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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3159, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081990

RESUMO

There remain parts of our planet that are seldom visited by humans, let alone scientists. In such locations, crowd-sourced or citizen scientist data can be critical in describing biodiversity and detecting change. Rangitahua, the Kermadec Islands, are 750 km from the nearest human-habitation. Although our knowledge of this near pristine location has increased with recent biodiversity expeditions, we still lack comprehensive understanding of the marine biodiversity surrounding the islands. In 2015, professional underwater videographers were commissioned to produce a nature documentary focused on Rangitahua's reefs. We strategically surveyed the raw documentary video and examined how biodiversity estimates differed from traditional scientific surveys. We uncovered three new fish species records for Rangitahua, extending the known distribution for each species, two of which are also new records for New Zealand waters. Comparison of documentary video footage with scientific survey methods showed that estimates of reef fish species richness from the documentary video were similar to stationary surveys, but lower than non-stationary surveys. Moreover, all survey methods, including documentary video, captured different fish assemblages, reflecting each method's particular bias. Overall, we provide a proof-of-concept for how collaborations between scientists and professional natural historians, such as videographers and photographers, can provide valuable biodiversity information.

3.
Trials ; 21(1): 26, 2020 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31907009

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: According to WHO, medication error (ME) is a subject that requires attention at all levels of care to reduce severe and preventable damage related to medication use. Clinical pharmacy practice standards have been proposed around the world so that the pharmacist, as part of a multidisciplinary health team, can help improve patient safety; however, further evidence derived from adequate studies is needed to demonstrate this. This study aims to assess the effect of a clinical pharmacy practice model (CPPM) in preventing MEs associated with the medication use process. METHODS: A prospective, stepped-wedge, cluster-randomized, controlled trial with a duration of 14 months will be performed to compare the effect of a CPPM along with the usual care process of patients in the Pablo Tobón Uribe Hospital (Medellin, Colombia). The study is designed as a cluster-randomized controlled trial, involving five hospital wards (clusters) and 720 patients. Medical wards are allocated to interventions using a stepped-wedge design. Clusters are initially assigned to the control group. After a 2-month observation period, hospital clusters were randomly allocated to the intervention group. Study outcomes will be assessed at baseline and at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 months after randomization. The primary outcome will be to assess the effect of a CPPM on the incidence of medication errors associated with the medication use process. Drug-related problems and factors that contribute to the occurrence of MEs will be assessed as secondary outcomes. Statistical analyses will be performed using a mixed model, with the treatment group and time as fixed effects and the clustering structure as a random effect. Statistical analysis will be performed using Pearson chi-square tests and Student's t-tests, and a P value < 0.05 will be considered statistically significant. DISCUSSION: As far as we know, this is the first stepped-wedge, cluster-randomized, controlled trial designed to assess the change of a CPPM on the incidence of medication errors in a hospital in Colombia, and it could generate valuable information about a standardized and patient-centered clinical pharmacy model to improve the safety of inpatient care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03338725. Registered on 9 November 2017. The first patient was randomized on 2 February 2018. PROTOCOL VERSION: 0010112018JG.

4.
Toxicol In Vitro ; 62: 104681, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655123

RESUMO

Cytochrome P4501A1 (CYP1A1) is involved in the metabolism of several genotoxic/carcinogenic environmental xenobiotics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) like benzo[a]pyrene. Several authors had proposed CYP1A inhibition as a plausible strategy for cancer chemoprevention. Using ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity (EROD), we tested the inhibitory properties of nine flavonoids: quercetin, miricetin, luteolin, fisetin, morin, kaempferol, 5-hydroxyflavone (5-HF), 3-hydroxyflavone (3-HF), and flavone (F) against human recombinant CYP1A1. The last three compounds exerted the highest inhibitory effect with IC50 values of 0.07, 0.10 and 0.08 µM respectively; the more hydroxyl-groups were present, the lower the potency of inhibition was. Biochemical characterization leads to the conclusion that flavone and its hydroxy derivatives are mixed-type inhibitors. In silico studies have shown that, Phe224 and other aromatic residues in the human CYP1A1 active site play an important role in flavonoid-CYP interaction, through a π/π stacking between the aminoacid and the flavonoid C-ring. Outside the active site, the three flavonoids bind preferentially between A and K helices of the enzyme. Results from the Ames test using human S9 fraction revealed that none of the three compounds was mutagenic. We can consider 5-HF, 3-HF, and F as potential chemopreventive agents against genotoxic damage caused by metabolites resulting from CYP1A1 activity.

