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1.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32315554

RESUMO

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency is developing an Establishment-based Risk Assessment model for Hatcheries to allocate inspection resources according to the food safety risk associated with each hatchery falling under its jurisdiction. In a previous study, 29 factors contributing to the food safety risk of hatcheries were identified and grouped into three clusters (inherent risk, risk mitigation, and compliance) and assessment criteria were defined. The objective of the current study was to estimate the relative risk (RR) of these criteria. Two rounds of expert elicitations were conducted to allow 13 Canadian experts to estimate the RR of each criterion (n = 96) based on its potential impact on human health, with a specific focus on Salmonella spp. This process also aimed to estimate the maximum increase or decrease in the overall food safety risk of a hatchery when considering multiple criteria belonging to a specific cluster and to assess the risk attribution of Salmonella spp. at the hatchery and bird-type levels. Results showed that the respondent profile had no influence on the importance given to a majority of criteria. Uniformity of answers among experts improved from the first to the second round. Overall, 62.5%, 32.3%, and 5.2% of the criteria were attributed to an RR that was less than 2, between 2 and 3, and greater than 3, respectively. Mixing eggs from different supply flocks when placed into the same hatching unit, hatching multiple species, and importing eggs with unknown quality status were identified as having the highest contribution to a hatchery's inherent risk. Requiring information on the foodborne pathogen status of supplying flocks and the occurrence of regulatory enforcement actions were the most impactful risk mitigation and compliance factors, respectively. The median RR value assigned to each criterion and cluster will be used to build this new model.

2.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 67(1): 14-24, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550078

RESUMO

Towards the continuous improvement of its inspection system, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) is developing an Establishment-based Risk Assessment model for Hatcheries to allocate inspection resources based on the food safety risk associated with the Canadian hatcheries falling under its jurisdiction. The objectives of the current study were to identify and select critical food safety-related risk factors that would be included in this model, with a main focus on Salmonella. A literature review was used to develop a comprehensive list of risk factors that could potentially contribute to the food safety risk attributed to Canadian hatcheries operating in all production streams (breeders, layers, broilers, turkeys, waterfowl and game birds). The development of this list used a selection process that was conducted according to the availability of data sources, the clarity of definition and the measurability of the selected risk factors. A panel of experts reviewed and adjusted the identified risk factors. A final list of 29 risk factors was generated; 20 originated from the scientific literature and nine from the expert panel. Risk factors were grouped in three clusters according to whether they pertained to the inherent risk (nine factors identified), risk mitigation (nine factors identified) or compliance of a hatchery with its preventive control plan and regulatory requirements (11 factors identified). Criteria for assessing each risk factor were defined based on common practices used in the Canadian hatchery industry. This comprehensive list of risk factors and criteria represents useful information to support the design and implementation of a Canadian risk assessment model for hatcheries, but could also be used by like-minded food safety authorities.

3.
Prev Vet Med ; 174: 104823, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734519

RESUMO

As part of the development of a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) model of third-generation cephalosporins (3GC)-resistant Salmonella Heidelberg, a compartmental (SEIR) model for S. Heidelberg transmission within a typical Canadian commercial broiler chicken flock was developed. The model was constructed to estimate the within-flock prevalence and the bacterial concentration in the barn environment at pre-harvest, and to assess the effect of selected control measures. The baseline scenario predicted an average within-flock prevalence of 23.5 % (95 % tolerance interval: 15.7-31.4) and an average bacterial concentration of 3.579 (0-4.294) log CFU/g of feces in the barn environment at pre-harvest (on the day the flock is sent to slaughter). Because vertical introduction of S. Heidelberg into the barn was already uncommon in the baseline scenario, vaccination of broiler parent flocks appeared to have a negligible effect, while vaccination of broiler chicken flocks substantially reduced the bacterial concentration at pre-harvest. Cleaning and disinfection between batches markedly reduced the within-flock prevalence at pre-harvest, but the effect on bacterial concentration was limited outside of the beginning of the production period. Extending downtime between batches by 7 days had little effect on within-flock prevalence or bacterial concentration of S. Heidelberg when compared to the baseline scenario. This study provides a basis to describe S. Heidelberg dynamics within a broiler chicken flock and to predict the within-flock prevalence and bacterial concentration at pre-harvest, and includes a description of the limitations and data gaps. The results of these analyses and associated uncertainties are critical information for populating QMRA models of the downstream impacts on public health from on-farm and other food-chain practices. Specifically, the study findings will be integrated into a broader farm-to-fork QMRA model to support the risk-based control of S. Heidelberg resistant to 3GC in broiler chicken in Canada.

