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2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(19): e19994, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384454

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Integrated care models aim to provide solutions to fragmentation of care by improving coordination. This study will evaluate the effectiveness of a new integrated care model (Salut + Social), which will promote the coordination and communication between social and healthcare services in southern Catalonia (Spain) to improve quality of life, adherence to treatment and access to medical services for patients with chronic conditions, and also to reduce caregiver burden. Additionally, we will evaluate the experience of caregivers, health professionals and social workers with the new model implemented. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A clinical trial using mixed methodology will be carried out. The intervention consists of improving the coordination between the social and healthcare sectors during a 6-month period, by means of information and communication technology (ICT) tools that operate as an interface for the integrated care model. The study subjects are primary care patients with chronic health and social conditions that can benefit from a collaborative and coordinated approach. A sample size of 141 patients was estimated. Questionnaires that assess quality of life, treatment adherence, medical service and caregiver burden will be used at baseline and at 6, 9, and 12 months after the beginning of the study. The principal variable is quality of life. For statistical analysis, comparisons of means and proportions at different time points will be performed. A discussion group and semi-structured interviews will be conducted with the aim of improving the care model taking into account the opinions of professionals and caregivers. A thematic content analysis will be carried out. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study protocol has been approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of the Fundació Institut Universitari per a la Recerca a l'Atenció Primària de Salut Jordi Gol i Gurina (code P17/100). Articles will be published in international, peer-reviewed scientific journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical-Trials.gov: NCT04164160.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde , Modelos Organizacionais , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Serviço Social , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Doença Crônica/reabilitação , Doença Crônica/terapia , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/métodos , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Espanha
3.
JACC Clin Electrophysiol ; 6(5): 484-490, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to report a multicenter series of left-sided catheter ablations performed by using intravenous direct thrombin inhibitors (DTIs) as an alternative to heparin. BACKGROUND: Amidst a looming worldwide shortage of heparin, there are insufficient data to guide nonheparin-based peri-procedural anticoagulation in patients undergoing catheter ablation. METHODS: This study reviewed all catheter ablations at 6 institutions between 2006 and 2019 to assess the safety and efficacy of DTIs for left-sided radiofrequency catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. RESULTS: In total, 53 patients (age 63.0 ± 9.3 years, 68% male, CHA2DS2-VASc [congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, stroke/transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65 to 74 years, sex category] score 2.8 ± 1.6, left ventricular ejection fraction 46 ± 15%) underwent ablation with DTIs (75% bivalirudin, 25% argatroban) due to heparin contraindication(s) (72% heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, 21% heparin allergy, 4% protamine reaction, and 4% religious reasons). The patient's usual oral anticoagulant was continued without interruption in 69%. Procedures were performed for atrial fibrillation (64%) or ventricular tachycardia/premature ventricular contractions (36%). Transseptal puncture was undertaken in 81%, and a contact force-sensing catheter was used in 70%. Vascular ultrasound was used in 71%, and femoral arterial access was gained in 36%. A bolus followed by infusion was used in all but 4 cases, and activated clotting time was monitored peri-procedurally in 72%, with 32% receiving additional boluses. Procedure duration was 216 ± 116 min, and ablation time was 51 ± 22 min. No major bleeding or embolic complications were observed. Four patients had minor self-limiting bleeding complications, including a small pericardial effusion (<1 cm), a small groin hematoma, and hematuria. CONCLUSIONS: In this multicenter series, intravenous DTIs were safely used as an alternative to heparin for left-sided catheter ablation.

