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1.
Rev Invest Clin ; 71(4): 217-225, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448777

RESUMO

Vulnerability in research occurs when the participant is incapable of protecting his or her interests and therefore, has an increased probability of being intentionally or unintentionally harmed. This manuscript aims to discuss the conditions that make a group vulnerable and the tools and requirements that can be used to reduce the ethical breaches when including them in research protocols. The vulnerability can be due either to an inability to understand and give informed consent or to unequal power relationships that hinder basic rights. Excluding subjects from research for the only reason of belonging to a vulnerable group is unethical and will bias the results of the investigation. To consider a subject or group as vulnerable depends on the context, and the investigator should evaluate each case individually.

2.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400997

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Intra-abdominal and visceral fat (VAT) are risk factors for the development of cardio-metabolic comorbidities; however its clinical assessment is limited by technology and required expertise for its assessment. We aimed to develop a novel score (METS-VF) to estimate VAT by combining the non-insulin-based METS-IR index, waist-height ratio (WHtr), age and sex. METHODS: We developed METS-VF in a sample of 366 individuals with Dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). METS-VF was modeled using non-linear regression and validated in two replication cohorts with DXA (n = 184, with n = 118 who also had MRI) and bio-electrical impedance (n = 991). We also assessed METS-VF to predict incident type 2 diabetes (T2D) and arterial hypertension independent of body-mass index (BMI) in our Metabolic Syndrome Cohort (n = 6144). RESULTS: We defined METS-VF as: 4.466 + 0.011*(Ln(METS-IR))3 + 3.239*(Ln(WHtr))3 + 0.319*(Sex) + 0.594*(Ln(Age)). METS-VF showed better performance compared to other VAT surrogates using either DXA (AUC 0.896 95% CI 0.847-0.945) or MRI (AUC 0.842 95% CI 0.771-0.913) as gold standards. We identified a METS-VF cut-off point >7.18 in healthy patients which has 100% sensitivity (95% CI 76.8-100) and 87.2% specificity (95% CI 79.1-93.0) to identify increased VAT (>100 cm2). METS-VF also had adequate performance in subjects with metabolically-healthy obesity. Finally, in our metabolic syndrome cohort, subjects in the upper quintiles of METS-VF (>7.2) had 3.8 and 2.0-fold higher risk of incident T2D and hypertension, respectively (p < 0.001). This effect was independent of BMI for both outcomes. CONCLUSION: METS-VF is a novel surrogate to estimate VAT, which has better performance compared to other surrogate VAT indexes and is predictive of incident T2D and hypertension. METS-VF could be a useful tool to assess cardio-metabolic risk in primary care practice and research settings.

3.
J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich) ; 21(8): 1063-1070, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318156

RESUMO

Hypertension is associated with insulin resistance (IR), metabolic syndrome (MS), and arterial stiffness. Non-insulin-based IR indexes were developed as tools for metabolic screening. Here, we aimed to evaluate the novel non-insulin-based Metabolic Score for IR (METS-IR) index for the prediction of incident hypertension and arterial stiffness evaluated using pulse wave velocity (PWV) analysis, compared with other non-insulin-based IR indexes. We evaluated two populations, a cross-sectional evaluation of high-risk individuals (n = 305) with a wide range of metabolic comorbidities and dyslipidemia in whom PWV measurement was performed and a 3-year prospective cohort of normotensive individuals (N = 6850). We observed a positive correlation between METS-IR and PWV in the cross-sectional cohort, which was higher compared with other non-insulin-based fasting IR indexes; furthermore, PWV values >75th percentile were associated with the upper tercile of METS-IR values. In the prospective cohort, we observed an increased risk for incident hypertension for the upper METS-IR tercile (METS-IR ≥ 46.42; HR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.41-2.34), adjusted for known cardiovascular risk factors, and observed that METS-IR had greater increases in the predictive capacity for hypertension along with SBP and the Framingham Hypertension Risk Prediction Model compared with other non-insulin-based IR indexes. Therefore, METS-IR is a novel non-insulin-based IR index which correlates with arterial stiffness and is a predictor of incident hypertension, complementary to previously validated risk prediction models.