4.
Epidemiol Infect ; 147: e296, 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679543

RESUMO

Codex published the 'Guidelines for Risk Analysis of Foodborne Antimicrobial Resistance' to standardise the approach for evaluating risk posed by foodborne antimicrobial-resistant bacteria. One of the first steps in the guidelines is to compile a risk profile, which provides the current state of knowledge regarding a food safety issue, describes risk management options and recommends next steps. In Canada, ceftiofur/ceftriaxone-resistant Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Heidelberg from poultry was identified as an antimicrobial resistance (AMR) food safety issue. The first objective of this article was to contextualise this food safety issue, using the risk profile format of the Codex Guidelines. A second objective was to evaluate the applicability of the Codex Guidelines. This risk profile indicated that ceftiofur/ceftriaxone-resistant S. Heidelberg (CSH) was commonly isolated from poultry and was associated with severe disease in humans. Ceftiofur use in poultry hatcheries temporally mirrored the prevalence of CSH from poultry meat at retail and from people with salmonellosis. The evidence was sufficient to indicate the need for risk management options, such as restricting the use of ceftiofur in poultry. The Codex Guidelines provided a useful approach to summarise data for decision-makers to evaluate an AMR food safety issue.

5.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 220, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380397

RESUMO

Antimicrobial use surveillance data need to be analyzed and reported in a standardized and harmonized way. In veterinary medicine, one approach is to use defined daily doses (DDD) for animals. DDD for animals are technical standards used in various measures or metrics that quantify antimicrobial use. The European Medicines Agency published principles for assigning DDDvet values based on information on dosing obtained from nine European countries. For measuring antimicrobial use in livestock within Canada, DDDs for animals reflective of Canadian veterinary antimicrobial use (DDDvetCAs) were needed. Our objectives were (1) to describe the development of DDDvetCA standards for pigs and poultry (broiler chickens and turkeys) for authorized and compounded antimicrobial active ingredients used in Canada, including those used extra-label; and (2) to compare the DDDvetCAs with EMA's DDDvets, where possible. Species-specific DDDvetCAs were assigned based on the average of unique antimicrobial daily doses obtained from product information, stratified by route of administration and age indication (where applicable). The feed, water and bolus DDDvetCAs were compared to oral DDDvets, and injectable DDDvetCAs to parenteral DDDvets, that matched by antimicrobial active ingredient. Seventy-five DDDvetCAs were assigned for pigs; 51 for poultry. Seventeen injectable DDDvetCAs could be compared to 14 EMA's parenteral DDDvets and 53 feed, water, and bolus DDDvetCAs could be compared to 40 oral DDDvets. Feed and water DDDvetCAs were generally lower than EMA's oral DDDvets, although differences in methodology between Canada and Europe make comparisons challenging. The assignment of DDDvetCAs was a resource intensive and iterative process. EMA's published principles for assigning DDDvets were an invaluable source of information. The use of DDDvetCAs will reflect exposure of Canadian animals to antimicrobials, be useful for evaluating associations between use and resistance within Canada and provide information for risk assessment and stewardship policies. However, when reporting antimicrobial use data internationally, using the same DDD standards as other reporting countries will facilitate between country comparisons, although differences in which antimicrobial active ingredients are licensed between countries may create challenges. Future steps include assigning DDDvetCAs for other food animal species, such as cattle, veal, and farmed fish.

6.
Microb Drug Resist ; 25(8): 1250-1256, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158059

RESUMO

Food-producing animals are recognized to play a role in the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance in Canada. However, the presence of resistant organisms in particular groups of animals, such as chickens raised in small-holder flocks, has not been studied. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to identify and characterize Escherichia coli possessing broad-spectrum ß-lactamase genes among a collection of third-generation cephalosporin-resistant isolates recovered from 205 small flocks in southern Ontario. Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL; CTX-M-1) positive strains were isolated from 26 out of 205 flocks (12.7%), whereas 39 strains possessing AmpC (CMY-2) were grown from 31 out of 205 flocks (15.1%). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed that the isolates were genetically heterogeneous. Further testing by multi-locus sequence typing confirmed that none of the PFGE-defined clusters belonged to ST131. Our results suggest that the dissemination of this resistance in bacteria isolated from chickens in small-holder flocks may be associated with the spread of plasmids rather than particular E. coli clones and that these isolates do not possess the ESBL types most commonly associated with human infections (CTX-M-15).