4.
Clín. salud ; 31(1): 13-20, mar. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS-Express | ID: ibc-FGT-4496

RESUMO

La lactancia materna exclusiva (LME) aporta diversos beneficios a la salud del niño y de la madre. La Teoría de la Conducta Planeada (TCP) es un modelo enfocado en la predicción de algunas conductas relacionadas con la salud, como la LME. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la relación de las variables de la TCP con la intención de dar LME. Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal con 442 mujeres embarazadas de la Ciudad de México. Las variables de la TCP se midieron con instrumentos previamente validados. Un análisis de regresión logística múltiple, ajustado por paridad y edad materna, identificó asociaciones significativas entre la intención de amamantar y la norma subjetiva, OR = 1.07 (IC 95% [1.01, 1.14]), y el control conductual percibido, OR = 1.05 (IC 95% [1.01, 1.11]), con la intención. Como conclusión, en esta muestra se asociaron dos constructos de la TCP con la intención de lactar de forma exclusiva


Breastfeeding provides health benefits to children and mothers. WHO recommends it be exclusive until 6 months of age. The Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) focus on the prediction of health-related behaviors, such as breastfeeding. The objective of this study was to identify the relationship of attitudes, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control with the intention of exclusively breastfeeding in a sample of Mexican pregnant women. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 442 pregnant women from Mexico City. Psychosocial variables were measured with a set of scales previously validated. A multiple logistic regression analysis, adjusted for the number of previous children and maternal age, identified significant associations between intention to breastfeed and one dimension of the subjective norm (participants' mothers opinions), OR = 1.07 (IC 95% [1.01, 1.14]), as well as perceived behavioral control, OR = 1.05 (IC 95% [1.01, 1.11]). In the case of this sample, TCP constructs associated to the intention to exclusively breastfeed

5.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol ; 12(12): e007569, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31813270

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite a century of research, no clear quantitative framework exists to model the fundamental processes responsible for the continuous formation and destruction of phase singularities (PS) in cardiac fibrillation. We hypothesized PS formation/destruction in fibrillation could be modeled as self-regenerating Poisson renewal processes, producing exponential distributions of interevent times governed by constant rate parameters defined by the prevailing properties of each system. METHODS: PS formation/destruction were studied in 5 systems: (1) human persistent atrial fibrillation (n=20), (2) tachypaced sheep atrial fibrillation (n=5), (3) rat atrial fibrillation (n=4), (5) rat ventricular fibrillation (n=11), and (5) computer-simulated fibrillation. PS time-to-event data were fitted by exponential probability distribution functions computed using maximum entropy theory, and rates of PS formation and destruction (λf/λd) determined. A systematic review was conducted to cross-validate with source data from literature. RESULTS: In all systems, PS lifetime and interformation times were consistent with underlying Poisson renewal processes (human: λf, 4.2%/ms±1.1 [95% CI, 4.0-5.0], λd, 4.6%/ms±1.5 [95% CI, 4.3-4.9]; sheep: λf, 4.4%/ms [95% CI, 4.1-4.7], λd, 4.6%/ms±1.4 [95% CI, 4.3-4.8]; rat atrial fibrillation: λf, 33%/ms±8.8 [95% CI, 11-55], λd, 38%/ms [95% CI, 22-55]; rat ventricular fibrillation: λf, 38%/ms±24 [95% CI, 22-55], λf, 46%/ms±21 [95% CI, 31-60]; simulated fibrillation λd, 6.6-8.97%/ms [95% CI, 4.1-6.7]; R2≥0.90 in all cases). All PS distributions identified through systematic review were also consistent with an underlying Poisson renewal process. CONCLUSIONS: Poisson renewal theory provides an evolutionarily preserved universal framework to quantify formation and destruction of rotational events in cardiac fibrillation.