4.
Rev Invest Clin ; 71(3): 149-156, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31184330

RESUMO

It is often unclear to the clinical investigator whether observational studies should be submitted to a research ethics committee (REC), mostly because, in general, no active or additional interventions are performed. Moreover, obtaining an informed consent under these circumstances may be challenging, either because these are very large epidemiological registries, or the subject may no longer be alive, is too ill to consent, or is impossible to contact after being discharged. Although observational studies do not involve interventions, they entail ethical concerns, including threats such as breaches in confidentiality and autonomy, and respect for basic rights of the research subjects according to the good clinical practices. In this context, in addition to their main function as evaluators from an ethical, methodological, and regulatory point of view, the RECs serve as mediators between the research subjects, looking after their basic rights, and the investigator or institution, safeguarding them from both legal and unethical perils that the investigation could engage, by ensuring that all procedures are performed following the international standards of care for research. The aim of this manuscript is to provide information on each type of study and its risks, along with actions to prevent such risks, and the function of RECs in each type of study.

5.
F1000Res ; 82019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31001415

RESUMO

The metabolic syndrome (MetS) concept gathers in a single entity a set of metabolic abnormalities that have in common a close relationship with ectopic deposit of lipids, insulin resistance, and chronic low-grade inflammation. It is a valuable teaching tool to help health professionals to understand and integrate the consequences of lipotoxicity and the adverse metabolic consequences of insulin resistance. Also, it is useful to identify subjects with a high risk for having incident type 2 diabetes. Systems biology studies have gained a prominent role in understanding the interaction between adipose tissue dysfunction, insulin action, and the MetS traits and co-morbidities (that is, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, or NASH). This approach may allow the identification of new therapeutic targets (that is, de novo lipogenesis inhibitors for NASH). Treatment targets on MetS are the adoption of a healthy lifestyle, weight loss, and the control of the co-morbidities (hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, arterial hypertension, among others). The long-term goals are the prevention of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular events, and other MetS-related outcomes. In the last few decades, new drugs derived from the identification of innovative treatment targets have come on the market. These drugs have positive effects on more than one MetS component (that is, hyperglycemia and weight control). New potential treatment targets are under study.

6.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 19(1): 41, 2019 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in Mexico. Here, we aimed to report incidence rates (IR) of type 2 diabetes in middle-aged apparently-healthy Mexican adults, identify risk factors associated to ID and develop a predictive model for ID in a high-risk population. METHODS: Prospective 3-year observational cohort, comprised of apparently-healthy adults from urban settings of central Mexico in whom demographic, anthropometric and biochemical data was collected. We evaluated risk factors for ID using Cox proportional hazard regression and developed predictive models for ID. RESULTS: We included 7636 participants of whom 6144 completed follow-up. We observed 331 ID cases (IR: 21.9 per 1000 person-years, 95%CI 21.37-22.47). Risk factors for ID included family history of diabetes, age, abdominal obesity, waist-height ratio, impaired fasting glucose (IFG), HOMA2-IR and metabolic syndrome. Early-onset ID was also high (IR 14.77 per 1000 person-years, 95%CI 14.21-15.35), and risk factors included HOMA-IR and IFG. Our ID predictive model included age, hypertriglyceridemia, IFG, hypertension and abdominal obesity as predictors (Dxy = 0.487, c-statistic = 0.741) and had higher predictive accuracy compared to FINDRISC and Cambridge risk scores. CONCLUSIONS: ID in apparently healthy middle-aged Mexican adults is currently at an alarming rate. The constructed models can be implemented to predict diabetes risk and represent the largest prospective effort for the study metabolic diseases in Latin-American population.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adulto , Algoritmos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Seguimentos , Intolerância à Glucose/diagnóstico , Intolerância à Glucose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Estado Pré-Diabético/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
7.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 151: 128-137, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954513

