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An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(3): 27-34, 20221115.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1401456


El objetivo del estudio fue identificar la resistencia del Mycobacterium tuberculosis a los fármacos en Paraguay, 2014 a 2017. Se realizó un estudio observacional retrospectivo. Se utilizaron los datos del Programa Nacional de Tuberculosis del Paraguay comprendidos entre los años 2014 a 2017. Se incluyeron todos los pacientes con diagnóstico de Tuberculosis que se realizaron un test de resistencia. Se extrajeron los datos en Excel y fueron analizados con Stata 17.0. Se incluyeron 3429 pacientes con tuberculosis que contaban con resultado de al menos una prueba de sensibilidad. La resistencia se encontró en 2.1% de los pacientes. La resistencia a la Rifampicina estuvo presente en el 0.3% de los casos mientras que a la Izionazida en el 0.6% de los casos. La prevalencia de resistencia fue más alta en hombres 3.4 (IC 95% 2.2 - 4.8) p=0.003, que residían en el chaco 6.0 (IC 95% 3.4 - 9.7) p=0.000, previamente tratados 2.7 (IC 95% 1.1 - 5.1) p=0.010. En el modelo se pudo observar que un paciente previamente tratado tiene mayores posibilidades de tener resistencia OR 2.62 (IC 95% 1.1 - 6.24). La prevalencia de resistencia del Mycobacterium tuberculosis a fármacos estuvo relacionada con haber sido previamente tratado

The objective of the study was to identify the resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to drugs in Paraguay, 2014 to 2017. A retrospective observational study was carried out. The data from the National Tuberculosis Program of Paraguay between the years 2014 to 2017 were used. All patients with a diagnosis of Tuberculosis who underwent a resistance test were included. Data were extracted in Excel and analyzed with Stata 17.0. 3429 tuberculosis patients who had a result of at least one sensitivity test were included. Resistance was found in 2.1% of patients. Resistance to Rifampicin was present in 0.3% of cases while to Izionazide in 0.6% of cases. The prevalence of resistance was higher in men 3.4 (95% CI 2.2 - 4.8) p = 0.003, who resided in the Chaco 6.0 (95% CI 3.4 - 9.7) p = 0.000, previously treated 2.7 (95% CI 1.1 - 5.1) p = 0.010. In the model, it was observed that a previously treated patient has a greater chance of having resistance OR 2.62 (95% CI 1.1 - 6.24). The prevalence of resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to drugs was related to having been previously treated

Tuberculose , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Rifampina , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Vigilância em Desastres
Int J STD AIDS ; 33(14): 1212-1222, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36257834


BACKGROUND: Our study aimed to measure HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among men who have sex with men (MSM) in three regions of Paraguay in 2020. METHODS: MSM were recruited for cross-sectional surveys in three regions of Paraguay using respondent-driven sampling. Interview were conducted face-to-face to collect demographic characteristics and risk and preventive behaviors. The analysis assessed HIV prevalence and associated risk factors in the three samples of MSM within each region. RESULTS: A total of 1,207 MSM were recruited, including 559 in Asunción-Central, 245 in Alto Paraná, and 403 in Caaguazú. HIV prevalence was 24.2% (95% CI 20.6-27.9) in Asunción-Central, 10.2% (95% CI 6.7-14.6) in Alto Paraná, and 3.2% (95% CI 1.7-5.4) in Caaguazú. In Asunción-Central, associations with HIV were age ≥25 years (1.86, 95% CI 1.15-3.00), being employed (1.82, 95% CI 1.07-3.11), self-reporting as homosexual (1.90, 95% CI 1.06-3.43), having sex with a known HIV-positive partner acquisition (4.19, 95% CI 2.37-7.43), self-perceived as being at higher risk for HIV acquisition (4.15, 95% CI 2.54-6.77), and able to access condoms and lubricants (1.82, 95% CI 1.08-3.05). In Alto Paraná, associations with HIV were self-reporting as homosexual (4.33, 95% CI 1.19-15.65) and having higher HIV knowledge (2.53, 95% CI 0.97-6.61). In Caaguazú, associations with HIV were self-reporting as homosexual (7.06, 95% CI 1.53-32.46) and being diagnosed with depression (4.68, 95% CI 0.89-24.43). CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevalence among MSM in Paraguay varied by region, being highest in the capital and major metropolitan area of Asunción-Central, followed by the border area of Alto Paraná. While being self-identified as homosexual was associated with HIV in all three regions, other associations differed, indicating prevention programs need to be tailored to the locale.