6.
Rev. colomb. obstet. ginecol ; 70(4): 266-276, oct.-dic. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1093049

RESUMO

RESUMEN Objetivo: presentar el caso de una paciente con síndrome de Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser, con diagnóstico de carcinoma escamoso en neovagina, y realizar una revisión de la literatura del tratamiento y pronóstico de las neoplasias o la infección por VPH de tejidos neovaginales en mujeres transgénero o con síndrome MRKH. Materiales y métodos: mujer de 56 años de edad que consulta en un hospital universitario regional de la ciudad de Sevilla (España). Tras la exploración clínica se aprecia una tumoración exofítica en fondo de vagina, con resultado de biopsia de carcinoma escamoso y cultivo positivo para virus del papilloma humano (VPH) tipo 16. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica en la base de datos Medline vía PubMed, con los términos: "congenital abnormalities"; "mullerian aplasia"; "neovagina"; "vaginal neoplasms"; "squamous carcinoma"; "HPV infection", de reportes y series de caso, y estudios observacionales publicados desde el año 2000 hasta octubre de 2019 en inglés y español. Resultados: se incluyeron 14 estudios; de estos, siete correspondieron a carcinoma escamocelular, tres a adenocarcinoma y cuatro informan infección solo por VPH. Todos los carcinomas escamocelulares presentaban estadios avanzados por compromiso local o linfático y recibieron radioterapia con quimioterapia concomitante o cirugía radical. El pronóstico fue malo en tres de los casos. Las pacientes con adenocarcinoma también presentaron lesiones avanzadas con compromiso local, el tratamiento fue quirúrgico, con quimioterapia concomitante en dos de los casos. Solo una paciente tuvo seguimiento mayor a cinco años. La infección por VPH es frecuente en mujeres sometidas a construcción de neovagina. Conclusiones: las pacientes con neovagina son susceptibles de desarrollar carcinomas escamosos si se utilizaron injertos cutáneos, o adenocarcinomas en aquellas en las que se reconstruyó la vagina a partir de injertos tisulares intestinales. Dado que al momento del diagnóstico presentan compromiso local, a menudo requieren tratamientos radicales o combinados. Se debe investigar cuáles son las mejores estrategias de tamizaje de VPH, cáncer escamoso y adenocarcinoma en este tipo de pacientes.


ABSTRACT Objective: To present the case of a squamous carcinoma in the neovagina of a patient with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome and review of the literature related to treatment and prognosis of vaginal neoplasms or HPV infection in transgender women or with MRKH syndrome. Materials and methods: A 56-year-old woman consulted to the Hospital Universitario of Sevilla (Spain). During the clinical examination, a exophytic tumor at the bottom of the vagina was found and the biopsy reported squamous carcinoma and positive nucleic acid amplification test for human papilloma (HPV) type 16. A literature search of case reports, case series and observational studies published from 2000 to October 2019 in English and Spanish was performed in Medline via PubMed, with the following terms: "congenital abnormalities"; "Mullerian aplasia"; "neovagina"; "Vaginal neoplasms"; "Squamous carcinoma"; "HPV infection" was performed. Results: 14 studies were finally included; seven corresponded to squamous cell carcinoma, three to adenocarcinoma and four reported HPV infection only. All of the squamous cell carcinomas were at advanced stages due to local or lymphatic compromise and received radiotherapy with concomitant chemotherapy or radical surgery. The prognosis was bad in three of the cases. Patients with adenocarcinoma also presented with advanced lesions due to local extensión and received surgical treatment and two cases received concomitant chemotherapy. Only one patient was followed-up for five years or more. HPV infection is common in women who underwent neovagina reconstruction. Conclusions: Patients with neovagina are susceptible to develope squamous carcinomas or adenocarcinomas depending if skin or intestinal tissue grafts are used. According to local compromise at the time of diagnosis, radical or combined treatments are required. Which screening strategies for HPV, squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinoma is to be investigated.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas , Anormalidades Congênitas , Neoplasias Vaginais , Infecções por Papillomavirus
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31694294