RESUMO

AIMS: To evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive care program to achieve and maintain goals in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The CAIPaDi program includes 9 interventions delivered in 7 h. It seeks to achieve metabolic goals, identify and resolve barriers that would make implementation difficult, and provide self-efficacy and empowerment to patients by identifying personal profiles to establish individualized strategies. The program consists of a 4 intervention visits (1, 2, 3, and 4 months) and two follow up visits (12 and 24 months). Outcomes are compared between every visit. Main outcome was the attainment of the USA National Committee for Quality Assurance treatment goals. RESULTS: 1104 patients completed the first 4 visits, 545 the 12 month evaluation, and 218 the 24 month evaluation. After the conclusion of the four monthly sessions, 80.6% had HbA1c <7%, 72.1% had BP <130/80 mmHg and 71.6% had LDL- cholesterol <100 mg/dl. After twelve months, the percentage of goals achieved were 65.9%, 67.7% and 43.3% respectively (p < 0.001). For the 2-year evaluation the percentages were 61.0%, 70.6%, and 40.8% respectively (p < 0.001). All patients had renal, eye, foot and dental evaluations. Empowerment and quality of life showed significant changes; anxiety and depression scores remained low at annual follow-ups. CONCLUSIONS: The CAIPaDI program results in sustained improvement and maintenance of treatment goals.


Assuntos
Assistência Integral à Saúde/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
8.
Salud Publica Mex ; 60(5): 500-509, 2018 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30550111

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate an easy-to-use risk score to detect prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes in Mexican population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using information from the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán's cohort study of 10 234 adults, risk factors were identified and included in multiple logistic regression models stratified by sex. The beta coefficients of the final model were multiplied by 10, thus obtaining the weights of each variable in the score. RESULTS: The proposed score correctly classifies 55.4% of women with undiagnosed diabetes and 57.2% of women with prediabetes or diabetes. While for men it correctly classifies them at 68.6% and 69.9%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We present the design and validation of a risk score stratified by sex, to determine if an adult could have prediabetes or diabetes, in which case laboratory studies should be performed to confirm or not the diagnosis.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento , Estado Pré-Diabético/diagnóstico , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco
9.
Gac Med Mex ; 154(Supp 2): S50-S55, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30532124

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the correlation between subrogate index for the evaluation of insulin resistance with the M value obtained with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp as well as their sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values. Method: The euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp was performed in subjects having both normal fasting glucose and glycated hemoglobin concentrations. HOMA-IR, QUICKI, HOMA2%S, TyG, TyG*body mass index (BMI) and triglyceride/HDL indexes were calculated. Correlations coefficients were estimated between indexes results and the M-value adjusted by fat-free mass. Areas under the ROC curve were constructed to evaluate overall performance, sensitivity, specificity and predictive values of the subrogate indexes. Results: 57 subjects, 68.4% women, with a mean age of 32.9 ± 11 years-old were included. The subrogate index with the best correlation with the M value was HOMA2%S (r = 0.428), HOMA-IR had the greatest area under the ROC curve (0.683; 95 % confidence interval: 0.503-0.864) and TyG*BMI the best sensitivity (98.2 %) and specificity (51.1 %). Conclusions: The surrogated indexes for the evaluation of insulin resistance show a significant correlation with the M value obtained with the gold standard. Additional studies are required to determine cut-off values in Mexican population.

10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 108(3): 485-491, 2018 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535090

RESUMO

Background: Recently, the absence of metabolic effects from nonnutritive sweeteners has been questioned. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of sucralose consumption on glucose metabolism variables. Design: We performed a randomized controlled trial involving healthy subjects without comorbidities and with a low habitual consumption of nonnutritive sweeteners (n = 33/group). Methods: The intervention consisted of sucralose consumption as 15% of Acceptable Daily Intake every day for 14 d using commercial sachets. The control group followed the same procedures without any intervention. The glucose metabolism variables (insulin sensitivity, acute insulin response to glucose, disposition index, and glucose effectiveness) were evaluated by using a 3-h modified intravenous-glucose-tolerance test before and after the intervention period. Results: Individuals assigned to sucralose consumption showed a significant decrease in insulin sensitivity with a median (IQR) percentage change of -17.7% (-29.3% to -1.0%) in comparison to -2.8% (-30.7% to 40.6%) in the control group (P= 0.04). An increased acute insulin response to glucose from 577 mU · L-1· min (350-1040 mU · L-1· min) to 671 mU · L-1· min (376-1010 mU · L-1· min) (P = 0.04) was observed in the sucralose group for participants with adequate adherence. Conclusions: Sucralose may have effects on glucose metabolism, and our study complements findings previously reported in other trials. Further studies are needed to confirm the decrease in insulin sensitivity and to explore the mechanisms for these metabolic alterations. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02589002.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina , Sacarose/análogos & derivados , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacologia , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Adoçantes não Calóricos , Sacarose/administração & dosagem , Sacarose/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Nutrients ; 10(11)2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30388780

