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1.
Rev Invest Clin ; 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34618802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trials evaluating safety and efficacy of tocilizumab in coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) show contradictory results. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of tocilizumab in hospital mortality among patients with severe COVID-19 in a third-level medical center. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included patients with severe and critical COVID-19. Primary outcome was death during hospitalization. Secondary outcomes included invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV), days on IMV, ventilator-free days (VFDs), length of hospital stay (LOS), and development of hospitalacquired infections (HAIs). Bivariate, multivariate, and propensity score matching analysis were performed. RESULTS: During the study period, 99/794 (12%) patients received tocilizumab. Male patients, health care workers, and patients with increased inflammatory markers received tocilizumab more frequently. No difference in hospital mortality was observed between groups (34% vs. 34%, p = 0.98). Tocilizumab was not independently associated with mortality. No significant treatment effects were observed in propensity score analysis. IMV was more frequent (46% vs. 11%, p < 0.01) and LOS was longer (12 vs. 7 days, p < 0.01) in the tocilizumab group, reflecting increased severity. Although HAIs were more frequent in the tocilizumab group (22% vs. 10%, p < 0.01), no difference was seen after adjusting for IMV (38% vs. 40%, p = 0.86). CONCLUSIONS: In our study, tocilizumab was not associated with decreased hospital mortality among patients with severe COVID-19.

2.
Rev Invest Clin ; 73(5): 316-320, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34609365

RESUMO

The purpose of this perspective is to analyze the use of precision medicine and its potential for the next few decades with a special focus on the low- and middle-income countries, using diabetes as a paradigm. Precision medicine has improved the diagnosis, prevention, treatment, and prognosis of several malignant neoplasia. Furthermore, this approach is useful in the management of monogenic diabetes. However, its impact in the current practice for the majority of the cases of diabetes is quite limited. Precision medicine has not fulfilled the expectations because it implies a long-term process composed by several feedback loops, and a number of internal and external validations and calibrations to target specific populations. If we want to obtain the expected benefits, the academic community and science agencies should work together to create the budgets and infrastructure that warrant the transfer of knowledge to the whole of society.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17553, 2021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475436

RESUMO

Arterial hypertension is a major global health problem. It is the main risk factor for preventable death and the leading cause of premature death in the world. This study aims to describe the changes in hypertension-related mortality in Mexico between 1998 and 2018. Using death certificates and national population public data sets, a total of 335,863 deaths due to hypertension were found in Mexico, disaggregated by sex and age, during the time period covered in this study. An age-period-cohort analysis was conducted to show trends in hypertension mortality rates. Mortality due to hypertension in Mexico affects more women than men. In the most recent cohorts, the risk of dying from hypertension is two times higher in men compared to women. Hypertensive kidney disease is found to be the main underlying cause, with an average increase throughout the period studied. Our results indicate that mortality rates due to hypertension continue to grow and point to an alarming trend of mortality shifting towards younger ages, with sex-based disparities in absolute numbers and in changing trends.

4.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472586

RESUMO

Recent advances in human genetics, together with a large body of epidemiologic, preclinical, and clinical trial results, provide strong support for a causal association between triglycerides (TG), TG-rich lipoproteins (TRL), and TRL remnants, and increased risk of myocardial infarction, ischaemic stroke, and aortic valve stenosis. These data also indicate that TRL and their remnants may contribute significantly to residual cardiovascular risk in patients on optimized low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-lowering therapy. This statement critically appraises current understanding of the structure, function, and metabolism of TRL, and their pathophysiological role in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Key points are (i) a working definition of normo- and hypertriglyceridaemic states and their relation to risk of ASCVD, (ii) a conceptual framework for the generation of remnants due to dysregulation of TRL production, lipolysis, and remodelling, as well as clearance of remnant lipoproteins from the circulation, (iii) the pleiotropic proatherogenic actions of TRL and remnants at the arterial wall, (iv) challenges in defining, quantitating, and assessing the atherogenic properties of remnant particles, and (v) exploration of the relative atherogenicity of TRL and remnants compared to LDL. Assessment of these issues provides a foundation for evaluating approaches to effectively reduce levels of TRL and remnants by targeting either production, lipolysis, or hepatic clearance, or a combination of these mechanisms. This consensus statement updates current understanding in an integrated manner, thereby providing a platform for new therapeutic paradigms targeting TRL and their remnants, with the aim of reducing the risk of ASCVD.

