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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 731, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection require lifelong effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). The goal of ART in HIV-infected persons is sustained viral suppression. There is limited information on virological non-suppression or failure and its associated factors in children in resource limited countries, particularly Ghana. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 250 children aged 8 months to 15 years who had been on ART for at least 6 months attending the Paediatric HIV clinic at Korle Bu Teaching hospital in Ghana was performed. Socio-demographic, clinical, laboratory and ART Adherence related data were collected using questionnaires as well as medical records review. Blood samples were obtained for viral load and CD4+ count determination. Viral load levels > 1000 copies/ml on ART was considered virological non-suppression. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with virological non-suppression. RESULTS: The mean (±SD) age of the study participants was 11.4 ± 2.4 years and the proportion of males was 53.2%. Of the 250 study participants, 96 (38.4%) had virological non-suppression. After adjustment for significant variables, the factors associated with non-suppressed viral load were female gender (AOR 2.51 [95% CI 1.04-6.07], p = 0.041), having a previous history of treatment of tuberculosis (AOR 4.95 [95% CI 1.58-15.5], p = 0.006), severe CD4 immune suppression status at study recruitment (AOR 24.93 [95% CI 4.92-126.31], p < 0.001) and being on a nevirapine (NVP) based regimen (AOR 7.93 [95% CI 1.58-1.15], p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: The prevelance of virological non-suppression was high. Virological non-suppression was associated with a previous history of TB treatment, female gender, severe CD4 immune suppression status at study recruitment and being on a NVP based regimen. Early initiation of ART and phasing out NVP-based regimen might improve viral load suppression in children. In addition, children with a history of TB may need focused measures to maximize virological suppression.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Falha de Tratamento , Tuberculose/complicações , Carga Viral
2.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 20: 23259582211022469, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34060369

RESUMO

WHO recommends hepatitis C (HCV) screening for all people living with HIV (PLHIV). Yet, HCV coinfection was shown to be rare in some Sub-Saharan HIV cohorts, and targeted testing was suggested more efficient for such settings. We studied HCV prevalence among Ghanaian PLHIV, and assessed the external validity of a score to guide targeted testing. This score was initially derived from a Cambodian HIV cohort, and uses as predictors: age, household member/partner with liver disease, diabetes, generalized pruritus, AST, platelets, and AST-to-platelet ratio index. We enrolled 4,023 PLHIV, most from Greater Accra and Central regions, 28.4% were male, median age was 47 years, and high-risk behavior was reported to be rare. HCV seroprevalence was 0.57%, and HCV-RNA was detectable in 0.5%. Sequencing revealed genotype 1(b) and 2(q/r) infections. The discriminatory performance of the score was suboptimal in the Ghanaian setting. The area under the curve was 0.69 (95% CI 0.59-0.79). HCV coinfection prevalence was very low in this Ghanaian PLHIV cohort with reported low-risk of onward transmission. To avoid the cost of screening all PLHIV in similar cohorts in resource-constrained settings, further research to develop better tools/scores to guide targeted HCV testing is needed.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Infecções por HIV , Hepatite C , Gana/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
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