Infecções por HIV , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Masculino , Humanos , Adulto , Homossexualidade Masculina , Comportamento Sexual , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , Paraguai/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Assunção de Riscos
Curr Res Microb Sci ; 3: 100114, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35909595


Giardia duodenalis is a pathogenic intestinal protozoan parasite of humans and many other animals. Giardia duodenalis is found throughout the world, and infection is known to have adverse health consequences for human and other mammalian hosts. Yet, many aspects of the biology of this ubiquitous parasite remain unresolved. Whole genome sequencing and comparative genomics can provide insight into the biology of G. duodenalis by helping to reveal traits that are shared by all G. duodenalis assemblages or unique to an individual assemblage or strain. However, these types of analyses are currently hindered by the lack of available G. duodenalis genomes, due, in part, to the difficulty in obtaining the genetic material needed to perform whole genome sequencing. In this study, a novel approach using a multistep cleaning procedure coupled with a hybrid sequencing and assembly strategy was assessed for use in producing high quality G. duodenalis genomes directly from cysts obtained from feces of two naturally infected hosts, a cat and dog infected with assemblage A and D, respectively. Cysts were cleaned and concentrated using cesium chloride gradient centrifugation followed by immunomagnetic separation. Whole genome sequencing was performed using both Illumina MiSeq and Oxford Nanopore MinION platforms. A hybrid assembly strategy was found to produce higher quality genomes than assemblies from either platform alone. The hybrid G. duodenalis genomes obtained from fecal isolates (cysts) in this study compare favorably for quality and completeness against reference genomes of G. duodenalis from cultured isolates. The whole genome assembly for assemblage D is the most contiguous genome available for this assemblage and is an important reference genome for future comparative studies. The data presented here support a hybrid sequencing and assembly strategy as a suitable method to produce whole genome sequences from DNA obtained from G. duodenalis cysts which can be used to produce novel reference genomes necessary to perform comparative genomics studies of this parasite.

J Med Virol ; 94(10): 5061-5065, 2022 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35701340


Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) drug resistance increases mortality and morbidity and antiretroviral therapy (ART) costs. We describe Paraguay's first nationally representative survey on pretreatment drug resistance (PDR) conducted among persons who initiated or reinitiated ART in 2019. ​​​​We conducted a cross-sectional survey of antiretroviral (ARV) drug resistance in Paraguay in 2019. Participants were sampled at four comprehensive care clinics where 90% of patients with HIV in Paraguay initiate ART. Patients included were adults ≥18 years old who initiated first-line ART or reinitiated the same first-line ART regimen after ≥3 months of discontinuation. Of 208 patients, 93.8% had no prior ART exposure, 3.8% reinitiated the same regimen, 2.4% had unknown prior ART exposure; and 31.3% had a CD4 count <200 cells/µl. Mutations associated with resistance were present in 15.4% of patients. Mutations associated with resistance to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) were present in 13.0% of patients, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in 4.3%, and integrase inhibitors in 3.4%. Mutations associated with resistance to tenofovir were present in 1.0% of patients and emtricitabine/lamivudine in 1.4%. ​​Nearly one in six patients had PDR in Paraguay's first nationally representative sample. High NNRTI PDR prevalence underscores the need to accelerate the transition to dolutegravir-based first-line ART. The low PDR prevalence of tenofovir and emtricitabine is reassuring as these ARVs are part of the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended oral pre-exposure prophylaxis regimen. The high proportion of individuals initiating ART at a late disease stage highlights the need to improve treatment linkage strategies and implement WHO rapid ART initiation recommendations.