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified copy number variants (CNVs) associated with obesity in chromosomal regions 1p31.1, 10q11.22, 11q11, 16p12.3, and recently 1p21.1, which contains the salivary amylase gene (AMY1). Recent evidence suggests this enzyme may influence gut microbiota composition through carbohydrate (mainly starch) degradation. The role of these CNVs in obesity has been scarcely explored in the Latino population, and thus the aim of our study was to evaluate the association of 1p31.1, 10q11.22, 11q11, 16p12.3 and 1p21.1 CNVs with obesity in 921 Mexican children, to replicate significant associations in 920 Mexican adults, and to analyze the association of AMY1 copy number with gut microbiota in 75 children and 45 adults. Of the five CNVs analyzed, 1q11 CNV was significantly associated with obesity in children, but not in adults. Only AMY1 CNV was significantly associated with obesity in both age groups. Moreover, gut microbiota analyses revealed a positive correlation between AMY1 copy number and Prevotella abundance. This genus has enzymes and gene clusters essential for complex polysaccharide degradation and utilization. To our knowledge, this is the first study to analyze the association of these five CNVs in the Mexican population and to report a correlation between AMY1 CN and gut microbiota in humans.

12.
Int J Cardiol ; 2018 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30305239

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Serum uric acid (SUA) is a heritable trait associated with cardiovascular risk factors and coronary artery disease (CAD). Genome wide association studies (GWAS) have identified several genes associated with SUA, mainly in European populations. However, to date there are few GWAS in Latino populations, and the role of SUA-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in cardiovascular disease has not been studied in the Mexican population. METHODS: We performed genome-wide SUA association study in 2153 Mexican children and adults, evaluated whether genetic effects were modified by sex and obesity, and used a Mendelian randomization approach in an independent cohort to study the role of SUA modifying genetic variants in premature CAD. RESULTS: Only two loci were associated with SUA levels: SLC2A9 (ß = -0.47 mg/dl, P = 1.57 × 10-42 for lead SNP rs7678287) and ABCG2 (ß = 0.23 mg/dl, P = 2.42 × 10-10 for lead SNP rs2231142). No significant interaction between SLC2A9 rs7678287 and ABCG2 rs2231142 genotypes and obesity was observed. However, a significant ABCG2 rs2231142 genotype*sex interaction (P = 0.001) was observed in adults but not in children. Although SUA levels were associated with premature CAD, metabolic syndrome and decreased glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), only ABCG2 rs2231142 was associated with decreased eGFR in the premature CAD group. CONCLUSIONS: SUA elevation was independently associated with premature CAD, metabolic syndrome and decreased eGFR in the Mexican population. However, a Mendelian randomization approach using the lead SUA-associated SNPs (SLC2A9 and ABCG2) did not support a causal role of elevated SUA levels for premature CAD.

14.
Rev Invest Clin ; 70(5): 211-216, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30307444

RESUMO

The purpose of this manuscript is to highlight the peculiarities of the Mexican population regarding the clinical expression, genetics, and treatment of lipid disorders. Furthermore, it is a call for action to address the existing gaps in care and research of dyslipidemias. The Mexican Mestizos are highly susceptible to metabolic disorders (i.e., low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, hypertriglyceridemia, abdominal obesity, and type 2 diabetes); these conditions are associated with ethnic-specific genetic variants. On the other hand, despite the high prevalence of dyslipidemia in Mexican adults, there is a lack of awareness of these conditions. The public is not informed about the need for screening and the potential benefit of the lipid-lowering treatments. Underdiagnosis and undertreatment are two of the main challenges to be solved. Dyslipidemias are not among the priorities of the health systems for the prevention of cardiovascular disease; access to laboratory resources and medications is insufficient in primary care units despite the proven cost-benefit of the treatment of lipid disorders. Evidence-based public policies are needed to change the practice and allocation of assets to be capable of preventing cardiovascular diseases. Treatment of dyslipidemia should have a prominent role in any effort to decrease the number of preventable deaths caused by non-communicable diseases.