RESUMO

Current improvement strategies for the control of cardiovascular risk factors (CRFs) in Europe are based on quality management policies. With the aim of understanding the effect of interventions delivered by primary healthcare systems, we evaluated the impact of clinical governance on cardiovascular health after ten years of implementation in Catalonia. A cohort study that included 1878 patients was conducted in 19 primary care centres (PCCs). Audits that comprised 13 cardiovascular health indicators were performed and general practitioners received periodic (annual, biannual or monthly) feedback about their clinical practice. We evaluated improvement in screening, diagnosis and control of the main CRFs and the effects of the feedback on cardiovascular risk (CR), incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality, comparing baseline data with data at the end of the study (after a 10-year follow-up). The impact of the intervention was assessed globally and with respect to feedback frequency. General improvement was observed in screening, percentage of diagnoses and control of CRFs. At the end of the study, few clinically significant differences in CRFs were observed between groups. However, the reduction in CR was greater in the group receiving high frequency feedback, specifically in relation to smoking and control of diabetes and cholesterol (Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)). A protective effect of having a cardiovascular event (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.44-0.94) or death (HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.35-0.88) was observed in patients from centres where general practitioners received high frequency feedback. Additionally, these PCCs presented improved cardiovascular health indicators and lower incidence and mortality by CVD, illustrating the impact of this intervention.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17289, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593081

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a chronic condition characterized by chronic pain, fatigue and loss of function which significantly impairs quality of life. Although treatment of FM remains disputed, some studies point at the efficacy of interdisciplinary therapy. This study aims to analyze the effectiveness, cost-utility and benefits of a multicomponent therapy on quality of life (main variable), functional impact, mood and pain in people suffering from FM that attend primary care centers (PCCs) of the Catalan Institute of Health (ICS). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A 2-phase, mixed methods study has been designed following Medical Research Council guidance. Phase 1: Pragmatic randomized clinical trial with patients diagnosed with FM that attend one of the 11 PCCs of the ICS Gerència Territorial Terres de l'Ebre. We estimate a total sample of 336 patients. The control group will receive usual clinical care, while the multicomponent therapy group (MT group) will receive usual clinical care plus group therapy (consisting of health education, exercise and cognitive-behavioural therapy) during 12 weeks in 2-hourly weekly sessions. ANALYSIS: the standardized mean response and the standardized effect size will be assessed at 3, 9, and 15 months after the beginning of the study using multiple linear regression models. Utility measurements will be used for the economic analysis. Phase 2: Qualitative socio constructivist study to evaluate the intervention according to the results obtained and the opinions and experiences of participants (patients and professionals). We will use theoretical sampling, with 2 discussion groups of participants in the multicomponent therapy and 2 discussion groups of professionals of different PCCs. A thematic content analysis will be carried out. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study protocol has been approved by the Clinical Research Ethics Committee of the Fundació Institut Universitari per a la recerca a l'Atenció Primària de Salut Jordi Gol i Gurina (code P18/068). Articles will be published in international, peer-reviewed scientific journals. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical-Trials.gov: NCT04049006.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Fibromialgia/terapia , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/economia , Terapia Combinada , Análise Custo-Benefício , Terapia por Exercício/economia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Fibromialgia/economia , Fibromialgia/psicologia , Implementação de Plano de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Cooperação do Paciente , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/economia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Projetos de Pesquisa
9.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; 20(17): 2101-2114, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566420