Fármacos Anti-HIV , Infecções por HIV , HIV-1 , Adolescente , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Viral/genética , Emtricitabina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/genética , Humanos , Paraguai/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Tenofovir/uso terapêutico , Carga Viral
Bull World Health Organ ; 100(3): 231-236, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35261411


Problem: In Paraguay, incomplete surveillance data resulted in the burden of congenital syphilis being underestimated, which, in turn, led to missed opportunities for infant diagnosis and treatment. Approach: The prevalence of congenital syphilis, as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO), was estimated for Paraguay using the WHO congenital syphilis estimation tool. This tool was also used to monitor progress towards the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of syphilis. Local setting: The burden of syphilis in Paraguay has historically been high: its prevalence in pregnant women was estimated to be 3% in 2018. Relevant changes: The incidence rate of congenital syphilis estimated using the WHO tool was around nine times the reported prevalence. Subsequently, Paraguay: (i) provided training to improve diagnosis and case reporting; (ii) strengthened information systems for case monitoring and reporting; and (iii) procured additional rapid dual HIV-syphilis and rapid plasma reagin tests to increase syphilis testing capacity. In addition, the Ministry of Health prepared a new national plan for eliminating mother-to-child transmission of syphilis, with clear monitoring milestones. Lessons learnt: Health-care providers' reporting and surveillance procedures for congenital syphilis may not adequately reflect national and international case definitions. Use of the WHO congenital syphilis estimation tool in Paraguay drew attention to congenital syphilis as a national public health problem and highlighted the importance of comprehensive national surveillance systems and accurate data. Ongoing use of the WHO tool can track progress towards the elimination of mother-to-child transmission of syphilis by helping improve syphilis service coverage and national surveillance.

Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Sífilis Congênita , Sífilis , Feminino , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doenças Infecciosas/prevenção & controle , Paraguai/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Sífilis/diagnóstico , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/diagnóstico , Sífilis Congênita/epidemiologia , Sífilis Congênita/prevenção & controle , Organização Mundial da Saúde
Metabolites ; 12(1)2022 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35050171


Sterols, bile acids, and acylcarnitines are key players in human metabolism. Precise annotations of these metabolites with mass spectrometry analytics are challenging because of the presence of several isomers and stereoisomers, variability in ionization, and their relatively low concentrations in biological samples. Herein, we present a sensitive and simple qualitative LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry) method by utilizing a set of pure chemical standards to facilitate the identification and distribution of sterols, bile acids, and acylcarnitines in biological samples including human stool and plasma; mouse ileum, cecum, jejunum content, duodenum content, and liver; and pig bile, proximal colon, cecum, heart, stool, and liver. With this method, we detected 24 sterol, 32 bile acid, and 27 acylcarnitine standards in one analysis that were separated within 13 min by reversed-phase chromatography. Further, we observed different sterol, bile acid, and acylcarnitine profiles for the different biological samples across the different species. The simultaneous detection and annotation of sterols, bile acids, and acylcarnitines from reference standards and biological samples with high precision represents a valuable tool for screening these metabolites in routine scientific research.

J Antimicrob Chemother ; 77(3): 807-815, 2022 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34957520


BACKGROUND: Point prevalence surveys (PPSs) on antibiotic use are useful for understanding different aspects related to prescription patterns in hospitals. METHODS: An adaptation of the WHO methodology for a PPS on antibiotic use was applied. Hospital wards were divided into medical (MED), surgical (SUR), ICUs, gynaecology and obstetrics (GO), high-risk (HR) and mixed wards (MIX). A web application (RedCap©) through a mobile device was used for data collection. RESULTS: Between December 2018 and August 2019, 5444 patients in 33 hospitals in five countries were included (10 hospitals in Cuba, 7 in Paraguay, 6 in El Salvador, 5 in Mexico and 5 in Peru). Of these patients, 54.6% received at least one antibiotic, with variations between and within hospitals and countries. Antibiotics were more frequently used in ICUs (67.2%), SUR (64.5%) and MED wards (54.2%), with 51.2% of antibiotics prescribed for community-acquired infections (CAIs), 22.9% for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), 11.1% for surgical prophylaxis and 6.1% for unknown reasons. Adherence to guidelines was observed in 68.6% of cases (72.8% for CAIs, 72.4% for HAIs and 44.3% for prophylaxis). Third-generation cephalosporins were the class of antibiotics most frequently used (26.8%), followed by carbapenems (10.3%) and fluoroquinolones (8%). Targeted treatments were achieved in 17.3% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic use was generally higher than that published in other studies. There is an urgent need to promote and strengthen the antimicrobial stewardship programmes in Latin America.