5.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 41(9): 2494-2508, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233476

RESUMO

Objective: Low HDL-C (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) is the most frequent dyslipidemia in Mexicans, but few studies have examined the underlying genetic basis. Our purpose was to identify genetic variants associated with HDL-C levels and cardiovascular risk in the Mexican population. Approach and Results: A genome-wide association studies for HDL-C levels in 2335 Mexicans, identified four loci associated with genome-wide significance: CETP, ABCA1, LIPC, and SIDT2. The SIDT2 missense Val636Ile variant was associated with HDL-C levels and was replicated in 3 independent cohorts (P=5.9×10−18 in the conjoint analysis). The SIDT2/Val636Ile variant is more frequent in Native American and derived populations than in other ethnic groups. This variant was also associated with increased ApoA1 and glycerophospholipid serum levels, decreased LDL-C (low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and ApoB levels, and a lower risk of premature CAD. Because SIDT2 was previously identified as a protein involved in sterol transport, we tested whether the SIDT2/Ile636 protein affected this function using an in vitro site-directed mutagenesis approach. The SIDT2/Ile636 protein showed increased uptake of the cholesterol analog dehydroergosterol, suggesting this variant affects function. Finally, liver transcriptome data from humans and the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel are consistent with the involvement of SIDT2 in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Conclusions: This is the first genome-wide association study for HDL-C levels seeking associations with coronary artery disease in the Mexican population. Our findings provide new insight into the genetic architecture of HDL-C and highlight SIDT2 as a new player in cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism in humans.


Assuntos
HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Nucleotídeos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idade de Início , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Células HEK293 , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/sangue , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/diagnóstico , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo II/epidemiologia , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , México/epidemiologia , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Transporte de Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco
6.
Lipids Health Dis ; 20(1): 70, 2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34256778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: LCAT (lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase) deficiency is characterized by two distinct phenotypes, familial LCAT deficiency (FLD) and Fish Eye disease (FED). This is the first systematic review evaluating the ethnic distribution of LCAT deficiency, with particular emphasis on Latin America and the discussion of three Mexican-Mestizo probands. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis) Statement in Pubmed and SciELO. Articles which described subjects with LCAT deficiency syndromes and an assessment of the ethnic group to which the subject pertained, were included. RESULTS: The systematic review revealed 215 cases (154 FLD, 41 FED and 20 unclassified) pertaining to 33 ethnic/racial groups. There was no association between genetic alteration and ethnicity. The mean age of diagnosis was 42 ± 16.5 years, with fish eye disease identified later than familial LCAT deficiency (55 ± 13.8 vs. 41 ± 14.7 years respectively). The prevalence of premature coronary heart disease was significantly greater in FED vs. FLD. In Latin America, 48 cases of LCAT deficiency have been published from six countries (Argentina (1 unclassified), Brazil (38 FLD), Chile (1 FLD), Columbia (1 FLD), Ecuador (1 FLD) and Mexico (4 FLD, 1 FED and 1 unclassified). Of the Mexican probands, one showed a novel LCAT mutation. CONCLUSIONS: The systematic review shows that LCAT deficiency syndromes are clinically and genetically heterogeneous. No association was confirmed between ethnicity and LCAT mutation. There was a significantly greater risk of premature coronary artery disease in fish eye disease compared to familial LCAT deficiency. In FLD, the emphasis should be in preventing both cardiovascular disease and the progression of renal disease, while in FED, cardiovascular risk management should be the priority. The LCAT mutations discussed in this article are the only ones reported in the Mexican- Amerindian population.