5.
Bone ; 130: 115141, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707108

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Angiogenesis inhibitors (AgI) are commonly used in combination chemotherapy protocols to treat cancer, and have been linked to osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ). However, it is unknown if AgI therapy alone is sufficient to induce ONJ. We have previously established an ONJ model in rice rats with localized periodontitis that receive zoledronic acid (ZOL). The purpose of this study was to use this model to determine the role of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor A (anti-VEGF) antibody treatment of rice rats with localized maxillary periodontitis. We hypothesized that rice rats with localized maxillary periodontitis given anti-VEGF monotherapy will develop oral lesions that resemble ONJ, defined by exposed, necrotic alveolar bone. METHODS: At age 4 weeks, 45 male rice rats were randomized into three groups (n = 15): 1) VEH (saline), 2) ZOL (80 µg/kg body weight, intravenously once monthly), and 3) anti-VEGF (5 mg B20-4.1.1/kg body weight, subcutaneously twice weekly). After 24 weeks, rats were euthanized, jaws were excised and a high-resolution photograph of each quadrant was taken to assign a severity grade based on gross appearance. Jaws were then fixed, scanned by MicroCT, decalcified and sectioned for histopathologic and immunohistochemical analyses. RESULTS: 40-80% of the rats in the three groups developed gross oral lesions. 50% of ZOL rats developed ONJ. In contrast, 80% of the anti-VEGF rats developed destructive advanced periodontitis that was characterized by extreme alveolar bone loss and fibrosis. Anti-VEGF rats never developed exposed, necrotic bone. Furthermore, only anti-VEGF rats developed mild to severe mandibular periodontitis. Compared to VEH rats, more T-cells were found in periodontal lesions of anti-VEGF rats and more cells of the monocyte lineage were found in ONJ lesions of ZOL rats. CONCLUSIONS: Anti-VEGF monotherapy administered to a validated rodent model of ONJ caused a destructive advanced form of periodontitis that differed significantly from ONJ.

6.
iScience ; 19: 737-748, 2019 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491720

RESUMO

Prolonged heat and sea salt aerosols pose a challenge for the mammalian airway, placing the protective airway surface liquid (ASL) at risk for desiccation. Thus, mammals inhabiting salt marshes might have acquired adaptations for ASL regulation. We studied the airways of the rice rat, a rodent that inhabits salt marshes. We discovered negligible Na+ transport through the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). In contrast, carbachol induced a large Cl- secretory current that was blocked by the calcium-activated chloride channel (CaCC) inhibitor CaCCinhi-A01. Decreased mRNA expression of α, ß, and γ ENaC, and increased mRNA expression of the CaCC transmembrane member 16A, distinguished the rice rat airway. Rice rat airway cultures also secreted fluid in response to carbachol and displayed an exaggerated expansion of the ASL volume when challenged with 3.5% NaCl. These data suggest that the rice rat airway might possess unique ion transport adaptations to facilitate survival in the salt marsh environment.

7.
Enferm. intensiva (Ed. impr.) ; 30(3): 135-143, jul.-sept. 2019. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182972

RESUMO

Objetivos: Determinar la incidencia y categoría más incidente de úlceras por presión (UPP). Conocer las características clínicas de las UPP. Determinar si se realiza un registro adecuado de UPP y las medidas de prevención utilizadas. Método: Estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo realizado durante el año 2014 en la UCI del Hospital Universitario Araba (HUA)-Txagorritxu. La población de estudio fueron todos los pacientes ingresados con UPP, obtenidos mediante muestreo accidental. Los datos se recogieron a través de los registros informatizados del programa Metavisión de valoración del riesgo, valoración clínica y tratamiento de UPP, los cuales se analizaron con estadística descriptiva y se procesaron mediante el paquete estadístico SPSS, versión 22.0. El estudio fue aprobado por el Comité Ético de Investigaciones Clínicas del HUA. Resultados: La incidencia de pacientes con UPP durante el 2014 alcanzó el 6,78%. La localización de UPP más frecuente fue en la zona sacra y en los talones. La categoría de UPP más incidente fue la II, seguida de la I. De las 98 UPP tratadas en nuestros pacientes, 43 se produjeron fuera del servicio y 55 en la UCI del HUA. La ausencia de registro, en todas las variables descritas sobre las UPP, fue de un 19,01%. Conclusiones: La incidencia de UPP alcanzó un porcentaje inferior a lo existente en la literatura actual. La categoría, localización y características clínicas más frecuentes se asimilan a estudios previos. Existe una elevada tasa de no registro de las características de las UPP declaradas. Se efectuaron unas buenas medidas de prevención de UPP y registro de las mismas


