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1.
N Engl J Med ; 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597037

RESUMO

Genome sequencing is often pivotal in the diagnosis of rare diseases, but many of these conditions lack specific treatments. We describe how molecular diagnosis of a rare, fatal neurodegenerative condition led to the rational design, testing, and manufacture of milasen, a splice-modulating antisense oligonucleotide drug tailored to a particular patient. Proof-of-concept experiments in cell lines from the patient served as the basis for launching an "N-of-1" study of milasen within 1 year after first contact with the patient. There were no serious adverse events, and treatment was associated with objective reduction in seizures (determined by electroencephalography and parental reporting). This study offers a possible template for the rapid development of patient-customized treatments. (Funded by Mila's Miracle Foundation and others.).

3.
J Perinatol ; 2019 Aug 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395954

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of infant deaths occurring in the setting of a confirmed genetic disorder. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of the electronic medical records of infants born from 1 January, 2011 to 1 June, 2017, who died prior to 1 year of age. RESULTS: Five hundred and seventy three deceased infants were identified. One hundred and seventeen were confirmed to have a molecular or cytogenetic diagnosis in a clinical diagnostic laboratory and an additional seven were diagnosed by research testing for a total of 124/573 (22%) diagnosed infants. A total of 67/124 (54%) had chromosomal disorders and 58/124 (47%) had single gene disorders (one infant had both). The proportion of diagnoses made by sequencing technologies, such as exome sequencing, increased over the years. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of confirmed genetic disorders within our cohort of infant deaths is higher than that previously reported. Increased efforts are needed to further understand the mortality burden of genetic disorders in infancy.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 10726, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341179

RESUMO

Non-immune hydrops fetalis (NIHF) is a complex condition with a high mortality and morbidity rate. Here we report the etiology and outcome of 1004 fetuses with NIHF, in a large single Maternal and Children's hospital of Southern China, since the year of 2009 to 2016. Among these 1004 fetuses with NIHF, the etiology was identified prenatally in 722 of them (72%). The most common ones were hematologic diseases and chromosomal abnormalities. There were eight spontaneous abortions, 18 intrauterine fetal demise, 672 pregnancy terminations and 87 were lost to follow-up. 219 of the 1004 fetuses were live-born and the overall survival rate was 21.8% at this point. After birth 16 perinatal or early neonatal deaths were encountered and five lost to follow-up. Of the remaining 198 newborns, 153 thrived without apparent morbidity. The most significant factors associated with mortality were prematurity and low birthweight. In conclusion, we described the largest report of underlying causes and outcome of NIHF in Southern China. Etiologies were identified for 72% of 1004 fetuses with NIHF. And two poor prognostic factors for survival are preterm birth at less than 36.5 weeks and birthweight lower than 2575 g respectively.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 413-424, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327508

RESUMO

WD40 repeat-containing proteins form a large family of proteins present in all eukaryotes. Here, we identified five pediatric probands with de novo variants in WDR37, which encodes a member of the WD40 repeat protein family. Two probands shared one variant and the others have variants in nearby amino acids outside the WD40 repeats. The probands exhibited shared phenotypes of epilepsy, colobomas, facial dysmorphology reminiscent of CHARGE syndrome, developmental delay and intellectual disability, and cerebellar hypoplasia. The WDR37 protein is highly conserved in vertebrate and invertebrate model organisms and is currently not associated with a human disease. We generated a null allele of the single Drosophila ortholog to gain functional insights and replaced the coding region of the fly gene CG12333/wdr37 with GAL4. These flies are homozygous viable but display severe bang sensitivity, a phenotype associated with seizures in flies. Additionally, the mutant flies fall when climbing the walls of the vials, suggesting a defect in grip strength, and repeat the cycle of climbing and falling. Similar to wall clinging defect, mutant males often lose grip of the female abdomen during copulation. These phenotypes are rescued by using the GAL4 in the CG12333/wdr37 locus to drive the UAS-human reference WDR37 cDNA. The two variants found in three human subjects failed to rescue these phenotypes, suggesting that these alleles severely affect the function of this protein. Taken together, our data suggest that variants in WDR37 underlie a novel syndromic neurological disorder.

6.
J Pediatr ; 213: 235-240, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31235381

RESUMO

We describe an infant with a phenotype typical of early onset Marfan syndrome whose genetic evaluation, including Sanger sequencing and deletion/duplication testing of FBN1 and exome sequencing, was negative. Ultimately, genome sequencing revealed a deletion missed on prior testing, demonstrating the unique utility of genome sequencing for molecular genetic diagnosis.