15.
Atherosclerosis ; 277: 517-523, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30270093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In Mexico, familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is, as in other parts of the world, largely underdiagnosed and undertreated, and represents a significant burden to the healthcare system. However, there is not enough information to design public policies against the disease. Genetic studies have shown that LDLR mutations are the most common cause, but in a large percentage of the cases, no mutation has been identified in the FH genes. METHODS: In accordance with the procedures of the European Atherosclerosis Society (EAS) FH registries network, the Mexican FH registry (www.fhmexico.org.mx) was launched in December 2017 to address the gaps in knowledge regarding this disease. Reference centres and the main nationwide public health providers have been invited to participate. RESULTS: To date, 142 cases have been registered. The mean age at diagnosis of probands is 36.42 ±â€¯19.9 years (adults and children). Tendon xanthomas or premature corneal arcus were present in 40% and 17.6%, respectively. Molecular analysis was present in 70%, with over 95% of alterations located on the LDL receptor gene. The median untreated LDL-C is 6.5 (5.6-8.4) mmol/l and the median on treatment LDL-C level is 4.3 ±â€¯1.7 mmol/l. CONCLUSIONS: The Mexican FH registry aims to obtain real world information regarding the management of patients in this country. By participating in this global call to action, we hope to improve both short and long term outcomes for all FH patients in Mexico.

16.
Salud pública Méx ; 60(5): 500-509, sep.-oct. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1004654

RESUMO

Resumen: Objetivo: Diseñar y validar un score de riesgo de fácil aplicación para detectar prediabetes y diabetes no diagnosticada en población mexicana. Material y métodos: Empleando la información del estudio de cohorte de 10 234 adultos del Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (INCMNSZ), se identificaron factores de riesgo incluidos en modelos de regresión logística múltiple estratificados por sexo. Los coeficientes beta fueron multiplicados por 10 para obtener el peso de cada variable en el score. Una submuestra de la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición (Ensanut) 2012 se usó para validar el score. Resultados: El score propuesto clasificó correctamente 55.4% a las mujeres con diabetes no diagnosticada y 57.2% a las mujeres con prediabetes o diabetes. Por su parte, clasificó correctamente a los hombres en 68.6 y 69.9%, respectivamente. Conclusiones: Presentamos el diseño y validación de un score de riesgo estratificado por sexo para determinar si un adulto podría tener prediabetes o diabetes, en cuyo caso deberán realizarse estudios de laboratorio para confirmar o descartar el diagnóstico.


Abstract: Objective: To develop and validate an easy-to-use risk score to detect prediabetes and undiagnosed diabetes in Mexican population. Materials and methods: Using information from the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán's cohort study of 10 234 adults, risk factors were identified and included in multiple logistic regression models stratified by sex. The beta coefficients of the final model were multiplied by 10, thus obtaining the weights of each variable in the score. Results: The proposed score correctly classifies 55.4% of women with undiagnosed diabetes and 57.2% of women with prediabetes or diabetes. While for men it correctly classifies them at 68.6% and 69.9%, respectively. Conclusions: We present the design and validation of a risk score stratified by sex, to determine if an adult could have prediabetes or diabetes, in which case laboratory studies should be performed to confirm or not the diagnosis.

17.
Atherosclerosis ; 277: 72-79, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30176567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Research on the biologic activities of HDL, such as cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL composition, has allowed the understanding of the effect of interventions directed to improve cardiovascular risk. Previously, statin therapy has shown conflicting results about its effects on cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL; the underlying mechanisms are unclear but studies with positive effects are associated with an increase of HDL-cholesterol levels. We investigated if 10 weeks of atorvastatin therapy changes HDL efflux capacity and the chemical composition of its subpopulations. METHODS: In a before-after design basis, HDL-cholesterol levels, chemical composition and cholesterol efflux capacity from HDL subpopulations isolated by isophynic ultracentrifugation were assessed in plasma samples from 60 patients with type 2 diabetes mellito (T2DM) at baseline and after 10 weeks of treatment with 20 mg atorvastatin. Cholesterol efflux was measured from human THP-1 cells using large, light HDL2b and small, dense 3c subpopulations as well as total HDL as acceptors. Changes of cholesterol efflux and chemical composition of HDL after treatment were analyzed. Correlations among variables potentially involved in cholesterol efflux were evaluated. RESULTS: A significant decrease of 4% in HDL-cholesterol levels was observed from 47 (42-54) to 45 (39-56) mg/dL, p = 0.02. Cholesterol efflux from total-HDL and HDL2b and 3c subfractions was maintained unchanged after treatment. The total mass of HDL remained unaffected, except for the HDL3a subpopulation accounted for by a significant increase in total protein content. No significant correlations for variables previously known to be associated with cholesterol efflux were found in our study. CONCLUSIONS: Short therapy of 10 weeks with 20 mg of atorvastatin does not modify the cholesterol efflux capacity neither the total mass of HDL2b, HDL3c and total HDL. The discrepancy with previous reports may be due to the selective effects among different classes of statins or differences in the approaches to measure cellular cholesterol efflux.