Antibacterianos , Infecção Hospitalar , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Hospitais , Humanos , América Latina/epidemiologia , Prevalência
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959902


A study was conducted to determine the effects of a diet supplemented with fruits and vegetables (FV) on the host whole blood cell (WBC) transcriptome and the composition and function of the intestinal microbiome. Nine six-week-old pigs were fed a pig grower diet alone or supplemented with lyophilized FV equivalent to half the daily recommended amount prescribed for humans by the Dietary Guideline for Americans (DGA) for two weeks. Host transcriptome changes in the WBC were evaluated by RNA sequencing. Isolated DNA from the fecal microbiome was used for 16S rDNA taxonomic analysis and prediction of metabolomic function. Feeding an FV-supplemented diet to pigs induced differential expression of several genes associated with an increase in B-cell development and differentiation and the regulation of cellular movement, inflammatory response, and cell-to-cell signaling. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) in fecal microbiome samples showed differential increases in genera from Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae families within the order Clostridiales and Erysipelotrichaceae family with a predicted reduction in rgpE-glucosyltransferase protein associated with lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis in pigs fed the FV-supplemented diet. These results suggest that feeding an FV-supplemented diet for two weeks modulated markers of cellular inflammatory and immune function in the WBC transcriptome and the composition of the intestinal microbiome by increasing the abundance of bacterial taxa that have been associated with improved intestinal health.

Células Sanguíneas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Frutas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Suínos/metabolismo , Suínos/microbiologia , Transcriptoma , Verduras , Animais , Subpopulações de Linfócitos B/imunologia , Células Sanguíneas/imunologia , Clostridiales , Lipopolissacarídeos/biossíntese , Suínos/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo
Metabolites ; 11(11)2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34822437


A targeted metabolomic analysis was performed on tissues derived from pigs fed diets supplemented with white button mushrooms (WBM) to determine the effect on the liver and brain metabolome. Thirty-one pigs were fed a grower diet alone or supplemented with either three or six servings of freeze-dried WBM for six weeks. Tissue metabolomes were analyzed using targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) combined with chemical similarity enrichment analysis (ChemRICH) and correlated to WBM-induced changes in fecal microbiome composition. Results indicated that WBM can differentially modulate metabolites in liver, brain cortex and hippocampus of healthy pigs. Within the glycero-phospholipids, there was an increase in alkyl-acyl-phosphatidyl-cholines (PC-O 40:3) in the hippocampus of pigs fed six servings of WBM. A broader change in glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids was detected in the liver with a reduction in several lipid species in pigs fed both WBM diets but with an increase in amino acids known as precursors of neurotransmitters in the cortex of pigs fed six servings of WBM. Metabolomic changes were positively correlated with increased abundance of Cryomorphaceae, Lachnospiraceae, Flammeovirgaceae and Ruminococcaceae in the microbiome suggesting that WBM can also positively impact tissue metabolite composition.

Pediatr. (Asunción) ; 48(2)ago. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386668