7.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 16(1): 291, 2021 06 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated pathogenic DYRK1B variants causative of abdominal obesity-metabolic syndrome 3 (AOMS3) in a group of patients originally diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. All DYRK1B exons were analyzed in a sample of 509 unrelated adults with type 2 diabetes and 459 controls, all belonging to the DMS1 SIGMA-cohort (ExAC). We performed in silico analysis on missense variants using Variant Effect Predictor software. To evaluate co-segregation, predicted pathogenic variants were genotyped in other family members. We performed molecular dynamics analysis for the co-segregating variants. RESULTS: After filtering, Mendelian genotypes were confirmed in two probands bearing two novel variants, p.Arg252His and p.Lys68Gln. Both variants co-segregated with the AOMS3 phenotype in classic dominant autosomal inheritance with full penetrance. In silico analysis revealed impairment of the DYRK1B protein function by both variants. For the first time, we describe age-dependent variable expressivity of this entity, with central obesity and insulin resistance apparent in childhood; morbid obesity, severe hypertriglyceridemia, and labile type 2 diabetes appearing before 40 years of age; and hypertension emerging in the fifth decade of life. We also report the two youngest individuals suffering from AOMS3. CONCLUSIONS: Monogenic forms of metabolic diseases could be misdiagnosed and should be suspected in families with several affected members and early-onset metabolic phenotypes that are difficult to control. Early diagnostic strategies and medical interventions, even before symptoms or complications appear, could be useful.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Adulto , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Mutação , Linhagem , Fenótipo
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3505, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108472

RESUMO

Hundreds of thousands of genetic variants have been reported to cause severe monogenic diseases, but the probability that a variant carrier develops the disease (termed penetrance) is unknown for virtually all of them. Additionally, the clinical utility of common polygenetic variation remains uncertain. Using exome sequencing from 77,184 adult individuals (38,618 multi-ancestral individuals from a type 2 diabetes case-control study and 38,566 participants from the UK Biobank, for whom genotype array data were also available), we apply clinical standard-of-care gene variant curation for eight monogenic metabolic conditions. Rare variants causing monogenic diabetes and dyslipidemias display effect sizes significantly larger than the top 1% of the corresponding polygenic scores. Nevertheless, penetrance estimates for monogenic variant carriers average 60% or lower for most conditions. We assess epidemiologic and genetic factors contributing to risk prediction in monogenic variant carriers, demonstrating that inclusion of polygenic variation significantly improves biomarker estimation for two monogenic dyslipidemias.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Dislipidemias/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Adulto , Variação Biológica da População , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Dislipidemias/metabolismo , Exoma/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial , Penetrância , Medição de Risco
10.
Lipids Health Dis ; 20(1): 46, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33952259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sampson et al. developed a novel method to estimate very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in the setting of hypertriglyceridemia. Familial Combined Hyperlipidemia (FCHL) is a common primary dyslipidemia in which lipoprotein composition interferes with LDL-C estimation. This study aimed to evaluate performance of LDL-C using this new method (LDL-S) compared with LDL-C estimated by Friedewald's and Martin eq. (LDL-F, LDL-M) in FCHL. METHODS: Data were collected from 340 subjects with confirmed FCHL. Concordance for VLDL-C measured by ultracentrifugation and LDL-C estimated using these measures compared to Sampson's, Martin's and Friedewald's equations was performed using correlation coefficients, root mean squared error (RMSE) and bias. Also, concordance of misclassified metrics according to LDL-C (< 70 and < 100 mg/dL) and Apo B (< 80 and < 65 mg/dL) thresholds were assessed. RESULTS: Sampson's equation was more accurate (RMSE 11.21 mg/dL; R2 = 0.88) compared to Martin's (RMSE 13.15 mg/dL; R2 = 0.875) and the Friedewald's equation (RMSE 13.7 mg/dL; R2 = 0.869). When assessing performance according to LDL-C, Sampson's had highest correlation and lowest RMSE compared to other equations (RMSE 19.99 mg/dL; R2 = 0.840). Comparing performance strength across triglyceride levels, Sampson's showed consistently improved correlations compared to Martin's and Friedewald's formulas for increasing triglycerides and for the FCHL phenotype of mixed dyslipidemia. Sampson's also had improved concordance with treatment goals. CONCLUSIONS: In FCHL, VLDL-C and LDL-C estimation using Sampson's formula showed higher concordance with lipid targets assessed using VLDL-C obtained by ultracentrifugation compared with Friedewald's and Martin's equations. Implementation of Sampson's formula could improve treatment monitoring in FCHL.

