg=.34, p=0.0003). Genetic causality as a potential mechanism of risk could not be excluded. The association between CUD and COVID-19 remained when accounting for genetics of trying marijuana, tobacco smoking (ever smoking regularly, cigarettes per day, smoking cessation, age of smoking initiation), BMI, fasting glucose, forced expiration volume, education attainment, and Townsend deprivation index. Heavy problematic cannabis use may increase chances of hospitalization due to COVID-19 respiratory complications. Curbing excessive cannabis use may be an essential strategy in COVID-19 mitigation.

20.
Dev Psychopathol ; 32(4): 1190-1205, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161906

RESUMO

Impairment in reciprocal social behavior (RSB), an essential component of early social competence, clinically defines autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, the behavioral and genetic architecture of RSB in toddlerhood, when ASD first emerges, has not been fully characterized. We analyzed data from a quantitative video-referenced rating of RSB (vrRSB) in two toddler samples: a community-based volunteer research registry (n = 1,563) and an ethnically diverse, longitudinal twin sample ascertained from two state birth registries (n = 714). Variation in RSB was continuously distributed, temporally stable, significantly associated with ASD risk at age 18 months, and only modestly explained by sociodemographic and medical factors (r2 = 9.4%). Five latent RSB factors were identified and corresponded to aspects of social communication or restricted repetitive behaviors, the two core ASD symptom domains. Quantitative genetic analyses indicated substantial heritability for all factors at age 24 months (h2 ≥ .61). Genetic influences strongly overlapped across all factors, with a social motivation factor showing evidence of newly-emerging genetic influences between the ages of 18 and 24 months. RSB constitutes a heritable, trait-like competency whose factorial and genetic structure is generalized across diverse populations, demonstrating its role as an early, enduring dimension of inherited variation in human social behavior. Substantially overlapping RSB domains, measurable when core ASD features arise and consolidate, may serve as markers of specific pathways to autism and anchors to inform determinants of autism's heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista , Transtorno Autístico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/diagnóstico , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno Autístico/genética , Comportamento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Cognição , Humanos , Lactente , Comportamento Social , Gravação em Vídeo
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