7.
Eur Respir J ; 54(2)2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151956

RESUMO

Rare variants in the T-box transcription factor 4 gene (TBX4) have recently been recognised as an emerging cause of paediatric pulmonary hypertension (PH). Their pathophysiology and contribution to persistent pulmonary hypertension in neonates (PPHN) are unknown. We sought to define the spectrum of clinical manifestations and histopathology associated with TBX4 variants in neonates and children with PH.We assessed clinical data and lung tissue in 19 children with PH, including PPHN, carrying TBX4 rare variants identified by next-generation sequencing and copy number variation arrays.Variants included six 17q23 deletions encompassing the entire TBX4 locus and neighbouring genes, and 12 likely damaging mutations. 10 infants presented with neonatal hypoxic respiratory failure and PPHN, and were subsequently discharged home. PH was diagnosed later in infancy or childhood. Three children died and two required lung transplantation. Associated anomalies included patent ductus arteriosus, septal defects, foot anomalies and developmental disability, the latter with a higher prevalence in deletion carriers. Histology in seven infants showed abnormal distal lung development and pulmonary hypertensive remodelling.TBX4 mutations and 17q23 deletions underlie a new form of developmental lung disease manifesting with severe, often biphasic PH at birth and/or later in infancy and childhood, often associated with skeletal anomalies, cardiac defects, neurodevelopmental disability and other anomalies.

8.
J Am Acad Dermatol ; 81(3): 867-877, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103566

RESUMO

The Orphan Drug Act of 1983 (ODA) put in place a set of financial and marketing incentives to stimulate the development of drugs to treat rare diseases, and since its passage, more than 600 orphan drug and biologic products have been brought to market in the United States. Rapid growth in orphan drug approvals in conjunction with high orphan drug prices have triggered concern that drug makers are exploiting certain aspects of the ODA for financial gain and that some pharmaceutical drugs are receiving orphan status where it is not warranted. The landscape of approved therapies for rare skin diseases has not been well described. In this article, we provide a descriptive analysis of the United States Food and Drug Administration-approved orphan drugs for the treatment of rare dermatologic conditions and skin-related cancers since the enactment of the ODA. We discuss policy issues that emerge from the analysis and suggest areas for future research. Next, we elucidate ODA loopholes using dermatologic drugs as examples and propose potential reforms. Finally, we consider future directions for orphan drug development in the field of dermatology.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(9): 1398-1405, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30979967

RESUMO

Clinical exome sequencing (CES) is increasingly being utilized; however, a large proportion of patients remain undiagnosed, creating a need for a systematic approach to increase the diagnostic yield. We have reanalyzed CES data for a clinically heterogeneous cohort of 102 probands with likely Mendelian conditions, including 74 negative cases and 28 cases with candidate variants, but reanalysis requested by clinicians. Reanalysis was performed by an interdisciplinary team using a validated custom-built pipeline, "Variant Explorer Pipeline" (VExP). This reanalysis approach and results were compared with existing literature. Reanalysis of candidate variants from CES in 28 cases revealed 1 interpretation that needed to be reclassified. A confirmed or potential genetic diagnosis was identified in 24 of 75 CES-negative/reclassified cases (32.0%), including variants in known disease-causing genes (n = 6) or candidate genes (n = 18). This yield was higher compared with similar studies demonstrating the utility of this approach. In summary, reanalysis of negative CES in a research setting enhances diagnostic yield by about a third. This study suggests the need for comprehensive, continued reanalysis of exome data when molecular diagnosis is elusive.

10.
Dev Cell ; 49(1): 10-29, 2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30930166

RESUMO

Single-cell gene expression analyses of mammalian tissues have uncovered profound stage-specific molecular regulatory phenomena that have changed the understanding of unique cell types and signaling pathways critical for lineage determination, morphogenesis, and growth. We discuss here the case for a Pediatric Cell Atlas as part of the Human Cell Atlas consortium to provide single-cell profiles and spatial characterization of gene expression across human tissues and organs. Such data will complement adult and developmentally focused HCA projects to provide a rich cytogenomic framework for understanding not only pediatric health and disease but also environmental and genetic impacts across the human lifespan.