18.
J Diabetes Res ; 2018: 3190849, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30116737

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate factors associated with insulin adherence in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) attending a tertiary care centre in Mexico City. Material and Methods: Cross-sectional study, including 200 patients. Adherence to insulin therapy was measured with a medication adherence questionnaire. Sociodemographic data and factors related to insulin omission were collected and compared between the nonadherent and adherent groups. Results: We categorized 117 (58.5%) patients as nonadherent and 83 (41.5%) as adherent. Among the adherent, only 22 patients (11%) had excellent adherence to insulin therapy. The following factors were associated with nonadherence: lack of planning of daily activities (46.1%), fear of hypoglycemia (41%), economic factors (15.4%), and number of insulin applications (2.31 versus 1.76 applications per day). Conclusions: In this study, patients with type 2 diabetes attending a tertiary care referral centre showed inadequate adherence to insulin therapy. The principal factors associated with insulin omission were low socioeconomic status, fear of hypoglycemia, and a greater number of insulin applications per day.

19.
Global Health ; 14(1): 84, 2018 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30134925

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is now a massive epidemic in both California and Mexico, with serious consequences for social and economic well-being. A large proportion of these populations share common ethnic backgrounds. Yet diverse environmental and social conditions across regions create unique opportunities to explore the ways that T2D risk, incidence, management and outcomes manifest. MAIN TEXT: An action-oriented research consortium headed up by the University of California and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico was constituted to set priorities for bi-national translational research, in an attempt to implement and evaluate clinical, public health and policy actions to decrease the burden of T2D for people of Mexican origin. In this paper, we describe the epidemiology of T2D in Mexico and California, review current efforts to combat the epidemic, highlight gaps in knowledge and identify urgent areas of opportunity for collaboration. The group has developed a common research agenda and funding has been obtained to evaluate biological samples from the 2016 Mexican Health Survey, collaborate in a telemedicine-based retinopathy project, implement interventions in food banks, promote a communications campaign, and design a large-scale diabetes prevention effectiveness trial. CONCLUSIONS: T2D has caused a state of emergency in Mexico and is a major health problem among Mexican populations on both sides of the border. Understanding the commonalities and differences between California and Mexico for those of Mexican origin with respect to T2D, when combined with a sharing of knowledge and advances, can produce a bi-national translational research agenda to inform relevant policy and practice. Amidst economic and political uncertainty and limited healthcare budgets, this collaboration can contribute to the development of scientific evidence to inform policies and interventions. This may provide a promising collaborative model that could be expanded to other health conditions and regions of the world.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/prevenção & controle , Cooperação Internacional , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/organização & administração , California/epidemiologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Incidência , México/epidemiologia , Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Salud Publica Mex ; 60(4): 479-486, 2018 Jul-Ago.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30137950

RESUMO

The Mexican Ministry of Health requested the National Institute of Public Health to constitute a group of independent, free of conflict-of-interest academic experts on front-of-pack labelling (FOP). This group was instructed to created a positioning paper to contribute to the development of a FOP system for industrialized products that offers useful information for purchase decision making. This position paper uses the best available scientific evidence, and recommendations from experts of international organizations. The FOP proposal focuses on the contents of energy, nutrients, ingredients and components that if consumed in excess on the diet, can be harmful to people's health, such as added sugars, sodium, total fat, saturated fat and energy. The academic expert group recommends the implementation of a FOP that provides an easy way to quickly assess the quality of a product. It is essential that this FOP provides direct, simple, visible and easily understandable information.

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