Objectives: The aim of this paper is to determine the incidence and most incident pressure ulcers (PU) category. Establish the main clinical characteristics of these PU. Determine whether there is adequate documentation of PU and of the measures used to prevent them. Method: Observational descriptive and retrospective study during 2014 at Intensive Care Unit (ICU)-University Hospital of Araba. Study sample, all patients suffering from PU at the time of the study by accidental sampling. Computerised records regarding risk assessment, clinical assessment and pressure sore treatment, provided by the 'Metavision' computer programme and descriptive statistics using SPSS version 22.0. Approval from the Ethics Committee for Clinical Research of the University Hospital of Araba was obtained. Results: The incidence of patients suffering from PU during 2014 was 6.78%. The most common locations for PU were the sacral region and the heels: the most incident pressure ulcers category was grade II, followed by grade I. Out of the 98 PU treated in our patients, 43 occurred outside the ICU and 55 in the unit itself. The lack of records, in all the variables described about PU, was 19.10%. Conclusions: The incidence of pressure ulcers was lower than in the current literature. The most frequent category, location and clinical characteristics are comparable to previous studies. There is a high rate of failing to record the characteristics of the PU declared. Good PU prevention measures and recording were carried out


Assuntos
Humanos , Idoso , Lesão por Pressão/epidemiologia , Lesão por Pressão/prevenção & controle , Registros de Enfermagem , Controle de Formulários e Registros , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Dados
8.
Bone Rep ; 10: 100210, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31193542

RESUMO

Objective: To determine the effect of an antibody to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on bone blood flow, bone strength, and bone mass in the young adult mouse. Methods: Ten-week-old male BALB/cJ mice were body weight-randomized into either a rodent anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody (anti-VEGF, B20-4.1.1; 5 mg/kg 2×/wk.; n = 12) group or a vehicle (VEH; n = 12) group. After 42 days, mice were evaluated for bone blood flow at the distal femur by 18F-NaF-PET/CT and then necropsied. Samples from trabecular and cortical bone regions were evaluated for bone strength by mechanical testing, bone mass by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), and micoarchitecture (MicroCT). Hydration of the whole femur was studied by proton nuclear magnetic resonance relaxometry (1H NMR). Results: Distal femur blood flow was 43% lower in anti-VEGF mice than in VEH mice (p = 0.009). Ultimate load in the lumbar vertebral body was 25% lower in anti-VEGF than in VEH mice (p = 0.013). Bone mineral density (BMD) in the trabecular region of the proximal humeral metaphysis by pQCT, and bone volume fraction and volumetric BMD by MicroCT were the same in the two groups. Volume fraction of bound water (BW) of the whole femur was 14% lower in anti-VEGF than in VEH mice (p = 0.003). Finally, BW, but not cortical tissue mineral density, helped section modulus explain the variance in the ultimate moment experienced by the femur in three-point bending. Conclusion: Anti-VEGF caused low bone blood flow and bone strength in trabecular bone regions without influencing BMD and microarchitecture. Low bone strength was also associated with low bone hydration. These data suggest that bone blood flow is a novel bone property that affects bone quality.

