Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 29
Filtrar
1.
Br J Cancer ; 124(4): 842-854, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence for a role of endogenous sex hormones in the aetiology of breast cancer. The aim of this analysis was to identify genetic variants that are associated with urinary sex-hormone levels and breast cancer risk. METHODS: We carried out a genome-wide association study of urinary oestrone-3-glucuronide and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide levels in 560 premenopausal women, with additional analysis of progesterone levels in 298 premenopausal women. To test for the association with breast cancer risk, we carried out follow-up genotyping in 90,916 cases and 89,893 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. All women were of European ancestry. RESULTS: For pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, there were no genome-wide significant associations; for oestrone-3-glucuronide, we identified a single peak mapping to the CYP3A locus, annotated by rs45446698. The minor rs45446698-C allele was associated with lower oestrone-3-glucuronide (-49.2%, 95% CI -56.1% to -41.1%, P = 3.1 × 10-18); in follow-up analyses, rs45446698-C was also associated with lower progesterone (-26.7%, 95% CI -39.4% to -11.6%, P = 0.001) and reduced risk of oestrogen and progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.82-0.91, P = 6.9 × 10-8). CONCLUSIONS: The CYP3A7*1C allele is associated with reduced risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer possibly mediated via an effect on the metabolism of endogenous sex hormones in premenopausal women.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not known if modifiable lifestyle factors that predict survival after invasive breast cancer differ by subtype. METHODS: We analyzed data for 121,435 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 67 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium with 16,890 deaths (8,554 breast cancer-specific) over 10 years. Cox regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and 10-year all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality overall, by estrogen receptor (ER) status, and by intrinsic-like subtype. RESULTS: There was no evidence of heterogeneous associations between risk factors and mortality by subtype (adjusted p>0.30). The strongest associations were between all-cause mortality and BMI {greater than or equal to}30 vs 18.5-25 kg/m2 (HR (95%CI): 1.19 (1.06,1.34)); current vs never smoking (1.37 (1.27,1.47)), high vs low physical activity (0.43 (0.21,0.86)), age {greater than or equal to}30 years vs <20 years at first pregnancy (0.79 (0.72,0.86)); >0 to <5 years vs {greater than or equal to}10 years since last full term birth (1.31 (1.11,1.55)); ever vs never use of oral contraceptives (0.91 (0.87,0.96)); ever vs never use of menopausal hormone therapy, including current estrogen-progestin therapy (0.61 (0.54,0.69)). Similar associations with breast cancer mortality were weaker; e.g. 1.11 (1.02,1.21) for current vs never smoking. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm associations between modifiable lifestyle factors and 10-year all-cause mortality. There was no strong evidence that associations differed by ER status or intrinsic-like subtype. IMPACT: Given the large dataset and lack of evidence that associations between modifiable risk factors and 10-year mortality differed by subtype, these associations could be cautiously used in prognostication models to inform patient-centered care.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9688, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546843

RESUMO

In breast cancer, high levels of homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) have been associated with disease progression of ER-positive breast cancer patients and resistance to tamoxifen treatment. Since HOXB13 p.G84E is a prostate cancer risk allele, we evaluated the association between HOXB13 germline mutations and breast cancer risk in a previous study consisting of 3,270 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 2,327 controls from the Netherlands. Although both recurrent HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C were not associated with breast cancer risk, the risk estimation for p.R217C was not very precise. To provide more conclusive evidence regarding the role of HOXB13 in breast cancer susceptibility, we here evaluated the association between HOXB13 mutations and increased breast cancer risk within 81 studies of the international Breast Cancer Association Consortium containing 68,521 invasive breast cancer patients and 54,865 controls. Both HOXB13 p.G84E and p.R217C did not associate with the development of breast cancer in European women, neither in the overall analysis (OR = 1.035, 95% CI = 0.859-1.246, P = 0.718 and OR = 0.798, 95% CI = 0.482-1.322, P = 0.381 respectively), nor in specific high-risk subgroups or breast cancer subtypes. Thus, although involved in breast cancer progression, HOXB13 is not a material breast cancer susceptibility gene.