11.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 21(1): 85, 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910543

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether the metabolically healthy obese (MHO) phenotype is a single, stable or a transitional, fluctuating state is currently unknown. The Mexican-Mestizo population has a genetic predisposition for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and other cardiometabolic complications. Little is known about the natural history of metabolic health in this population. The aim of this study was to analyze the transitions over time among individuals with different degrees of metabolic health and body mass index, and evaluate the incidence of cardiometabolic outcomes according to phenotype. METHODS: The study population consisted of a metabolic syndrome cohort with at least 3 years of follow up. Participants were apparently-healthy urban Mexican adults ≥20 years with a body mass index (BMI) ≥20 kg/m2. Metabolically healthy phenotype was defined using the criteria of the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) metabolic syndrome criteria and the subjects were stratified into 4 groups according to their BMI and metabolic health. For cardiometabolic outcomes we estimated the incidence of cardiometabolic outcomes and standardized them per 1, 000 person-years of follow-up. Finally, to evaluate the risk for transition and development of cardiometabolic outcomes, we fitted Cox Proportional Hazard regression models. RESULTS: Amongst the 5541 subjects, 54.2% were classified as metabolically healthy and 45.8% as unhealthy. The MHO prevalence was 39.3%. Up to a third of the population changed from their initial category to another and the higher transition rate was observed in MHO (42.9%). We also found several novel factors associated to transition to metabolically unhealthy phenotype; socioeconomic status, number of pregnancies, a high carbohydrate intake, history of obesity and consumption of sweetened beverages. Similarly, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) was a main predictor of transition; loss of VAT ≥5% was associated with reversion from metabolically unhealthy to metabolically healthy phenotype (hazard ratio (HR) 1.545, 95%CI 1.266-1.886). Finally, we observed higher incidence rates and risk of incident T2D and hypertension in the metabolically unhealthy obesity (MUHO) and metabolically unhealthy lean (MUHL) phenotypes compared to MHO. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic health is a dynamic and continuous process, at high risk of transition to metabolically unhealthy phenotypes over time. It is imperative to establish effective processes in primary care to prevent such transitions.

12.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 76(8): e117-e126, 2021 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721886

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronological age (CA) is a predictor of adverse coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcomes; however, CA alone does not capture individual responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Here, we evaluated the influence of aging metrics PhenoAge and PhenoAgeAccel to predict adverse COVID-19 outcomes. Furthermore, we sought to model adaptive metabolic and inflammatory responses to severe SARS-CoV-2 infection using individual PhenoAge components. METHOD: In this retrospective cohort study, we assessed cases admitted to a COVID-19 reference center in Mexico City. PhenoAge and PhenoAgeAccel were estimated using laboratory values at admission. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to estimate risk for COVID-19 lethality and adverse outcomes (intensive care unit admission, intubation, or death). To explore reproducible patterns which model adaptive responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection, we used k-means clustering using PhenoAge components. RESULTS: We included 1068 subjects of whom 222 presented critical illness and 218 died. PhenoAge was a better predictor of adverse outcomes and lethality compared to CA and SpO2 and its predictive capacity was sustained for all age groups. Patients with responses associated to PhenoAgeAccel >0 had higher risk of death and critical illness compared to those with lower values (log-rank p < .001). Using unsupervised clustering, we identified 4 adaptive responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection: (i) inflammaging associated with CA, (ii) metabolic dysfunction associated with cardiometabolic comorbidities, (iii) unfavorable hematological response, and (iv) response associated with favorable outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Adaptive responses related to accelerated aging metrics are linked to adverse COVID-19 outcomes and have unique and distinguishable features. PhenoAge is a better predictor of adverse outcomes compared to CA.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/imunologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Inflamação/fisiopatologia , Metabolismo/fisiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Lipids Health Dis ; 20(1): 14, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Familial hypertriglyceridemia (FHTG) is a partially characterized primary dyslipidemia which is frequently confused with other forms hypertriglyceridemia. The aim of this work is to search for specific features that can help physicians recognize this disease. METHODS: This study included 84 FHTG cases, 728 subjects with common mild-to-moderate hypertriglyceridemia (CHTG) and 609 normotriglyceridemic controls. All subjects underwent genetic, clinical and biochemical assessments. A set of 53 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously associated with triglycerides levels, as well as 37 rare variants within the five main genes associated with hypertriglyceridemia (i.e. LPL, APOC2, APOA5, LMF1 and GPIHBP1) were analyzed. A panel of endocrine regulatory proteins associated with triglycerides homeostasis were compared between the FHTG and CHTG groups. RESULTS: Apolipoprotein B, fibroblast growth factor 21(FGF-21), angiopoietin-like proteins 3 (ANGPTL3) and apolipoprotein A-II concentrations, were independent components of a model to detect FHTG compared with CHTG (AUC 0.948, 95%CI 0.901-0.970, 98.5% sensitivity, 92.2% specificity, P < 0.001). The polygenic set of SNPs, accounted for 1.78% of the variance in triglyceride levels in FHTG and 6.73% in CHTG. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical and genetic differences observed between FHTG and CHTG supports the notion that FHTG is a unique entity, distinguishable from other causes of hypertriglyceridemia by the higher concentrations of insulin, FGF-21, ANGPTL3, apo A-II and lower levels of apo B. We propose the inclusion of these parameters as useful markers for differentiating FHTG from other causes of hypertriglyceridemia.