9.
Tech Coloproctol ; 23(6): 545-550, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sacral neuromodulation (SNM) is a widely used therapeutic option for fecal incontinence (FI). Larger series are mainly from Western countries, while few reports address the results of SNM in less developed or less wealthy countries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of SNM in patients with FI in Latin America. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on patients with FI who had SNM between 2009 and 2016 at 15 specialized colorectal surgery centers in Latin America. Main outcomes measures were functional outcomes, postoperative complications, requirement of revisional surgery, and requirement of device removal. All patients had failed conservative management and had clinical assessment including recording of the validated Cleveland Clinic Florida Fecal Incontinence Score (CCF-FIS) and, when available, anal manometry and endoanal ultrasound. Patients were followed up for a median of 36.7 (1-84) months. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-one patients [119 females, median age of 62.2 (range 19-87) years] were included. The most common etiology of FI was obstetric injury (n = 60; 45.8%). After successful test lead implantation, the stimulator was permanently placed in 129 patients (98.5%). One patient failed to respond in the test phase and one patient did not proceed to permanent implantation for insurance reasons. Nineteen patients (14.7%) had 19 complications including infection (n = 5, 3.8%), persistent implant site pain (n = 5, 3.8%), generator/lead dislodgment (n = 5, 3.8%), malfunctioning device (n = 3, 2.3%), and hematoma (n = 1, 0.7%). Reimplantation after the first and second stages was necessary in 2 (1.5%) and 3 patients (2.3%), respectively. The device removal rate was 2.2%. At a median follow-up of 36.7 (range 1-84) months, the CCF-FIS significantly improved from a preoperative baseline of 15.9 ± 2.98 to 5.2 ± 3.92 (95%CI: 15.46 vs 4.43; p < 0.0001). Overall, 90% of patients rated their improvement as "significant". CONCLUSIONS: Sacral nerve stimulation for FI is safe and efficient, even in less wealthy or less developed countries.

10.
R Soc Open Sci ; 6(4): 181616, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183118

RESUMO

Hybridization can increase adaptive potential when enhanced genetic diversity or novel genetic combinations confer a fitness advantage, such as in the evolution of anti-parasitic mechanisms. Island systems are especially susceptible to invasive parasites due to the lack of defence mechanisms that usually coevolve in long-standing host-parasite relationships. We test if host genetic admixture affects parasite numbers in a novel host-parasite association on the Galápagos Islands. Specifically, we compare the number of Philornis downsi in nests with offspring sired by Darwin's small tree finch (Camarhynchus parvulus), Darwin's medium tree finch (C. pauper) and hybrids of these two species. The number of P. downsi decreased with an increasing genetic admixture of the attending male, and nests of hybrid males had approximately 50% fewer parasites than C. parvulus nests, and approximately 60% fewer parasites than C. pauper nests. This finding indicates that hybridization in this system could be favoured by selection and reveal a mechanism to combat an invasive parasite.

11.
Oral Dis ; 25(4): 1116-1135, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712276

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the extent that zoledronate (ZOL) dose and duration is associated with bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) prevalence in rice rats with generalized periodontitis (PD), characterize structural and tissue-level features of BRONJ-like lesions in this model, and examine the specific anti-resorptive role of ZOL in BRONJ. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rice rats (n = 228) consumed high sucrose-casein diet to enhance generalized PD. Groups of rats received 0, 8, 20, 50 or 125 µg/kg IV ZOL/4 weeks encompassing osteoporosis and oncology ZOL doses. Rats from each dose group (n = 9-16) were necropsied after 12, 18, 24 and 30 weeks of treatment. BRONJ-like lesion prevalence and tissue-level features were assessed grossly, histopathologically and by MicroCT. ZOL bone turnover effects were assessed by femoral peripheral quantitative computed tomography, serum bone turnover marker ELISAs and osteoclast immunolabelling. RESULTS: Prevalence of BRONJ-like lesions was significantly associated with (a) ZOL treatment duration, but plateaued at the lowest oncologic dose, and (b) there was a similar dose-related plateau in the systemic anti-resorptive effect of ZOL. ZOL and BRONJ-like lesions also altered the structural and tissue-level features of the jaw. CONCLUSION: The relationship between BRONJ-like lesion prevalence and ZOL dose and duration varies depending on the co- or pre-existing oral risk factor. At clinically relevant doses of ZOL, BRONJ-like lesions are associated with anti-resorptive activity.


Assuntos
Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/epidemiologia , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Periodontite/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido Zoledrônico/uso terapêutico , Animais , Osteonecrose da Arcada Osseodentária Associada a Difosfonatos/patologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Prevalência , Ratos , Sigmodontinae , Ácido Zoledrônico/efeitos adversos
12.
J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol ; 33(6): 1051-1061, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30422337

RESUMO

In recent years, several non-invasive imaging methods have been introduced to facilitate diagnostics and therapy monitoring in dermatology. The microscopic imaging methods are restricted in their penetration depth, while the mesoscopic methods probe deeper but provide only morphological, not functional, information. 'Raster-scan optoacoustic mesoscopy' (RSOM), an emerging new imaging technique, combines deep penetration with contrast based on light absorption, which provides morphological, molecular and functional information. Here, we compare the capabilities and limitations of currently available dermatological imaging methods and highlight the principles and unique abilities of RSOM. We illustrate the clinical potential of RSOM, in particular for non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring of inflammatory and oncological skin diseases.