4.
Nat Genet ; 52(6): 572-581, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424353

RESUMO

Breast cancer susceptibility variants frequently show heterogeneity in associations by tumor subtype1-3. To identify novel loci, we performed a genome-wide association study including 133,384 breast cancer cases and 113,789 controls, plus 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer) of European ancestry, using both standard and novel methodologies that account for underlying tumor heterogeneity by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and tumor grade. We identified 32 novel susceptibility loci (P < 5.0 × 10-8), 15 of which showed evidence for associations with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 0.05). Five loci showed associations (P < 0.05) in opposite directions between luminal and non-luminal subtypes. In silico analyses showed that these five loci contained cell-specific enhancers that differed between normal luminal and basal mammary cells. The genetic correlations between five intrinsic-like subtypes ranged from 0.35 to 0.80. The proportion of genome-wide chip heritability explained by all known susceptibility loci was 54.2% for luminal A-like disease and 37.6% for triple-negative disease. The odds ratios of polygenic risk scores, which included 330 variants, for the highest 1% of quantiles compared with middle quantiles were 5.63 and 3.02 for luminal A-like and triple-negative disease, respectively. These findings provide an improved understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer subtypes and will inform the development of subtype-specific polygenic risk scores.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Mutação , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
5.
Biostatistics ; 2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112086

RESUMO

Cancers are routinely classified into subtypes according to various features, including histopathological characteristics and molecular markers. Previous genome-wide association studies have reported heterogeneous associations between loci and cancer subtypes. However, it is not evident what is the optimal modeling strategy for handling correlated tumor features, missing data, and increased degrees-of-freedom in the underlying tests of associations. We propose to test for genetic associations using a mixed-effect two-stage polytomous model score test (MTOP). In the first stage, a standard polytomous model is used to specify all possible subtypes defined by the cross-classification of the tumor characteristics. In the second stage, the subtype-specific case-control odds ratios are specified using a more parsimonious model based on the case-control odds ratio for a baseline subtype, and the case-case parameters associated with tumor markers. Further, to reduce the degrees-of-freedom, we specify case-case parameters for additional exploratory markers using a random-effect model. We use the Expectation-Maximization algorithm to account for missing data on tumor markers. Through simulations across a range of realistic scenarios and data from the Polish Breast Cancer Study (PBCS), we show MTOP outperforms alternative methods for identifying heterogeneous associations between risk loci and tumor subtypes. The proposed methods have been implemented in a user-friendly and high-speed R statistical package called TOP (https://github.com/andrewhaoyu/TOP).

6.
Int J Cancer ; 146(10): 2694-2702, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318977

RESUMO

Family history is among the strongest known risk factors for prostate cancer (PCa). Emerging data suggest molecular subtypes of PCa, including two somatic genetic aberrations: fusions of androgen-regulated promoters with ERG and, separately, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss. We examined associations between family history and incidence of these subtypes in 44,126 men from the prospective Health Professionals Follow-up Study. ERG and PTEN status were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Multivariable competing risks models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between self-reported family history of PCa and molecular subtypes of disease. Thirteen percent of men had a positive family history of PCa at baseline. During a median follow-up of 18.5 years, 5,511 PCa cases were diagnosed. Among them, 888 were assayed for ERG status (47% ERG-positive) and 715 were assayed for PTEN loss (14% PTEN null). Family history was more strongly associated with risk of ERG-negative (HR: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.71-2.70) than ERG-positive (HR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.13-1.95) disease (pheterogeneity : 0.04). The strongest difference was among men with an affected father (HRERG-negative : 2.09; 95% CI: 1.64-2.66; HRERG-positive : 1.30; 95% CI: 0.96-1.76; pheterogeneity : 0.01). Family history of PCa was positively associated with both PTEN null (HR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.26-3.49) and PTEN intact (HR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.39-2.13) PCa (pheterogeneity : 0.47). Our results indicate that PCa family history may be positively associated with PCa in all ERG and PTEN subtypes, suggesting a role of genetic susceptibility in their development. It is possible that ERG-negative disease could be especially associated with positive family history.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Regulador Transcricional ERG/genética
7.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(5): 1086-1093, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754047