RESUMEN Introducción: Los niños constituyen el grupo más afectado por la anemia. En Paraguay no existen datos actualizados sobre prevalencia de anemia en menores de 5 años. Objetivos: Determinar la prevalencia de anemia en niños previamente sanos de 1 a 4 años que acuden a consultorios de servicios de salud y guarderías de Asunción y Central de Paraguay, durante el año 2017. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio prospectivo, de corte transverso, observacional, descriptivo. Muestreo aleatorio, estratificado. Nivel de confianza: 95% Error de muestra: 5%. Variables: edad, sexo, hemoglobina, índices hematimétricos, ferritina, Proteína C reactiva (PCR), albúmina, zPeso/Edad, zPeso/Talla, zTalla/Edad, peso al nacer. Fueron analizadas medidas paramétricas y no paramétricas, χ2. La anemia se definió por criterios OMS para el grupo de 1 a 5 años de edad: Hemoglobina Hb<11 g/dL y Volumen Corpuscular Medio VCM< 72 fL Se utilizó el Programa Anthro v 3.2.2 y SPSS 16.0. Aprobado por Comité de Ética del Instituto de Medicina Tropical, se obtuvo consentimiento informado. Nivel de significancia<0,05. Resultados: Fueron reclutados 806 pacientes. Se determinó Hb, VCM y ferritina en 706 pacientes.327 (46,3%) fueron varones. El promedio de Hb fue 11,9±1,03 g/dL. Volumen corpuscular medio promedio 71,2±26 fL. Se encontraron 83/706 pacientes con anemia (11,8%), 44/83 (53%) fueron microcíticas (VMC<72 fL). PCR negativa 640/706 (90,7%) pacientes. El promedio de albuminemia fue 4,5±0,2 g/dL. El promedio de z Peso/Edad fue 0,29±1,33, z Peso/Talla -0,38±1,52 y el z Talla/Edad fue 0,92±1,64. Ferritina < 12µg/L fue del 17,6 %. No se encontró relación entre el peso al nacer y la anemia [p=0,11. RR: 1,45 (0,6- 2,3)]. La prevalencia de anemia en el grupo de 12 a 23 meses fue del 39 % vs el 6,9 % en preescolares (χ2 p<0,05). Conclusiones: La prevalencia de anemia en lactantes de Asunción y Central constituye un problema de salud pública.

ABSTRACT Introduction: Children are the group most affected by anemia. In Paraguay there are no updated data on the prevalence of anemia in children under 5 years of age. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of anemia in previously healthy children aged 1 to 4 years who presented to health services clinics and nurseries in Asunción and the Central Department, Paraguay, during the year 2017. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective, cross-sectional, observational descriptive study. We used random, stratified sampling. Confidence level: 95% Sample error: 5%. Variables: age, sex, hemoglobin, hematometric indices, ferritin, C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, z Weight / Age, z Weight / Height, z Height / Age, birth weight. Parametric and non-parametric measures, χ2, were analyzed. Anemia was defined by WHO criteria for the 1 to 5 year-old group: Hemoglobin Hb <11 g / dL and Mean Corpuscular Volume MCV <72 fL The Anthro Program v 3.2.2 and SPSS 16.0 were used. The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Institute of Tropical Medicine, and informed consent was obtained. Significance level <0.05. Results: 806 patients were recruited. Hgb, MCV and ferritin were determined in 706 patients. 327 (46.3%) were male. The mean Hgb was 11.9 ± 1.03 g / dL. Mean corpuscular volume 71.2 ± 26 fL. 83/706 patients with anemia (11.8%) were found, 44/83 (53%) were microcytic (MCV <72 fL). Negative CRP 640/706 (90.7%) patients. Average albuminemia was 4.5 ± 0.2 g / dL. The mean of z Weight / Age was 0.29 ± 1.33, z Weight / Height -0.38 ± 1.52 and the z Height / Age was 0.92 ± 1.64. Ferritin <12µg / L was 17.6%. No relationship was found between birth weight and anemia [p = 0.11. RR: 1.45 (0.6-2.3)]. The prevalence of anemia in the 12 to 23 month group was 39% vs 6.9% in preschool children (χ2 p <0.05). Conclusions: The prevalence of anemia in infants from Asunción and the Central Department constitutes a public health problem.

Pediatr. (Asunción) ; 48(2)ago. 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1386670


RESUMEN Introducción: Los programas alimentarios han demostrado ser herramientas eficaces para disminuir la prevalencia de desnutrición infantil. Objetivos: Evaluar la eficacia de la intervención nutricional del Programa Alimentario Nutricional Integral PANI en los cambios de los indicadores antropométricos y bioquímicos en niños < 5 años en riesgo de desnutrición y desnutridos que acudieron al Hospital Regional de Concepción, al ingreso al programa versus a los seis meses de intervención. Materiales y métodos: Diseño prospectivo con componente analítico. Muestreo: 134 niños y niñas <5 años, beneficiarios del PANI en Concepción durante el año 2014. Puntos de corte para desnutrición y anemia según criterios OMS. Se utilizaron medidas paramétricas y no paramétricas, χ2, τ student. Significancia p< 0,05. Resultados: 134 niños fueron evaluados. Edad: x 22,4 meses. El 59,7 % fue lactante. Madres con < 6 años de estudio 17,9%, el 80,6% con ≤ de 3 hijos. Acceso a agua segura, 44,8% y saneamiento básico 40,3%. Lactancia materna exclusiva al 5to mes 7,5 %. La prevalencia de desnutrición disminuyó al 6to.mes del 14,9 % vs 4,4 % (p<0,01). La prevalencia de niños con riesgo de desnutrir disminuyó del 73,1 % al 27,6 % al 6to mes. Anemia al ingreso, 63%. Parasitosis intestinal al ingreso 24,6%. Deserción del PANI 31,3%. Conclusiones: La prevalencia de la desnutrición y de la anemia disminuyó al 6to. mes de tratamiento en los niños beneficiarios del PANI en Concepción.