11.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(7): 1299-1303, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31012281

RESUMO

Char syndrome is characterized by persistent patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) associated with hand-skeletal abnormalities and distinctive facial dysmorphism. Pathogenic variants in the transcription factor gene TFAP2B have been shown to cause Char syndrome; however, there is significant phenotypic variability linked to variant location. Here, we report a pediatric patient with a novel de novo variant in the fifth exon of TFAP2B, c.917C > T (p.Thr306Met), who presented with PDA, patent foramen ovale, postaxial polydactyly of the left fifth toe and clinodactyly of the left fourth toe, sensorineural hearing loss, scoliosis, dental anomalies, and central diabetes insipidus (CDI). CDI, scoliosis, and hearing loss have not previously been reported in a patient with Char syndrome, and while the association may be coincidental, this report expands the genotypes and potentially phenotypes associated with this syndrome.

12.
PLoS Genet ; 15(2): e1007917, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707697

RESUMO

Hbs1 has been established as a central component of the cell's translational quality control pathways in both yeast and prokaryotic models; however, the functional characteristics of its human ortholog (Hbs1L) have not been well-defined. We recently reported a novel human phenotype resulting from a mutation in the critical coding region of the HBS1L gene characterized by facial dysmorphism, severe growth restriction, axial hypotonia, global developmental delay and retinal pigmentary deposits. Here we further characterize downstream effects of the human HBS1L mutation. HBS1L has three transcripts in humans, and RT-PCR demonstrated reduced mRNA levels corresponding with transcripts V1 and V2 whereas V3 expression was unchanged. Western blot analyses revealed Hbs1L protein was absent in the patient cells. Additionally, polysome profiling revealed an abnormal aggregation of 80S monosomes in patient cells under baseline conditions. RNA and ribosomal sequencing demonstrated an increased translation efficiency of ribosomal RNA in Hbs1L-deficient fibroblasts, suggesting that there may be a compensatory increase in ribosome translation to accommodate the increased 80S monosome levels. This enhanced translation was accompanied by upregulation of mTOR and 4-EBP protein expression, suggesting an mTOR-dependent phenomenon. Furthermore, lack of Hbs1L caused depletion of Pelota protein in both patient cells and mouse tissues, while PELO mRNA levels were unaffected. Inhibition of proteasomal function partially restored Pelota expression in human Hbs1L-deficient cells. We also describe a mouse model harboring a knockdown mutation in the murine Hbs1l gene that shared several of the phenotypic elements observed in the Hbs1L-deficient human including facial dysmorphism, growth restriction and retinal deposits. The Hbs1lKO mice similarly demonstrate diminished Pelota levels that were rescued by proteasome inhibition.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Mamíferos/genética , Proteínas dos Microfilamentos/genética , Monossomia/genética , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Polirribossomos/genética , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/genética , RNA/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Ribossomos/genética , Serina-Treonina Quinases TOR/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
13.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 76-93, 2019 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30609409

RESUMO

Genomic sequencing provides many opportunities in newborn clinical care, but the challenges of interpreting and reporting newborn genomic sequencing (nGS) results need to be addressed for its broader and effective application. The BabySeq Project is a pilot randomized clinical trial that explores the medical, behavioral, and economic impacts of nGS in well newborns and those admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Here we present childhood-onset and actionable adult-onset disease risk, carrier status, and pharmacogenomics findings from nGS of 159 newborns in the BabySeq Project. nGS revealed a risk of childhood-onset disease in 15/159 (9.4%) newborns; none of the disease risks were anticipated based on the infants' known clinical or family histories. nGS also revealed actionable adult-onset disease risk in 3/85 (3.5%) newborns whose parents consented to receive this information. Carrier status for recessive diseases and pharmacogenomics variants were reported in 88% and 5% of newborns, respectively. Additional indication-based analyses were performed in 29/32 (91%) NICU newborns and 6/127 (5%) healthy newborns who later had presentations that prompted a diagnostic analysis. No variants that sufficiently explained the reason for the indications were identified; however, suspicious but uncertain results were reported in five newborns. Testing parental samples contributed to the interpretation and reporting of results in 13/159 (8%) newborns. Our results suggest that nGS can effectively detect risk and carrier status for a wide range of disorders that are not detectable by current newborn screening assays or predicted based on the infant's known clinical or family history, and the interpretation of results can substantially benefit from parental testing.