RESUMO

Introduction: Ventricular arrhythmias are often seen in association with structural heart disease. However, approximately a tenth of affected patients have apparently normal hearts, where such arrhythmias typically occur in young patients, are sometimes inherited and can occasionally lead to sudden cardiac death (SCD). Over the past two decades, increased understanding of the underlying pathophysiology resulted in improved targeted pharmacological therapy.Areas covered: This article reviews current knowledge regarding drug therapy for inherited arrhythmia syndromes (Brugada, early repolarization, long QT and short QT syndromes, and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia), and acquired arrhythmias (idiopathic ventricular fibrillation, short-coupled torsade de pointes, outflow tract ventricular tachycardia, idiopathic left, papillary muscle and annular ventricular tachycardias).Expert opinion: In inherited arrhythmia syndromes, appropriate clinical and genetic diagnoses followed by proper selection and dosing of antiarrhythmic drugs are of utmost importance to prevent SCD, most often without the need of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. In acquired arrhythmias, appropriate pharmacotherapy in selected patients can also provide symptomatic relief and avoid the need for invasive therapy. Further research is needed to develop novel antiarrhythmic drugs or targeted therapy to increase efficacy and limit side effects.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Arritmias Cardíacas/tratamento farmacológico , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Arritmias Cardíacas/genética , Arritmias Cardíacas/patologia , Síndrome de Brugada/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Brugada/patologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Síndrome do QT Longo/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do QT Longo/patologia , Quinidina/uso terapêutico , Taquicardia Ventricular/tratamento farmacológico , Taquicardia Ventricular/patologia
12.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79 Suppl 2: 1-46, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116699

RESUMO

Stroke is the third cause of death and the first cause of disability in Argentina. Ischemic events constitute 80% of cases. It requires the implementation of systematized protocols that allow reducing the time of care, morbidity and mortality. Specialists from nine medical societies related to the care of patients with cerebrovascular disease participated in the consensus. A separate agenda was agreed upon in chapters and for the writing of them, work groups were formed with members of different medical specialties. The level of recommendation was discussed and agreed upon for each topic based on the best clinical evidence available for each of them. An adaptation to the local scope of the recommendations was made when it was considered necessary.The American Heart Association system was used to draft the recommendations and their level of evidence. The correction and editing were done by five external reviewers, who did not participate in the writing and with extensive experience in vascular pathology. Once the preliminary document was finalized, a general meeting was held with all the members of the working groups and the reviewers to reach final recommendations. The consensus covers the management of ischemic stroke in the pre-hospital phase, initial evaluation in the emergency center, recanalization therapies (thrombolysis and/ or mechanical thrombectomy), decompressive craniectomy, neuroimaging and clinical care in the hospital.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Argentina , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Humanos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia
13.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(supl.2): 1-46, mayo 2019. ilus, graf, map
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012666

RESUMO

El accidente cerebrovascular es la tercera causa de muerte y la primera de discapacidad en la Argentina. Los eventos isquémicos constituyen el 80% de los casos. Los accidentes vasculares cerebrales requieren la implementación de protocolos sistematizados que permitan reducir los tiempos en la atención, la morbilidad y mortalidad. En el consenso participaron especialistas de nueve sociedades médicas relacionadas con la atención de pacientes con enfermedad cerebrovascular. Se consensuó un temario separado en capítulos y para la redacción de los mismos se conformaron grupos de trabajo con miembros de diferentes especialidades médicas. Se discutió y acordó para cada tema el nivel de recomendación en base a la mejor evidencia clínica disponible para cada tópico. Se realizó una adaptación al ámbito local de las recomendaciones cuando se consideró necesario. El sistema de la American Heart Association se utilizó para redactar las recomendaciones y su grado de evidencia. La corrección y edición fue realizada por cinco revisores externos, que no participaron en la redacción y con amplia experiencia en enfermedad vascular. Finalizado el documento preliminar, se organizó una reunión general con todos los integrantes de los grupos de trabajo y los revisores para redactar las recomendaciones definitivas. El consenso abarca la atención del paciente con accidente cerebrovascular isquémico en la fase pre-hospitalaria, evaluación inicial en la central de emergencias, terapias de recanalización (trombolisis y/o trombectomía mecánica), craniectomía descompresiva, neuroimágenes y cuidados clínicos en la internación.