ABSTRACT Introduction: Food programs have proven to be effective tools to reduce the prevalence of child malnutrition. Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of the nutritional intervention of the Comprehensive Nutritional Food Program (PANI) in the changes of anthropometric and biochemical indicators in children <5 years at risk of malnutrition and malnourishment who presented to the Regional Hospital of Concepción, upon admission to the program versus after six months of intervention. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective study with an analytical component. Sample size: 134 boys and girls <5 years old, PANI participants in Concepción during 2014. Cut-off points for malnutrition and anemia were according to WHO criteria. Parametric and non-parametric measures were used, χ2, τ student test was applied. Significance p <0.05. Results: 134 children were evaluated. Average Age: 22.4 months. 59.7% were breast-fed. Mothers with <6 years of schooling, 17.9%, 80.6% with ≤ 3 children. Access to safe water, 44.8% and access to basic sanitation 40.3%. Exclusive breastfeeding at the 5th month of age was 7.5%. The prevalence of malnutrition decreased after the 6th month of intervention from 14.9% vs 4.4% (p <0.01). The prevalence of children at risk of malnutrition decreased from 73.1% to 27.6% at the 6th month. Anemia on admission, 63%. Intestinal parasitosis on admission 24.6%. PANI desertion rate was 31.3%. Conclusions: The prevalence of malnutrition and anemia decreased after the 6th month of treatment in children participating in PANI in Concepción.

J Virol Methods ; 294: 114175, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34019939


Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus associated with congenital Zika syndrome and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. The recombinant ZIKV envelope (E) antigen can be useful for serodiagnosis of ZIKV infection and for monitoring immune responses during preclinical and clinical ZIKV vaccine development. In this study, we describe production of ZIKV E using the modified polyethyleneimine (PEI) transfection in HEK293 cells to improve cost-effective large-scale production. We show that the secretion of ZIKV E in HEK293 cells is dependent on cell culture incubation temperatures where incubation at a low temperature of 28 °C improved protein secretion of both, E-CD4 and E, whereas a substantial decrease in secretion was observed at 37 °C. The resulting E-CD4 produced at low temperature yielded similar binding profiles in ELISAs in comparison with a commercially available E protein using human seropositive sera to ZIKV. We also show that ZIKV NS1 and NS1 ß-ladder antigens produced in HEK293 cells, have similar binding profiles in ELISA which suggests that both NS1 or NS1 ß-ladder can be used for serodiagnosis of ZIKV. In conclusion, we propose a cost-effective production of the ZIKV E and NS1, suitable for both, clinical and research applications in endemic countries.

Infecção por Zika virus , Zika virus , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Temperatura , Envelope Viral , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Infecção por Zika virus/diagnóstico
Salud pública Méx ; 63(1): 21-26, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1395134


Resumen: Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo para sífilis en población indígena masculina de Paraguay durante el año 2017. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, descriptivo, con muestro probabilístico, estratificado y multietápico. Fueron incluidos indígenas de sexo masculino, mayores de 15 años de edad, de cinco familias lingüísticas residentes en Paraguay durante el periodo de estudio. Resultados: La prevalencia de sífilis en hombres de la población indígena de Paraguay fue de 4.50%. Los indígenas que tenían entre 15 y 20 años tuvieron 2.70 probabilidades de presentar sífilis. Asimismo, los participantes que reportaron múltiples parejas en el último año, sexo transaccional y consumir alcohol en la última relación sexual tuvieron 2.69, 3.06 y 2.16 veces la probabilidad de presentar sífilis, respectivamente. Conclusiones: Se encontró una prevalencia moderada de sífilis en la población indígena masculina. La prevalencia fue de dos veces más para aquéllos que tenían más de dos parejas sexuales, sexo transaccional y que involucraban alcohol durante la práctica sexual.