Assuntos
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , beta-Lactamases/genética , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado/métodos , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/métodos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/métodos , Ontário , Plasmídeos/genética
7.
Front Vet Sci ; 6: 131, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131285

RESUMO

Using data from the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS), we aimed to describe trends in antimicrobial use (AMU) in broiler chickens and turkeys, to compare AMU across species, to compare with trends in antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and to assess the effects of various AMU/AMR units of measurement (metrics and indicators) on data integration. Data on AMU and AMR in enteric bacteria, collected from 2013 to 2017 from broiler chickens (n = 143 flocks) and turkeys (n = 145) were used. In broiler chickens, the total AMU in milligrams/population correction unit (mg/PCUBr) decreased by 6%, the number (n) of defined daily doses for animals using Canadian standards (nDDDvetCA) per 1,000 broiler chicken-days decreased by 12%, and nDDDvetCA/PCU decreased by 6%. In turkeys, the mg/PCUTk decreased by 1%, whereas the nDDDvetCA/1,000 turkey-days and the nDDDvetCA/PCU increased by 1 and 5%, respectively. The types of antimicrobial classes used in both species were similar. Using the frequency of flocks reporting use (i.e., number of flocks reporting use/number of flocks participating) as a measurement, the use of certain antimicrobials changed over time (e.g., Broilers, decreased cephalosporin use, virginiamycin use, emerging use of lincomycin-spectinomycin, and avilamycin; Turkeys: increased trimethoprim-sulfonamides and macrolide use). The trends in resistance to specific antimicrobials paralleled the frequency and quantity of use (e.g., ceftriaxone use decreased-ceftriaxone resistance decreased, and gentamicin use increased-gentamicin resistance increased) in some situations, but not others (decreased fluoroquinolone use-increased ciprofloxacin resistance). AMR data were summarized using the AMR indicator index (AMR Ix). The most notable AMR Ix trend was the decrease in ceftriaxone AMR Ix among Escherichia coli (0.19 to 0.07); indicative of the success of the poultry industry action to eliminate the preventive use of third generation cephalosporins. Other trends observed were the increase in ciprofloxacin AMR Ix among Campylobacter from 0.23 to 0.41 and gentamicin AMR Ix among E. coli from 0.11 to 0.22, suggestive of the persistence/emergence of resistance related to previous and current AMU not captured in our surveillance timeframe. These data highlight the necessity of multiple AMU and AMR indicators for monitoring the impact of stewardship activities and interventions.

8.
J Microbiol Methods ; 157: 81-87, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30592979

RESUMO

We report a novel RNase H2-dependent PCR (rhPCR) genotyping assay for a small number of discriminatory single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that identify lineages and sub-lineages of the highly clonal pathogen Salmonella Heidelberg (SH). Standard PCR primers targeting numerous SNP locations were initially designed in silico, modified to be RNase H2-compatible, and then optimized by laboratory testing. Optimization often required repeated cycling through variations in primer design, assay conditions, reagent concentrations and selection of alternative SNP targets. The final rhPCR assay uses 28 independent rhPCR reactions to target 14 DNA bases that can distinguish 15 possible lineages and sub-lineages of SH. On evaluation, the assay correctly identified the 12 lineages and sub-lineages represented in a panel of 75 diverse SH strains. Non-specific amplicons were observed in 160 (15.2%) of the 1050 reactions, but due to their low intensity did not compromise assay performance. Furthermore, in silico analysis of 500 closed genomes from 103 Salmonella serovars and laboratory rhPCR testing of five prevalent Salmonella serovars including SH indicated the assay can identify Salmonella isolates as SH, since only SH isolates generated amplicons from all 14 target SNPs. The genotyping results can be fully correlated with whole genome sequencing (WGS) data in silico. This fast and economical assay, which can identify SH isolates and classify them into related or unrelated lineages and sub-lineages, has potential applications in outbreak identification, source attribution and microbial source tracking.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Tipagem Molecular/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Salmonella enterica/genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Humanos , Ribonucleases/metabolismo , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia
9.
Avian Dis ; 63(3): 433-445, 2019 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31967426