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Statins are associated with lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer, but lethal prostate cancer is understudied and contributing mechanisms are unclear. We prospectively examined statins and lethal prostate cancer risk in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS), tested associations with molecular subtypes, and integrated gene expression profiling to identify putative mechanisms. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Our study included 44,126 men cancer-free in 1990, followed for prostate cancer incidence through 2014, with statin use recorded on biennial questionnaires. We used multivariable Cox regression to examine associations between statins and prostate cancer risk overall, by measures of clinically significant disease, and by ERG and PTEN status. In an exploratory analysis, age-adjusted gene set enrichment analysis identified statin-associated pathways enriched in tumor and adjacent normal prostate tissue. RESULTS: During 24 years of follow-up, 6,305 prostate cancers were diagnosed and 801 (13%) were lethal (metastatic at diagnosis or metastatic/fatal during follow-up). Relative to never/past use, current statin use was inversely associated with risk of lethal prostate cancer [HR, 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.60-0.96] but not overall disease. We found a strong inverse association for risk of PTEN-null cancers (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.19-0.87) but not PTEN-intact cancers (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.95-1.48; P heterogeneity = 0.01). Associations did not differ by ERG. Inflammation and immune pathways were enriched in normal prostate tissue of statin ever (n = 10) versus never users (n = 103). CONCLUSIONS: Molecular tumor classification identified PTEN and inflammation/immune activation as potential mechanisms linking statins with lower lethal prostate cancer risk. These findings support a potential causal association and could inform selection of relevant biomarkers for statin clinical trials.

8.
J Hum Genet ; 64(6): 545-550, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850729

RESUMO

Mosaic protein truncating variants (PTVs) in the phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+dependent 1D (PPM1D) gene in blood-derived DNA have been associated with increased risk of breast cancer. We analyzed PPM1D PTVs in blood from 3817 breast cancer cases and 3058 controls by deep sequencing of a previously defined region in exon 6 of PPM1D. We identified 50 of 6875 (0.73%) participants having a mosaic PPM1D PTV. We observed a higher frequency of mosaic PPM1D PTVs with increasing age (Ptrend = 2.9 × 10-6). We did not observe an overall association between PPM1D PTVs and increased breast cancer risk (OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 0.84-2.71). Evidence for an association was observed in a subset of cases with DNA collected 1-year or more before breast cancer diagnosis (OR = 3.44, 95% CI = 1.62-7.30, P-value = 0.001); however, no significant association was observed for the larger series of cases with DNA collected post diagnosis (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.51-2.01, P-value = 0.98). Our study indicates that the PPM1D PTVs are present at higher rates than previously reported and the frequency of PPM1D PTVs increases with age. We observed limited evidence for an association between mosaic PPM1D PTVs and breast cancer risk, suggesting mosaic PPM1D PTVs in the blood likely do not influence risk of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteína Fosfatase 2C/genética , Idoso , Envelhecimento/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Éxons , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fatores de Risco
9.
Eur Urol ; 76(1): 33-40, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence shows that clinical and molecular subtypes of prostate cancer (PCa) have specific risk factors. Observational studies suggest that physical activity may lower the risk of aggressive PCa. To our knowledge, the association between physical activity and PCa defined by TMPRSS2:ERG has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine the association between physical activity and risk of PCa defined by clinical features and TMPRSS2:ERG. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We studied 49160 men aged 40-75 yr in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study from 1986 to 2012. Data was collected at baseline and every 2 yr with >90% follow-up. Total and vigorous physical activity were measured in metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-h/wk. OUTCOME MEASURES AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Advanced PCa was defined as stage T3b, T4, N1, or M1 at diagnosis and lethal PCa as distant metastases or death due to disease over follow-up. Presence of TMPRSS2:ERG was estimated by immunohistochemistry of ERG protein expression. Cox proportional hazards models were used to obtain multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incidence of subtype-specific PCa. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: During 26 yr of follow-up, 6411 developed PCa overall and 888 developed lethal disease. There were no significant associations between total physical activity and risk of PCa in the overall cohort. In multivariable-adjusted models, men in the highest quintile of vigorous activity had a significant 30% lower risk of advanced PCa (HR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.53-0.92) and 25% lower risk of lethal PCa (HR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59-0.94) than men in the lowest quintile of vigorous activity. The association was independent of screening history. Vigorous activity was not associated with total PCa in the overall cohort but was inversely associated among highly screened men (top vs bottom quintile, HR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70-0.97). Of all cases, 945 were assayed for ERG (48% ERG-positive). Men with higher vigorous activity had a lower risk of ERG-positive PCa (top vs bottom quintile, HR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.52-0.97). There was no significant association with the risk of ERG-negative disease (p heterogeneity=0.09). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that vigorous physical activity is associated with lower risk of advanced and lethal PCa and provides novel evidence for a lower risk of TMPRSS2:ERG-positive disease. PATIENT SUMMARY: The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors for prevention of clinically important prostate cancer (PCa) is needed. In this report, we compared risk of PCa in men with different levels of physical activity. Men with higher vigorous activity had a lower risk of developing advanced and lethal PCa and PCa with the common TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Modificador do Efeito Epidemiológico , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Regulador Transcricional ERG/genética
10.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 173(3): 667-677, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387004