Assuntos
Dermatologia , Diagnóstico por Imagem/métodos , Microscopia/métodos , Técnicas Fotoacústicas/métodos , Humanos , Pele/diagnóstico por imagem
13.
Calcif Tissue Int ; 104(1): 79-91, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30218117

RESUMO

To elucidate mechanisms of bone loss after spinal cord injury (SCI), we evaluated the time-course of cancellous and cortical bone microarchitectural deterioration via microcomputed tomography, measured histomorphometric and circulating bone turnover indices, and characterized the development of whole bone mechanical deficits in a clinically relevant experimental SCI model. 16-weeks-old male Sprague-Dawley rats received T9 laminectomy (SHAM, n = 50) or moderate-severe contusion SCI (n = 52). Outcomes were assessed at 2-weeks, 1-month, 2-months, and 3-months post-surgery. SCI produced immediate sublesional paralysis and persistent hindlimb locomotor impairment. Higher circulating tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (bone resorption marker) and lower osteoblast bone surface and histomorphometric cancellous bone formation indices were present in SCI animals at 2-weeks post-surgery, suggesting uncoupled cancellous bone turnover. Distal femoral and proximal tibial cancellous bone volume, trabecular thickness, and trabecular number were markedly lower after SCI, with the residual cancellous network exhibiting less trabecular connectivity. Periosteal bone formation indices were lower at 2-weeks and 1-month post-SCI, preceding femoral cortical bone loss and the development of bone mechanical deficits at the distal femur and femoral diaphysis. SCI animals also exhibited lower serum testosterone than SHAM, until 2-months post-surgery, and lower serum leptin throughout. Our moderate-severe contusion SCI model displayed rapid cancellous bone deterioration and more gradual cortical bone loss and development of whole bone mechanical deficits, which likely resulted from a temporal uncoupling of bone turnover, similar to the sequalae observed in the motor-complete SCI population. Low testosterone and/or leptin may contribute to the molecular mechanisms underlying bone deterioration after SCI.

14.
Enferm Intensiva ; 30(3): 135-143, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30190248

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to determine the incidence and most incident pressure ulcers (PU) category. Establish the main clinical characteristics of these PU. Determine whether there is adequate documentation of PU and of the measures used to prevent them. METHOD: Observational descriptive and retrospective study during 2014 at Intensive Care Unit (ICU)-University Hospital of Araba. Study sample, all patients suffering from PU at the time of the study by accidental sampling. Computerised records regarding risk assessment, clinical assessment and pressure sore treatment, provided by the 'Metavision' computer programme and descriptive statistics using SPSS version 22.0. Approval from the Ethics Committee for Clinical Research of the University Hospital of Araba was obtained. RESULTS: The incidence of patients suffering from PU during 2014 was 6.78%. The most common locations for PU were the sacral region and the heels: the most incident pressure ulcers category was grade II, followed by grade I. Out of the 98 PU treated in our patients, 43 occurred outside the ICU and 55 in the unit itself. The lack of records, in all the variables described about PU, was 19.10%. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of pressure ulcers was lower than in the current literature. The most frequent category, location and clinical characteristics are comparable to previous studies. There is a high rate of failing to record the characteristics of the PU declared. Good PU prevention measures and recording were carried out.


Assuntos
Registros de Enfermagem , Lesão por Pressão/epidemiologia , Lesão por Pressão/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 58(1): 40-49, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30572978