RESUMO

Since 2013, the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) has collected antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance data from sentinel broiler chicken flocks (Br, five provinces) and sentinel turkey flocks (Tk, one province 2013-2015, three provinces 2016-2017). The objectives of this paper were to describe various preventive strategies aimed at controlling necrotic enteritis (NE) and coccidiosis in the broiler chicken and turkey flocks participating in CIPARS and FoodNet Canada Farm Surveillance Program between 2013 and 2017, to quantify and identify trends in antimicrobials used in feed, and to describe temporal changes in the diagnoses of bacterial and protozoal diseases in relation to antimicrobial use in feed. Comprehensive data were collected (by questionnaire) enabling AMU assessment by various count-based metrics (i.e., frequency and number of medicated rations), weight-based metrics (i.e., inclusion rate in feed and kilograms consumed), and technical indicators (i.e., milligrams per population correction unit [mg/PCU]). Qualitative information such as reasons for use and frequency of diagnosed diseases provided context to the trends in AMU. Between 2013 and 2017, 646 broiler flocks (14.9 million kg biomass) and 234 turkey flocks (12.4 million kg biomass) were surveyed. Overall, antimicrobials used for the prevention of Clostridium perfringens infections (NE) contributed to 85% (109/128 mg/PCUBr) and 95% (59/62 mg/PCUTk) of the quantity of antimicrobials administered via feed in broiler chickens and turkeys, respectively. Three NE programs were used: either 1, 2, or ≥3 antimicrobials administered throughout the production cycle. The treatment protocol in which a single antimicrobial was used throughout the cycle was the most frequent NE preventive program for broiler chickens (58%) and turkeys (76%). Bacitracin and virginiamycin were the top two most frequently used antimicrobials in both species for NE. For coccidiosis control, ionophores and chemical coccidiostats contributed to 66% (3091 kg) and 68% (1561 kg) of the total feed antimicrobial exposures in broiler chickens and turkeys, respectively. Documented coccidiosis programs included continuous or straight (1 drug/cycle), shuttle or dual control (≥2 drugs/cycle), and vaccination. Variations in coccidiosis programs between species were noted: broiler chickens frequently used a shuttle or dual-control program (68%), whereas turkey flocks used primarily a continuous or straight program (74%). Flocks raised without antibiotics and organic farms (10.3% of broiler chickens and 9.8% turkey flocks) used vaccines to prevent coccidiosis. A small number of broiler flocks (n = 6) used a combination of a vaccination and a coccidiostat during the cycle. During the surveillance timeframe used for this paper, the total feed AMU decreased over time in broiler chickens from 136 to 120 mg/PCUBr and in turkeys from 85 to 62 mg/ PCUTk, with no remarkable changes in the frequency of flocks diagnosed with bacterial and protozoal diseases. Surveillance findings such as these will be used as valid reference points in light of the upcoming changes in Canadian federal AMU regulations and industry-led initiatives aimed at reducing AMU.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Coccidiose/veterinária , Enterite/veterinária , Necrose/veterinária , Perus , Animais , Canadá , Infecções por Clostridium/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Clostridium/microbiologia , Infecções por Clostridium/veterinária , Clostridium perfringens/efeitos dos fármacos , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Enterite/tratamento farmacológico , Enterite/microbiologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Fazendas , Necrose/tratamento farmacológico , Necrose/microbiologia
10.
Can J Vet Res ; 82(3): 163-177, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30026640