Stroke is the third cause of death and the first cause of disability in Argentina. Ischemic events constitute 80% of cases. It requires the implementation of systematized protocols that allow reducing the time of care, morbidity and mortality. Specialists from nine medical societies related to the care of patients with cerebrovascular disease participated in the consensus. A separate agenda was agreed upon in chapters and for the writing of them, work groups were formed with members of different medical specialties. The level of recommendation was discussed and agreed upon for each topic based on the best clinical evidence available for each of them. An adaptation to the local scope of the recommendations was made when it was considered necessary.The American Heart Association system was used to draft the recommendations and their level of evidence. The correction and editing were done by five external reviewers, who did not participate in the writing and with extensive experience in vascular pathology. Once the preliminary document was finalized, a general meeting was held with all the members of the working groups and the reviewers to reach final recommendations. The consensus covers the management of ischemic stroke in the pre-hospital phase, initial evaluation in the emergency center, recanalization therapies (thrombolysis and/ or mechanical thrombectomy), decompressive craniectomy, neuroimaging and clinical care in the hospital.

14.
Rev. argent. radiol ; 83(1): 30-33, mar. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003287

Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Zika virus , Carta
15.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 16(7): 417-436, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30792496

RESUMO

Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) complicates 20-40% of cardiac surgical procedures and 10-20% of non-cardiac thoracic operations. Typical features include onset at 2-4 days postoperatively, episodes that are often fleeting and a self-limited time course. Associated adverse consequences of POAF include haemodynamic instability, increased risk of stroke, lengthened hospital and intensive care unit stays and greater costs. Underlying mechanisms are incompletely defined but include intraoperative and postoperative phenomena, such as inflammation, sympathetic activation and cardiac ischaemia, that combine to trigger atrial fibrillation, often in the presence of pre-existing factors, making the atria vulnerable to atrial fibrillation induction and maintenance. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms might enable the identification of new therapeutic targets. POAF can be prevented by targeting autonomic alterations and inflammation. ß-Blocker prophylaxis is the best-established preventive therapy and should be started or continued before cardiac surgery, unless contraindicated. When POAF occurs, rate control usually suffices, and routine rhythm control is unnecessary; rhythm control should be reserved for patients who develop haemodynamic instability or show other indications that rate control alone will be insufficient. In this Review, we summarize the epidemiological and clinical features of POAF, the available pathophysiological evidence from clinical and experimental investigations, the results of prophylactic and therapeutic approaches and the consensus recommendations of various national and international societies.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/prevenção & controle , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Amiodarona/uso terapêutico , Animais , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Estimulação Cardíaca Artificial , Átrios do Coração , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Sotalol/uso terapêutico
16.
Int J Cardiol ; 287: 189-194, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30501984

RESUMO

The vast majority of clinical arrhythmia-management research over the past couple of decades has focused on catheter-based therapeutic advances. There has been much less emphasis on rate-control strategies; however, the majority of patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) will require some form of rate-control management, making AF rate-control the single most widely used therapeutic component in AF-patients. While the general principles governing AF rate-control have remained largely unchanged, they are often underappreciated. In addition, a number of important controversies make optimal rate-control therapy sometimes difficult to choose. In this review, we aim to address a number of important areas of controversy in the application of AF rate-control, as well as to discuss aspects that are well understood but often underappreciated. Specific areas of focus include the following: (i) heart rate-targets in patients with preserved left-ventricular ejection fraction and concomitant AF; (ii) the clinical implications of differences in pharmacological mechanisms of action between beta-adrenoceptor and Ca2+-channel blockers; (iii) controversies regarding the safety and use of digoxin in AF; (iv) the implications cardiac resynchronization therapy for rate-control in AF; and (v) controversies surrounding the benefits of rate-control with beta-blockers in patients with reduced left-ventricular ejection fraction and AF.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca/métodos , Ablação por Cateter/métodos , Sistema de Condução Cardíaco/fisiopatologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Humanos
17.
J Hosp Infect ; 101(2): 167-174, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248371

RESUMO

This study sought to determine the prevalence and risk factors for colonization with extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) in 815 mothers and 800 newborns using a cross-sectional design; 59 women and 13 neonates were colonized by ESBL-E (prevalence (95% confidence interval): 6.7% (5.2-8.7) and 1.6 (0.7-2.5), respectively). No CPE were found. The most frequent ESBL-E were CTX-M-14 and SHV-12. Vertical transmission occurred in 14% of colonized mothers. The risk factors for colonization were, in mothers: complications in previous pregnancies, more than one urinary tract infection, non-Caucasian ethnicity, and frequently having the main meal outside home; in newborns: colonized mother and vaginal delivery.