Abstract: Objective: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for syphilis transmission of the male indigenous population of Paraguay during 2017. Materials and methods: An observational, descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with multi-epic stratified probabilistic sampling. They were included in the study indigenous male, over 15 years of age, of five linguistic families resident in Paraguay during the study period. Results: The prevalence of syphilis in men of the indigenous population of Paraguay was 4.50%. Indigenous people who were 15 to 20 years old had 2.70 times the probability of presenting syphilis, as well as the participants who reported multiple partners in the last year, transaccional sex and consumed alcohol in the last sexual intercourse had 2.69, 3.06 and 2.16 times the probability of presenting syphilis. Conclusions: A moderate prevalence of syphilis was found in the male indigenous population. In turn, an opportunity was found twice more to acquire syphilis infection for those who had more than two sexual partners, transactional sex and those who involved alcohol during sexual practice.

J Nutr Biochem ; 90: 108570, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33429036


Optimizing diet quality in conjunction with statin therapy is currently the most common approach for coronary artery disease (CAD) risk management. Although effects on the cardiovascular system have been extensively investigated, little is known about the effect of these interventions in the colon and subsequent associations with CAD progression. To address this gap, Ossabaw pigs were randomly allocated to receive, for a six-month period, isocaloric amounts of either a heart healthy-type diet (HHD; high in unrefined carbohydrate, unsaturated fat, fiber, supplemented with fish oil, and low in cholesterol) or a Western-type diet (WD; high in refined carbohydrate, saturated fat and cholesterol, and low in fiber), without or with atorvastatin therapy. At the end of the intervention period, colon samples were harvested, mucosa fraction isolated, and RNA sequenced. Gene differential expression and enrichment analyses indicated that dietary patterns and atorvastatin therapy differentially altered gene expression, with diet-statin interactions. Atorvastatin had a more profound effect on differential gene expression than diet. In pigs not receiving atorvastatin, the WD upregulated "LXR/RXR Activation" pathway compared to pigs fed the HHD. Enrichment analysis indicated that atorvastatin therapy lowered inflammatory status in the HHD-fed pigs, whereas it induced a colitis-like gene expression phenotype in the WD-fed pigs. No significant association was identified between gene expression phenotypes and severity of atherosclerotic lesions in the left anterior descending-left circumflex bifurcation artery. These data suggested diet quality modulated the response to atorvastatin therapy in colonic mucosa, and these effects were unrelated to atherosclerotic lesion development.

Atorvastatina/farmacologia , Colo/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Dieta/métodos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Colesterol na Dieta/farmacologia , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/métodos , Dieta Ocidental , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Suínos
J Nutr Biochem ; 90: 108577, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33388349


Diet quality and statin therapy are established modulators of coronary artery disease (CAD) progression, but their effect on the gastrointestinal tract and subsequent sequelae that could affect CAD progression are relatively unexplored. To address this gap, Ossabaw pigs (N = 32) were randomly assigned to receive isocaloric amounts of a Western-type diet (WD; high in saturated fat, refined carbohydrate, and cholesterol, and low in fiber) or a heart healthy-type diet (HHD; high in unsaturated fat, whole grains, fruits and vegetables, supplemented with fish oil, and low in cholesterol), with or without atorvastatin, for 6 months. At the end of the study, RNA sequencing with 100 base pair single end reads on NextSeq 500 platform was conducted in isolated pig jejunal mucosa. A two-factor edgeR analysis revealed that the dietary patterns resulted in three differentially expressed genes related to lipid metabolism (SCD, FADS1, and SQLE). The expression of these genes was associated with cardiometabolic risk factors and atherosclerotic lesion severity. Subsequent gene enrichment analysis indicated the WD, compared to the HHD, resulted in higher interferon signaling and inflammation, with some of these genes being significantly associated with serum TNF-α and/or hsCRP concentrations, but not atherosclerotic lesion severity. No significant effect of atorvastatin therapy on gene expression, nor its interaction with dietary patterns, was identified. In conclusion, Western and heart healthy-type dietary patterns differentially affect the expression of genes associated with lipid metabolism, interferon signaling, and inflammation in the jejunum of Ossabaw pigs.

Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Dieta Ocidental , Inflamação/genética , Interferons/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Atorvastatina/farmacologia , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Dessaturase de Ácido Graxo Delta-5 , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Coração , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/farmacologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Interferons/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Jejuno/metabolismo , Masculino , Suínos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
Rev. chil. infectol ; 37(6)dic. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388181


Resumen Introducción: La tuberculosis (TBC) es una de las diez principales causas de muerte en todo el mundo. Objetivo: Caracterizar clínica y epidemiológicamente los casos de TBC del Departamento de Caaguazú-Paraguay, entre los años 2014 y 2017. Pacientes y Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, retrospectivo, utilizando datos secundarios del Programa Nacional de Control de la Tuberculosis (PNCT). La población: 659 casos de TBC registrados en el PNCT. Las variables: edad, sexo, grupo poblacional, tipo de TBC, co-infección TBC/VIH, y categoría de egreso. Procesamos la base de datos en Excel 2016 © usando Stata 14.0®. Resultado: El 63,3% de los participantes fue del género masculino. La edad promedio fue de 35,8 años. El 39,6% eran indígenas y 14,5% fueron personas privadas de libertad (PPL) conocidos como reclusos. El 89,6% tuvo TBC pulmonar, 2,4% tuvo co-infección TBC/VIH. La tasa de incidencia fue superior a 21,6/100.000 habts en 2014. La incidencia en indígenas fue de 76,5/100.000 habts en 2017. La incidencia en PPL fue de 2.272,1/100.000 habitantes en 2017. Conclusión: La incidencia de TBC en el Departamento de Caaguazú es baja en la población general afectando principalmente a hombres, mientras que en la población indígena y PPL es alta.

Abstract Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the ten leading causes of death worldwide. Aim: To characterize the clinical and epidemiological point of view of TB cases reported in the Department of Caaguazú-Paraguay, from 2014 to 2017. Methods: Observational, descriptive, retrospective study; Population: 659 cases of TB registered in the National Tuberculosis Control Program (NTCP); variables: age, sex, population group, type of TB, TB/HIV coinfection. We procesed database in Excel 2016 © using Stata 14.0®. Results: 63.3% were of male gender, average age: 35.8 years, 39.6% were indigenous and 85.4% were liberty deprived persons known as inmates (LDP), 89.6% had pulmonary TB and 2,4% had TB/HIV coinfection. Incidence rate exceed 21.6/100,000 inhabitants in 2014. Indigenous incidence was 76.5/100,000 inhabitants in 2017, LDP incidence was 2,272.1/ 100,000 inhabitants in 2017. Conclusion: The incidence of TB in the Department of Caaguazú is low, mainly affecting men, while TB incidence in indigenous people and LDP was high.

Int J STD AIDS ; 31(13): 1308-1314, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092476


Transgender women have been understudied and underserved in Paraguay; data are urgently needed to understand their HIV prevention and care needs. To estimate HIV prevalence and related risk and preventive behaviors among trans women in Paraguay, we conducted a cross-sectional survey in 2017. We employed starfish sampling - a hybrid venue-based and peer-referral method combining recruitment at randomly sampled venues and randomly selected clients from program lists, followed by short-chain referrals of eligible peers. Among 304 trans women enrolled, HIV prevalence was 24.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 18.5-31.2%), with risk increasing with age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.06 per year, 95% CI 1.03-1.10), residence in Asunción department (AOR 4.75, 95% CI 1.57-14.36), and cocaine use (AOR 2.09, 95% CI 1.11-3.95). Trans women in Paraguay need to be prioritized for interventions with high HIV prevention efficacy. Substance use interventions to address cocaine use may also yield prevention benefits for trans women in our context.

Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pessoas Transgênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paraguai/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estigma Social , Transexualidade , Adulto Jovem