RESUMO

Poultry has been identified as a reservoir of foodborne enteric pathogens and antimicrobial resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to describe and compare antimicrobial resistant isolates from an Ontario broiler chicken farm-level baseline project (2003 to 2004) to the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) Ontario abattoir and retail surveillance data from 2003, and to the most recent (2015) CIPARS Ontario chicken surveillance data in order to assess the impact of an industry-wide policy change in antimicrobial use. Ceftiofur resistance (TIO-R) prevalence in Salmonella decreased by 7% on farm between 2003 and 2004 and 2015. During the same timeframe, TIO-R E. coli prevalence decreased significantly by 16%, 11%, and 8% in farm, abattoir, and retail samples, respectively. Gentamicin resistant (GEN-R) E. coli, however, increased by 10% in farm and 15% in retail-derived isolates, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole resistant (TMSm-R) E. coli increased significantly by 20%, 18%, and 5% in farm, abattoir, and retail isolates, respectively. Similarly, ciprofloxacin-resistant (CIP-R) Campylobacter spp. significantly increased in retail isolates by 11% and increased in farm (33%) and abattoir isolates (7%). The decrease in TIO-R Salmonella/E. coli in recent years is consistent with the timing of an industry-led intervention eliminating the preventive use of ceftiofur, a third generation cephalosporin and class of antimicrobials deemed critically important to human medicine. The rise in GEN-R and TMSm-R prevalence is indicative of recent shifts in antimicrobial use. Our study highlights the importance of integrated surveillance in detecting emerging trends and determining the efficacy of interventions to improve food safety.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Campylobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Matadouros , Animais , Fazendas , Fezes/microbiologia , Ontário , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Prev Vet Med ; 148: 115-120, 2017 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29157369

RESUMO

The extra-label use of ceftiofur in Canadian hatcheries was cause for concern due to an increased prevalence of ceftiofur resistant Salmonella Heidelberg in chickens and humans in Québec. Due to on-going concerns related to human health the use of ceftiofur was eventually phased out of the poultry production industry in 2014-2015. Simultaneous resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ceftiofur and cefoxitin, a pattern known as A2C, caused by the presence of blaCMY-2 has become increasingly prevalent in broiler flocks worldwide. This study used data from the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) broiler farm surveillance program to examine the risk factors for A2C resistant Escherichia coli isolates (A2C-REI) from 1482 samples taken from 371 broiler flocks in Canada, between 2013 and 2015. Results of a mixed effects Poisson model with fixed effects at the flock level and random effects at the hatchery level indicated that the in ovo use of ceftiofur (Prevalence Ratio (PR): 1.91, 95% CI: 1.43-2.57), and the use of hydrogen peroxide to disinfect water lines during the growing period (PR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.11-2.07), were risk factors for increased expected prevalence of A2C-REI, compared to farms not using these strategies. Controlling for wild birds (PR: 0.64, 95% CI: 0.48-0.84), use of avilamycin in feed (PR: 0.63, 95% CI: 0.41-0.98), and storage of manure on the farm (PR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.51-0.89) were associated with a lower expected prevalence of A2C-REI, than farms that did not use these strategies. This study identified important management factors that were associated with the prevalence of A2C-REI on Canadian broiler farms. The findings of this study can be used as a baseline for the monitoring of the effects of the removal of ceftiofur from poultry production in Canada.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Amoxicilina/farmacologia , Animais , Canadá , Cefoxitina/farmacologia , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Ácido Clavulânico/farmacologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Fatores de Risco
12.
PLoS One ; 12(6): e0179384, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28658278

RESUMO

There is a paucity of data on the reason for and the quantity of antimicrobials used in broiler chickens in Canada. To address this, the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (CIPARS) implemented surveillance of antimicrobial use (AMU) and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in broiler chicken flocks in 2013. Shortly after this (2014), the poultry industry banned the preventive use of ceftiofur in broiler chickens. The objectives of this analysis were to describe antimicrobial use (AMU) in Canadian broiler chickens between 2013 and 2015 (n = 378 flocks), compare these results to other animal species in Canada, to highlight the utility of farm surveillance data to evaluate the impact of a policy change, and to explore how different antimicrobial use metrics might affect data interpretation and communication. The surveillance data indicated that the poultry industry policy resulted in lower antimicrobial use and resistance, and they successfully captured information on when, where, why, and how much antimicrobials were being used. The majority of antimicrobials were administered via the feed (95%). The relative frequency of antimicrobial classes used in broiler chickens differed from those used in swine or in food animal production in general. Coccidiostats were the most frequently used antimicrobial classes (53% of total kg). Excluding coccidiostats, the top three most frequently used antimicrobial classes were bacitracin (53% of flocks), virginiamycin (25%) and avilamycin (21%), mainly used for the prevention of necrotic enteritis. Depending on the AMU metric utilized, the relative rankings of the top antimicrobials changed; hence the choice of the AMU metric is an important consideration for any AMU reporting. When using milligrams/Population Correction Unit (mg/PCU) the top three antimicrobial classes used were bacitracins (76 mg/PCU), trimethoprim-sulfonamides (24 mg/PCU), and penicillins (15 mg/PCU), whereas when using a number of Defined Daily Doses in animals using Canadian standards /1,000 chicken-days at risk (nDDDvetCA/1,000 CD) the ranking was bacitracins (223 nDDDvetCA/1,000 CD), streptogramins (118 nDDDvetCA/1,000 CD), and trimethoprim-sulfonamides (87 nDDDvetCA/1,000 CD). The median animal treatment days in feed for one cycle (ATD/cycle) during the three-year study were 34 ATD/cycle; this was equal to the mean age of the flocks at pre-harvest sampling day (days at risk), indicating that the studied flocks except those that were raised without antibiotics and organic, were fed with medicated rations throughout the observation period. Overall, more than half (59%) of antimicrobials used in broiler chickens were in classes not used in human medicine, such as ionophores and chemical coccidiostats aimed to prevent coccidiosis. Compared to grower-finisher pigs and in production animal species (national sales data), the mg/PCU of antimicrobials used in broiler chickens was relatively lower. The findings of this paper highlighted the importance of farm-level AMU surveillance in measuring the impact of interventions to reduce antimicrobials in poultry.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Enterite/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Canadá , Galinhas , Enterite/prevenção & controle
13.
Genome Announc ; 4(5)2016 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27635008