RESUMO

Rice rats (Oryzomys palustris) are an unconventional laboratory species that has been used to study photoperiodicity, periodontitis, and osteonecrosis of the jaw. Interventional procedures that require anesthesia, including oral procedures, are sometimes necessary in preclinical settings. The use of anesthetics including isoflurane and ketamine combined with α2-adrenoreceptor agonists, such as dexmedetomidine and xylazine, is well-established for laboratory rodents. However, their effects have been studied only modestly in rice rats. The aims of this study were to 1) determine the safety and consistency of 3 common anesthetic modalities in rice rats; 2) compare the physiologic and clinical responses to these anesthetics, and 3) verify the effectiveness of the most successful modality by testing it during an oral procedure (tooth extraction). Isoflurane, intraperitoneal ketamine-dexmedetomidine, and intraperitoneal ketamine-xylazine were evaluated by using a crossover design, in which each rat received all of the anesthetics. Compared with ketamine-dexmedetomidine and ketamine-xylazine, isoflurane inhalation through a nose cone produced more rapid induction, entry to a surgical plane of anesthesia, and initial recovery. In addition, isoflurane produced optimal anesthesia throughout the procedure for most rats. Unlike ketamine-dexmedetomidine and ketamine-xylazine, isoflurane did not alter rectal temperature, SpO2, or respiratory rate during the surgical tolerance period, whereas ketamine-dexmedetomidine and ketamine-xylazine decreased rectal temperature during the last stage of anesthesia and induced cardiorespiratory depression. Furthermore, 2 rats experienced negative outcomes warranting euthanasia: one after receiving ketamine-dexmedetomidine, and the other after ketamine-xylazine anesthesia. In conclusion, isoflurane was the most reliable and effective anesthetic in rice rats and maintained a surgical depth of anesthesia for as long as 30 min, thus supporting successful tooth extractions.

16.
Photoacoustics ; 10: 31-37, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29988835

RESUMO

Nailfold capillaroscopy, based on bright-field microscopy, is widely used to diagnose systemic sclerosis (SSc). However it cannot reveal information about venules and arterioles lying deep under the nailfold, nor can it provide detailed data about surface microvasculature when the skin around the nail is thick. These limitations reflect the fact that capillaroscopy is based on microscopy methods whose penetration depth is restricted to about 200 µm. We investigated whether ultra-wideband raster-scan optoacoustic mesoscopy (UWB-RSOM) can resolve small capillaries of the nailfold in healthy volunteers and compared the optoacoustic data to conventional capillaroscopy examinations. We quantified UWB-RSOM-resolved capillary density and capillary diameter as features that relate to SSc biomarkers, and we obtained the first three-dimensional, in vivo images of the deeper arterioles and venules. These results establish the potential of UWB-RSOM for analyzing SSc-relevant markers.

17.
Waste Manag ; 77: 203-212, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30008410

RESUMO

Volatile fatty acid (VFA) production through anaerobic fermentation may constitute an innovative solution for organic waste management within the context of circular economy. In the present study, the evolution of individual VFA during laboratory-scale fermentation of sewage sludge (SS), winery wastewater (Www) and meat and bone meal (MBM) was assessed, focusing on the effect of pH (5.5 and 10) and temperature (35 and 55 °C). Up-scaling of the fermentation process was evaluated in batch operation. The latter showed that specific VFA could be produced, giving similar individual evolution to lab-scale testing. To be precise, acetic acid percentage ranged within 30-65% and increased up to 5900 mg O2 L-1 during SS fermentation at 55 °C and pH 9. In addition, 60% butyric acid was reached during Www acid fermentation at 55 °C, which corresponded to 6670 mg O2 L-1 concentration in the fermentation broth. Regarding valeric acid, over 20% proportion and 2700 mg O2 L-1 were reached in MBM acid fermentation at 35 °C. Finally, iso-valeric maximum level ranged within 15-17% in SS alkaline fermentation at 55 °C, which represented a concentration close to 2000 mg O2 L-1. Interestingly, co-fermentation of agri-food waste and SS at thermophilic temperature and alkaline pH, boosted the VFA concentration 1.7-2 fold, which suggests that anaerobic co-fermentation of substrates from different nature could give promising outcomes in full-scale operation.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos Voláteis , Esgotos , Reatores Biológicos , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Águas Residuárias
18.
Ecology ; 99(6): 1391-1401, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29856491