14.
Rev. invest. clín ; 73(1): 1-5, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289737

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Background: Coronavirus (CoV) disease (COVID)-19 poses difficult situations in which the ethical course of action is not clear, or choices are made between equally unacceptable responses. Methods: A web search was performed using the terms “bioethics; COVID-19; ethics; severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2; emergent care; pandemic; and public health emergencies.” Results: Protection from COVID-19 has resulted in the cancellation of necessary medical interventions, lengthened suffering, and potential non-COVID-19 deaths. Prolonged lockdown reduced well-being, triggering or aggravating mental illnesses and violence, and escalated medical risks. Collateral damage includes restrictions on visitations to hospitals, alienation from the deceased relative, or lack of warm caring of patients. Finally, in a public health crisis, public health interest overrides individual rights if it results in severe harm to the community. Conclusion: Balancing ethical dilemmas are one more challenge in the COVID-19 pandemic. (REV INVEST CLIN. 2021;73(1):1-5)

15.
Obes Surg ; 31(5): 2087-2096, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is highly prevalent in obese patients and is the leading cause of death. High levels of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) are associated with higher coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass on the achievement of the currently proposed cardiovascular prevention goals after 1 year. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis from a prospectively built database of patients who underwent a primary Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) from 2004 to 2018. Patients with intermediate, high, or very high risk for CVD according to the 2018 AHA/ACC or the 2019 ESC/EAS guidelines were selected. An analysis of clinical and biochemical variables in 1 year was performed. Logistic multivariate regressions were made to assess the impact of preoperative and weight loss parameters in the achievement of LDL-C goals. RESULTS: From 1039 patients, 70 met the selection criteria and were included in the analysis of the 2018 AHA/ACC guidelines, and 75 in the 2019 ESC/EAS guidelines. Mean decrease in LDL-C levels was 21.1 ± 40.2 mg/dL 1 year after surgery, and 29/34 patients were off medications. The percentage of patients achieving LDL-C goals according to the 2018 AHA/ACC guidelines was 27.1%, whereas according to the 2019 ESC/EAS guidelines, the percentages was 9.3%. The %TWL was associated with achieving LDL-C goals according to the 2018 AHA/ACC at 1 year. CONCLUSIONS: RYGB induces a significant weight loss and an improvement in LDL-C levels 1 year after surgery. The number of patients that reached the goals varies according to the guidelines used and ranged from 9.3 to 27.1%.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Derivação Gástrica , Obesidade Mórbida , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , LDL-Colesterol , Humanos , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Prim Care Diabetes ; 15(1): 162-168, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830095