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Heidelberg is a highly clonal serovar frequently associated with foodborne illness. To facilitate subtyping efforts, we report fully assembled genome sequences of 17 Canadian S Heidelberg isolates including six pairs of epidemiologically related strains. The plasmid sequences of eight isolates contain several drug resistance genes.

14.
Avian Dis ; 60(3): 553-75, 2016 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27610715

RESUMO

Emerging and re-emerging diseases are continuously diagnosed in poultry species. A few of these diseases are known to cross the species barrier, thus posing a public health risk and an economic burden. We identified and synthesized global evidence for poultry nonfoodborne zoonoses to better understand these diseases in people who were exposed to different poultry-related characteristics (e.g., occupational or nonoccupational, operational types, poultry species, outbreak conditions, health status of flocks). This review builds on current knowledge on poultry zoonoses/potentially zoonotic agents transmitted via the nonfoodborne route. It also identifies research gaps and potential intervention points within the poultry industry to reduce zoonotic transmission by using various knowledge synthesis tools such as systematic review (SR) and qualitative (descriptive) and quantitative synthesis methods (i.e., meta-analysis). Overall, 1663 abstracts were screened and 156 relevant articles were selected for further review. Full articles (in English) were retrieved and critically appraised using routine SR methods. In total, eight known zoonotic diseases were reviewed: avian influenza (AI) virus (n = 85 articles), Newcastle disease virus (n = 8), West Nile virus (WNV, n = 2), avian Chlamydia (n = 24), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (n = 3), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, n = 15), Ornithonyssus sylvarium (n = 4), and Microsporum gallinae (n = 3). In addition, articles on other viral poultry pathogens (n = 5) and poultry respiratory allergens derived from mites and fungi (n = 7) were reviewed. The level of investigations (e.g., exposure history, risk factor, clinical disease in epidemiologically linked poultry, molecular studies) to establish zoonotic linkages varied across disease agents and across studies. Based on the multiple outcome measures captured in this review, AI virus seems to be the poultry zoonotic pathogen that may have considerable and significant public health consequences; however, epidemiologic reports have only documented severe human cases clustered in Asia and not in North America. In contrast, avian Chlamydia and MRSA reports clustered mainly in Europe and less so in North America and other regions. Knowledge gaps in other zoonoses or other agents were identified, including potential direct (i.e., nonmosquito-borne) transmission of WNV from flocks to poultry workers, the public health and clinical significance of poultry-derived (livestock-associated) MRSA, the zoonotic significance of other viruses, and the role of poultry allergens in the pathophysiology of respiratory diseases of poultry workers. Across all pathogens reviewed, the use of personal protective equipment was commonly cited as the most important preventive measure to reduce the zoonotic spread of these diseases and the use of biosecurity measures to reduce horizontal transmission in flock populations. The studies also emphasized the need for flock monitoring and an integrated approach to prevention (i.e., veterinary-public health coordination with regard to diagnosis, and knowledge translation and education in the general population) to reduce zoonotic transmission.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Aves Domésticas , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Humanos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
15.
PLoS One ; 9(8): e104905, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25171228