RESUMO

Local adaptation can lead to genotype-by-environment interactions, which can create fitness tradeoffs in alternative environments, and govern the distribution of biodiversity across geographic landscapes. Exploring the ecological circumstances that promote the evolution of fitness tradeoffs requires identifying how natural selection operates and during which ontogenetic stages natural selection is strongest. When organisms disperse to areas outside their natural range, tradeoffs might emerge when organisms struggle to reach key life history stages, or alternatively, die shortly after reaching life history stages if there are greater risks of mortality associated with costs to developing in novel environments. We used multiple populations from four ecotypes of an Australian native wildflower (Senecio pinnatifolius) in reciprocal transplants to explore how fitness tradeoffs arise across ontogeny. We then assessed whether the survival probability for plants from native and foreign populations was contingent on reaching key developmental stages. We found that fitness tradeoffs emerged as ontogeny progressed when native plants were more successful than foreign plants at reaching seedling establishment and maturity. Native and foreign plants that failed to reach seedling establishment died at the same rate, but plants from foreign populations died quicker than native plants after reaching seedling establishment, and died quicker regardless of whether they reached sexual maturity or not. Development rates were similar for native and foreign populations, but changed depending on the environment. Together, our results suggest that natural selection for environment-specific traits early in life history created tradeoffs between contrasting environments. Plants from foreign populations were either unable to develop to seedling establishment, or they suffered increased mortality as a consequence of reaching seedling establishment. The observation of tradeoffs together with environmentally dependent changes in development rate suggest that foreign environments induce organisms to develop at a rate different from their native habitat, incurring consequences for lifetime fitness and population divergence.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Senécio , Austrália , Ecossistema , Seleção Genética
19.
Am Nat ; 191(4): E108-E128, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29570402

RESUMO

Genetic correlations between traits can concentrate genetic variance into fewer phenotypic dimensions that can bias evolutionary trajectories along the axis of greatest genetic variance and away from optimal phenotypes, constraining the rate of evolution. If genetic correlations limit adaptation, rapid adaptive divergence between multiple contrasting environments may be difficult. However, if natural selection increases the frequency of rare alleles after colonization of new environments, an increase in genetic variance in the direction of selection can accelerate adaptive divergence. Here, we explored adaptive divergence of an Australian native wildflower by examining the alignment between divergence in phenotype mean and divergence in genetic variance among four contrasting ecotypes. We found divergence in mean multivariate phenotype along two major axes represented by different combinations of plant architecture and leaf traits. Ecotypes also showed divergence in the level of genetic variance in individual traits and the multivariate distribution of genetic variance among traits. Divergence in multivariate phenotypic mean aligned with divergence in genetic variance, with much of the divergence in phenotype among ecotypes associated with changes in trait combinations containing substantial levels of genetic variance. Overall, our results suggest that natural selection can alter the distribution of genetic variance underlying phenotypic traits, increasing the amount of genetic variance in the direction of natural selection and potentially facilitating rapid adaptive divergence during an adaptive radiation.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Evolução Biológica , Variação Genética , Seleção Genética , Senécio/genética , Fenótipo , Senécio/anatomia & histologia
20.
Br J Anaesth ; 120(1): 101-108, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29397116

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Significant hypotension is frequent after spinal anaesthesia and fluid administration as therapy is usually empirical. Inferior vena cava (IVC) ultrasound (US) is effective to assess fluid responsiveness in critical care patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the IVCUS-guided volume optimization to prevent post-spinal hypotension. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized, cohort study, 160 patients scheduled for surgery under spinal anaesthesia were randomized into a study group (IVCUS-group), consisting of an IVCUS analysis before spinal anaesthesia with IVCUS-guided volume management and a control group (group C) with no IVCUS assessment. The primary outcome was a relative risk reduction in the incidence of hypotension between the groups; secondary outcomes were the need for vasoactive drugs and the amounts of fluids required after spinal anaesthesia. We also tested the hypothesis of a correlation between IVC collapsibility index and hypotension after spinal anaesthesia. RESULTS: The relative risk reduction of hypotension between the groups was 35% (IVCUS-group 27.5%, Group C 42.5%, P=0.044, CI=95%). The need for vasoactive drugs in the IVCUS-group was significantly lower compared to the C-group (P=0.015), while the total amount of fluids was significantly superior higher in the IVCUS group (P<0.0001) compared to Group C. IVC collapsibility index was correlated with the amount of fluid administered (r2=0.32), but could not be used to predict postspinal anaesthesia hypotension. CONCLUSIONS: IVCUS is an effective method to prevent postspinal anaesthesia hypotension by IVCUS-guided fluid administration before spinal anaesthesia. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: www.clinicaltrials.gov - NCT02271477.


Assuntos
Raquianestesia/efeitos adversos , Hidratação/métodos , Hipotensão/prevenção & controle , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Veia Cava Inferior/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Cuidados Críticos , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Vasoconstritores/uso terapêutico , Adulto Jovem
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