Assuntos
Portador Sadio/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Reto/microbiologia , Vagina/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/metabolismo , Adulto , Portador Sadio/transmissão , Estudos Transversais , Enterobacteriaceae/enzimologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Rev Colomb Obstet Ginecol ; 70(4): 266-276, 2019 12.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32142241

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To present the case of a squamous carcinoma in the neovagina of a patient with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome and review of the literature related to treatment and prognosis of vaginal neoplasms or HPV infection in transgender women or with MRKH syndrome. METHODS: A 56-year-old woman consulted to the Hospital Universitario of Sevilla (Spain). During the clinical examination, a exophytic tumor at the bottom of the vagina was found and the biopsy reported squamous carcinoma and positive nucleic acid amplification test for human papilloma (HPV) type 16. A literature search of case reports, case series and observational studies published from 2000 to October 2019 in English and Spanish was performed in Medline via PubMed, with the follow- ing terms: "congenital abnormalities"; "Mullerian aplasia"; "neovagina"; "Vaginal neoplasms"; "Squamous carcinoma"; "HPV infection" was performed. RESULTS: 14 studies were finally included; seven corresponded to squamous cell carcinoma, three to adenocarcinoma and four reported HPV infection only. All of the squamous cell carcinomas were at advanced stages due to local or lymphatic compro- mise and received radiotherapy with concomitant chemotherapy or radical surgery. The prognosis was bad in three of the cases. Patients with adenocarcinoma also presented with advanced lesions due to local extensión and received surgical treatment and two cases received concomitant chemotherapy. Only one patient was followed-up for five years or more. HPV infection is common in women who underwent neovagina reconstruction. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with neovagina are susceptible to develope squamous carcinomas or adenocarcinomas depending if skin or intestinal tissue grafts are used. According to local compromise at the time of diagnosis, radical or combined treatments are required. Which screening strategies for HPV, squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinoma is to be investigated.

19.
Rev. esp. med. nucl. imagen mol. (Ed. impr.) ; 37(6): 359-365, nov.-dic. 2018. ilus, tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-178252

RESUMO

Antecedentes y objetivo: La biopsia selectiva del ganglio centinela (BSGC) surgió para disminuir la morbilidad asociada a la linfadenectomía pélvica en estadios iniciales del cáncer cervical (CC), conservando la información pronóstica obtenida de ella. El objetivo es determinar la validez diagnóstica de la BSGC en CC en estadios iniciales (IA1 con infiltración linfovascular [ILV] +, IA2, IB1 y IIA1), evitando así linfadenectomías innecesarias en muchos de los casos. Material y método: Desde enero del 2012 hasta abril del 2017, 23 pacientes con estadios iniciales de CC fueron incluidas en un estudio transversal de evaluación de la eficacia de la BSGC usando la técnica mixta de inyección cervical de 99mTc-nanocoloide de albúmina y azul de metileno, empleando linfogammagrafía planar combinada con imagen multimodalidad SPECT/TC y posterior extirpación del GC mediante laparoscopia. Resultados: La tasa de detección de la BSGC con técnica mixta fue del 95,6%, siendo el valor predictivo negativo (VPN) del 95,4% y la sensibilidad (S) del 100% en caso de drenaje bilateral. La media de GC extirpados fue de 3 (rango 1-5). La tasa de detección bilateral en la laparoscopia fue del 85,3%. La concordancia entre SPECT/TC y laparoscopia para el número y bilateralidad del GC mediante el coeficiente de Pearson fue r = 0,73 y r = 0,83, respectivamente; p = 0,01. Solo encontramos un GC con resultado diferido de micrometástasis y se detectó un falso negativo. Conclusiones: La BSGC en CC mediante técnica mixta tiene una elevada tasa de detección y de drenaje bilateral, pero aún la S es baja si incluimos casos de drenaje unilateral. Un mayor número de casos y el desarrollo de la ultraestadificación intraoperatoria podrían aumentar la S de la técnica y reducir el número de falsos negativos