RESUMO

Campylobacter and antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter are frequently isolated from broiler chickens worldwide. In Canada, campylobacteriosis is the third leading cause of enteric disease and the regional emergence of ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter in broiler chickens has raised a public health concern. This study aimed to identify, critically appraise, and synthesize literature on sources of Campylobacter in broilers at the farm level using systematic review methodology. Literature searches were conducted in January 2012 and included electronic searches in four bibliographic databases. Relevant studies in French or English (n = 95) conducted worldwide in any year and all study designs were included. Risk of Bias and GRADE criteria endorsed by the Cochrane collaboration was used to assess the internal validity of the study and overall confidence in the meta-analysis. The categories for on-farm sources were: broiler breeders/vertical transfer (number of studies = 32), animals (n = 57), humans (n = 26), environment (n = 54), and water (n = 63). Only three studies examined the antimicrobial resistance profiles of Campylobacter from these on-farm sources. Subgroups of data by source and outcome were analyzed using random effect meta-analysis. The highest risk for contaminating a new flock appears to be a contaminated barn environment due to insufficient cleaning and disinfection, insufficient downtime, and the presence of an adjacent broiler flock. Effective biosecurity enhancements from physical barriers to restricting human movement on the farm are recommended for consideration to enhance local on-farm food safety programs. Improved sampling procedures and standardized laboratory testing are needed for comparability across studies. Knowledge gaps that should be addressed include farm-level drug use and antimicrobial resistance information, further evaluation of the potential for vertical transfer, and improved genotyping methods to strengthen our understanding of Campylobacter epidemiology in broilers at the farm-level. This systematic review emphasizes the importance of improved industry-level and on-farm risk management strategies to reduce pre-harvest Campylobacter in broilers.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Infecções por Campylobacter/transmissão , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Campylobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Campylobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico
16.
Can Vet J ; 54(11): 1041-52, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24179239

RESUMO

This paper identifies common poultry diseases requiring antimicrobial therapy, antimicrobials deemed efficacious to treat these diseases, and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in these commodity-pathogen combinations, and describes current residue issues and minor use minor species (MUMS) guidelines. Veterinarians with turkey/layer expertise and diagnosticians were surveyed to determine the bacterial and protozoal diseases diagnosed in the last 5 years. Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale were the 3 most frequently diagnosed pathogens of turkeys. In layers, E. coli-peritonitis, and Clostridium perfringens/Eimeria spp. infections were the most common diagnoses. A literature review identified 32 antimicrobials as efficacious and/or recommended for treating these diseases. Surveillance and monitoring indicate the presence of enteric resistant organisms from some of these avian species (including resistance to antimicrobials of very high importance to human medicine). This paper highlights the need for surveillance of pathogen frequency, antimicrobial use (AMU), and AMR particularly in turkeys.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Infecções Bacterianas/veterinária , Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Perus , Animais , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Aves Domésticas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 19(7): 1121-4, 2013 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23764141

RESUMO

During 2005-2010, the Canadian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance identified increased prevalence of ciprofloxacin (a fluororquinolone) resistance among Campylobacter isolates from retail chicken in British Columbia (4%-17%) and Saskatchewan (6%-11%), Canada. Fluoroquinolones are critically important to human medicine and are not labeled for use in poultry in Canada.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Colúmbia Britânica , Campylobacter/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/microbiologia , Humanos , Saskatchewan , Tetraciclina/farmacologia
19.
Can Vet J ; 53(12): 1289-300, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23729827

RESUMO

This paper reviews common therapeutic applications of antimicrobials in broiler chicken production in relation to Canadian guidelines, surveillance data, and emerging public health concerns about antimicrobial use (AMU). Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, and Staphylococcus spp., were reviewed because of their animal health and economic significance. Enterococcus cecorum and Salmonella were included because of their importance in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance. This review identified that i) antimicrobials are available in Canada to treat infections by these agents, but may be through over the counter or extra-label use, ii) prevalence rates for these diseases are unknown, iii) antimicrobial use estimates in broilers are lacking, and iv) AMR has emerged in clinical isolates, though data are very sparse. This review highlights the need for surveillance of AMU and AMR in broiler chickens in Canada.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Galinhas , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Canadá , Feminino , Masculino , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados
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