14.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(5): 738-746, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30679813

RESUMO

Determining pathogenicity of genomic variation identified by next-generation sequencing techniques can be supported by recurrent disruptive variants in the same gene in phenotypically similar individuals. However, interpretation of novel variants in a specific gene in individuals with mild-moderate intellectual disability (ID) without recognizable syndromic features can be challenging and reverse phenotyping is often required. We describe 24 individuals with a de novo disease-causing variant in, or partial deletion of, the F-box only protein 11 gene (FBXO11, also known as VIT1 and PRMT9). FBXO11 is part of the SCF (SKP1-cullin-F-box) complex, a multi-protein E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex catalyzing the ubiquitination of proteins destined for proteasomal degradation. Twenty-two variants were identified by next-generation sequencing, comprising 2 in-frame deletions, 11 missense variants, 1 canonical splice site variant, and 8 nonsense or frameshift variants leading to a truncated protein or degraded transcript. The remaining two variants were identified by array-comparative genomic hybridization and consisted of a partial deletion of FBXO11. All individuals had borderline to severe ID and behavioral problems (autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, aggression) were observed in most of them. The most relevant common facial features included a thin upper lip and a broad prominent space between the paramedian peaks of the upper lip. Other features were hypotonia and hyperlaxity of the joints. We show that de novo variants in FBXO11 cause a syndromic form of ID. The current series show the power of reverse phenotyping in the interpretation of novel genetic variances in individuals who initially did not appear to have a clear recognizable phenotype.

15.
Clin Chim Acta ; 2018 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30508507

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is the most common neonatal endocrine disorder. Although most patients present with isolated CH, some patients present with CH and extra-thyroidal congenital malformations (ECMs), for which less is known about the underlying genetics. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic mechanisms in patients with CH and ECMs using chromosomal microarray (CMA) and whole exome sequencing (WES). METHODS: Peripheral venous blood samples were collected from 16 patients with CH and ECMs. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. CMA and WES were performed to detect copy number and single nucleotide variants. RESULTS: CMA identified clinically significant copy number variants in 7 patients consistent with their phenotypes. For 6 of them, the genotype and phenotype suggested a syndromic diagnosis, and the remaining patient carried a pathogenic microdeletion and microduplication including GLIS3. WES analysis identified 9 different variants in 7 additional patients. The variants included 2 known mutations (c.1096C>T (p.Arg366Trp) in KCNQ1 and c.848C>A (p.Pro283Gln) in NKX2-5) and 7 novel variants: one nonsense mutation (c.4330C>T (p.Arg1444*) in ASXL3), one frameshift mutation (c.1253_1259delACTCTGG (p.Asp418fs) in TG), three missense variants (c.1472C>T (p.Thr491Ile) in TG, c.4604A>G (p.Asp1535Gly) in TG, and c.2139G>T (p.Glu713Asp) in DUOX2, and two splice site variants (c.944-1G>C and c.3693 + 1G>T) in DUOX2. CONCLUSIONS: We report the first genetic study of CH patients with ECMs using CMA and WES. Overall, our detection rate for pathogenic and possibly pathogenic variants was 87.5% (14/16). We report 7 novel variants, expanding the mutational spectrum of TG, DUOX2, and ASXL3.

16.
BMC Med Genet ; 19(1): 197, 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30424743

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TRRAP encodes a multidomain protein kinase that works as a genetic cofactor to influence DNA methylation patterns, DNA damage repair, and chromatin remodeling. TRRAP protein is vital to early neural developmental processes, and variants in this gene have been associated with schizophrenia and childhood disintegrative disorder. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we report on a patient with a de novo nonsynonymous TRRAP single-nucleotide variant (EST00000355540.3:c.5957G > A, p.Arg1986Gln) and early onset major depression accompanied by a psychotic episode (before age 10) that occurred in the context of longer standing nonverbal learning disability and a past history of obsessions and compulsions. CONCLUSIONS: The de novo variant and presentation of very early onset psychosis indicate a rare Mendelian disorder inheritance model. The genotype and behavioral abnormalities of this patient are reviewed.

17.
Muscle Nerve ; 2018 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412272

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Centronuclear myopathies (CNMs) are a subtype of congenital myopathies (CMs) characterized by muscle weakness, predominant type 1 fibers, and increased central nuclei. SPEG (striated preferentially expressed protein kinase) mutations have recently been identified in 7 CM patients (6 with CNMs). We report 2 additional patients with SPEG mutations expanding the phenotype and evaluate genotype-phenotype correlations associated with SPEG mutations. METHODS: Using whole exome/genome sequencing in CM families, we identified novel recessive SPEG mutations in 2 patients. RESULTS: Patient 1, with severe muscle weakness requiring respiratory support, dilated cardiomyopathy, ophthalmoplegia, and findings of nonspecific CM on muscle biopsy carried a homozygous SPEG mutation (p.Val3062del). Patient 2, with milder muscle weakness, ophthalmoplegia, and CNM carried compound heterozygous mutations (p.Leu728Argfs*82) and (p.Val2997Glyfs*52). CONCLUSIONS: The 2 patients add insight into genotype-phenotype correlations of SPEG-associated CMs. Clinicians should consider evaluating a CM patient for SPEG mutations even in the absence of CNM features. Muscle Nerve, 2018.