Background and objective: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was created to reduce the morbidity associated with pelvic lymphadenectomy in the early stages of cervical cancer (CC), preserving its prognostic information. The goal is to assess the diagnostic validity of SLNB in CC in initial stages (IA1 with lymphovascular infiltration (LVI) +, IA2, IB1 and IIA1), thus avoiding unnecessary lymphadenectomies in many of the cases. Material and method: From January 2012 to April 2017, 23 patients with initial stages of CC were included in a cross-sectional study to evaluate the effectiveness of the SLNB in CC with a mixed technique of cervical injection of 99mTc-nanocolloid of albumin and methylene blue, using combined planar lymphoscintigraphy with multimodality SPECT/CT image and subsequent removal of the sentinel node (SN) by laparoscopy. Results: The detection rate of SLNB with the mixed technique was 95.65%, with a negative predictive value (NPV) of 95.45% and sensitivity (S) of 100% in the case of bilateral drainage. The mean of excised SN was 3 (range 1-5). The bilateral detection rate in laparoscopy was 85.35%. The concordance between SPECT/CT and laparoscopy for the number and bilaterality of the SN using the Pearson coefficient was r = 0.727 and r = 0.833, respectively; p = 0.01. We only found one SN with a deferred result of micrometástasis and one false negative was detected. Conclusions: SLNB in CC using a mixed technique has a high detection and bilateral drainage rate, but S is still low if we include cases of unilateral drainage. A greater number of cases and the development of intraoperative ultrastaging could increase the S of the technique and to reduce the number of false negatives


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Biópsia de Linfonodo Sentinela/métodos , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Coloide de Enxofre Marcado com Tecnécio Tc 99m , Azul de Metileno
20.
Can J Cardiol ; 34(11): 1526-1530, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30404755

RESUMO

Despite major advances in atrial fibrillation (AF) catheter ablation, rate control remains the most widely used management strategy for AF in the general population. In addition to its use as a primary approach to control symptoms and prevent complications of AF, rate control is often a necessary complement to rhythm-control strategies, especially with antiarrhythmic drugs. The value of rate-control therapy is supported by several large randomized clinical trials showing no difference in major cardiovascular outcomes between rate-control and rhythm-control strategies with currently available therapeutic approaches (antiarrhythmic drugs and/or catheter ablation). Despite its extensive use, the rational basis for rate-control therapy is underemphasized in clinical teaching and practice. In this article, we aim to provide evidence-based thoughts on important practical aspects of rate-control therapy in AF by reviewing 5 clinically relevant issues. We (1) highlight the pharmacological differences between the mechanisms of action of ß-blockers and Ca2+-channel blockers for AF rate control and the practical implications for therapeutic decision making; (2) review the controversies surrounding the use of digoxin for AF rate control in the light of recently published work; (3) discuss the evidence for rate-control heart rate targets in patients with AF and preserved left-ventricular function; (4) examine how heart rate targets may differ in patients with heart failure and reduced vs preserved left-ventricular ejection fraction and the importance of heart-rate lowering for the effectiveness of cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with heart failure and AF; (5) discuss the relationship between AF, exercise capacity, and rate-controlling drug class.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/terapia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Terapia de Ressincronização Cardíaca , Digoxina/uso terapêutico , Tolerância ao Exercício/fisiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Volume Sistólico/fisiologia
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