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the use of the electronic integral monitoring system (SMID) to identify factors associated to glycemic control and its impact in the quality of care in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: T2D patients registered in SMID were analyzed. Biochemical, clinical and lifestyle variables were recorded. Factors associated to HbA1c ≤7% were explored. Quality of care of the clinic was measured according to the National Committee for Quality Assurance Criteria (NCQA) that requires a score of 75 to achieve a good quality of care. RESULTS: 511 patients were included. Prescription of basal insulin, SGLT-2 inhibitors and barriers to follow nutritional plan were associated with decreased probability of having adequate glycemic control. Patients in the maintenance stage of motivation had higher probability of having HbA1c ≤7%. According to NCQA evaluation 60 points were achieved. Glucose goals were not met; 35.9% had HbA1c ≥9% and 17% HbA1c <7%. While foot evaluation, smoking approach, blood pressure and lipids goals were accomplished; eye and renal evaluations were borderline. CONCLUSION: Glycemic control in patients with long standing T2D and multiple comorbidities is challenging, which directly impacts in the quality of care. Professionals should focus in reinforcing non-pharmacological interventions to optimize glycemic targets.

17.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 76(3): e52-e59, 2021 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32598450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has had a disproportionate impact on older adults. Mexico's population is younger, yet COVID-19's impact on older adults is comparable to countries with older population structures. Here, we aim to identify health and structural determinants that increase susceptibility to COVID-19 in older Mexican adults beyond chronological aging. METHODS: We analyzed confirmed COVID-19 cases in older adults using data from the General Directorate of Epidemiology of Mexican Ministry of Health. We modeled risk factors for increased COVID-19 severity and mortality, using mixed models to incorporate multilevel data concerning healthcare access and marginalization. We also evaluated structural factors and comorbidity profiles compared to chronological age for COVID-19 mortality risk prediction. RESULTS: We analyzed 20 804 confirmed SARS-CoV-2 cases in adults aged 60 and older. Male sex, smoking, diabetes, and obesity were associated with pneumonia, hospitalization, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission in older adults, CKD and COPD were associated with hospitalization. High social lag indexes and access to private care were predictors of COVID-19 severity and mortality. Age was not a predictor of COVID-19 severity in individuals without comorbidities and combination of structural factors and comorbidities were better predictors of COVID-19 lethality and severity compared to chronological age alone. COVID-19 baseline lethality hazards were heterogeneously distributed across Mexican municipalities, particularly when comparing urban and rural areas. CONCLUSIONS: Structural factors and comorbidity explain excess risk for COVID-19 severity and mortality over chronological age in older Mexican adults. Clinical decision-making related to COVID-19 should focus away from chronological aging onto more a comprehensive geriatric care approach.


Assuntos
COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2 , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
18.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(2): 506-517, 2021 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Both insulin resistance (IR) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) are related cardiometabolic risk factors; nevertheless, their joint effect on endothelial functionality is controversial. This study aims to evaluate the joint effect of IR and VAT on endothelial functionality using the pulse-waveform analysis and explore the mediating role of VAT on the effect of IR on arterial pressure, arterial stiffness and incident arterial hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS: We measured VAT (n = 586) using two methods (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and a clinical surrogate), arterial stiffness (with pulse-waveform velocity), and IR (using three methods: HOMA2-IR (n = 586), a frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (n = 131) and euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamping (n = 97)) to confirm the mediator effect of IR on VAT. The incidence of arterial hypertension attributable to the mediating effect of IR related to VAT was evaluated using a prospective cohort (n = 6850). Adjusted linear regression models, causal mediation analysis, and Cox-proportional hazard risk regression models were performed to test our objective. IR and VAT led to increased arterial stiffness and increased blood pressure; the combination of both further worsened vascular parameters. Nearly, 57% (ΔE→MY 95% CI: 31.7-100.0) of the effect of IR on altered pulse-wave velocity (PWV) analysis was mediated through VAT. Moreover, VAT acts as a mediator of the effect of IR on increased mean arterial pressure (ΔE→MY 35.7%, 95% CI: 23.8-59) and increased hypertension risk (ΔE→MY 69.1%, 95% CI: 46.1-78.8). CONCLUSION: VAT acts as a mediator of IR in promoting arterial stiffness and arterial hypertension. Both phenomena should be targeted to ameliorate the cardiometabolic risk.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Pressão Arterial , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Resistência à Insulina , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Rigidez Vascular , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Glicemia/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco Cardiometabólico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Incidência , Insulina/sangue , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco
19.
Lancet ; 396(10267): 2019-2082, 2021 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189186
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