18.
Ann Neurol ; 84(5): 766-780, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30295347

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several small case series identified KCTD7 mutations in patients with a rare autosomal recessive disorder designated progressive myoclonic epilepsy (EPM3) and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (CLN14). Despite the name KCTD (potassium channel tetramerization domain), KCTD protein family members lack predicted channel domains. We sought to translate insight gained from yeast studies to uncover disease mechanisms associated with deficiencies in KCTD7 of unknown function. METHODS: Novel KCTD7 variants in new and published patients were assessed for disease causality using genetic analyses, cell-based functional assays of patient fibroblasts and knockout yeast, and electron microscopy of patient samples. RESULTS: Patients with KCTD7 mutations can exhibit movement disorders or developmental regression before seizure onset, and are distinguished from similar disorders by an earlier age of onset. Although most published KCTD7 patient variants were excluded from a genome sequence database of normal human variations, most newly identified patient variants are present in this database, potentially challenging disease causality. However, genetic analysis and impaired biochemical interactions with cullin 3 support a causal role for patient KCTD7 variants, suggesting deleterious alleles of KCTD7 and other rare disease variants may be underestimated. Both patient-derived fibroblasts and yeast lacking Whi2 with sequence similarity to KCTD7 have impaired autophagy consistent with brain pathology. INTERPRETATION: Biallelic KCTD7 mutations define a neurodegenerative disorder with lipofuscin and lipid droplet accumulation but without defining features of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis or lysosomal storage disorders. KCTD7 deficiency appears to cause an underlying autophagy-lysosome defect conserved in yeast, thereby assigning a biological role for KCTD7. Ann Neurol 2018;84:774-788.

19.
Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30209271

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Newborn genomic sequencing (nGS) has great potential to improve pediatric care. Parental interest and concerns about genomics are relatively unexplored. Understanding why parents decline research consent for nGS may reveal implementation barriers. METHODS: We evaluated parental interest in a randomized trial of nGS in well-baby and intensive care unit nursery settings. Interested families attended an informational enrollment session (ES) with a genetic counselor prior to consenting. Reason(s) for declining participation and sociodemographic associations were analyzed. RESULTS: Of 3860 eligible approached families, 10% attended ES, 67% of whom enrolled. Of 1760 families queried for decline reasons, 58% were uninterested in research. Among 499 families considering research, principal reasons for decline prior to ES included burdensome study logistics (48%), feeling overwhelmed postpartum (17%), and lack of interest/discomfort with genetic testing (17%). Decliners after ES more often cited concerns about privacy/insurability (41%) and uncertain/unfavorable results (23%). CONCLUSION: Low interest in research and study logistics were major initial barriers to postpartum enrollment and are likely generic to many postpartum research efforts. Concerns over privacy and result implications were most commonly cited in decliners after ES. Understanding parental concerns around research nGS may inform future integration of nGS into newborn screening, predictive testing, and pediatric diagnostics.

20.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2018 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30151950

RESUMO

KIF26B is a member of the kinesin superfamily with evolutionarily conserved functions in controlling aspects of embryogenesis, including the development of the nervous system, though its function is incompletely understood. We describe an infant with progressive microcephaly, pontocerebellar hypoplasia, and arthrogryposis secondary to the involvement of anterior horn cells and ventral (motor) nerves. We performed whole exome sequencing on the trio and identified a de novo KIF26B missense variant, p.Gly546Ser, in the proband. This variant alters a highly conserved amino acid residue that is part of the phosphate-binding loop motif and motor-like domain and is deemed pathogenic by several in silico methods. Functional analysis of the variant protein in cultured cells revealed a reduction in the KIF26B protein's ability to promote cell adhesion, a defect that potentially contributes to its pathogenicity. Overall, KIF26B may play a critical role in the brain development and, when mutated, cause pontocerebellar hypoplasia with arthrogryposis.

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