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In post-menopausal women, high body mass index (BMI) is an established breast cancer risk factor and is associated with worse breast cancer prognosis. We assessed the associations between BMI and gene expression of both breast tumor and adjacent tissue in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) diseases to help elucidate the mechanisms linking obesity with breast cancer biology in 519 post-menopausal women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. METHODS: Differential gene expression was analyzed separately in ER+ and ER- disease both comparing overweight (BMI ≥ 25 to < 30) or obese (BMI ≥ 30) women to women with normal BMI (BMI < 25), and per 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI. Analyses controlled for age and year of diagnosis, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and hormone therapy use. Gene set enrichment analyses were performed and validated among a subset of post-menopausal cases in The Cancer Genome Atlas (for tumor) and Polish Breast Cancer Study (for tumor-adjacent). RESULTS: No gene was differentially expressed by BMI (FDR < 0.05). BMI was significantly associated with increased cellular proliferation pathways, particularly in ER+ tumors, and increased inflammation pathways in ER- tumor and ER- tumor-adjacent tissues (FDR < 0.05). High BMI was associated with upregulation of genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in ER+ tumor-adjacent tissues. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into molecular mechanisms of BMI influencing post-menopausal breast cancer biology. Tumor and tumor-adjacent tissues provide independent information about potential mechanisms.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Pós-Menopausa , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Transcriptoma
11.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(10): 1231-1233, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30108097

RESUMO

Background: In a case-control study, aspirin use was associated with a lower risk of a common prostate cancer molecular subtype, the TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion. We sought to validate this finding in a prospective cohort.Methods: In the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 49,395 men reported on aspirin use on biennial questionnaires and were followed for prostate cancer incidence over 23 years. TMPRSS2:ERG status was assessed by IHC for presence of ERG on archival tumor specimens for 912 patients with prostate cancer, of whom 48% were ERG-positive.Results: In multivariable models, we found no association between regular use of aspirin and risk of ERG-positive prostate cancer (HR, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-1.23), nor any association with duration or frequency of aspirin use. In restricting to cases with either high Gleason grade or advanced stage disease, there remained no association with aspirin use.Conclusions: Data from this prospective study with repeated assessments of aspirin use do not support the hypothesis that aspirin use is associated with a lower risk of ERG-positive prostate cancer.Impact: Aspirin use is unlikely to lower the risk of this common molecular subtype of prostate cancer. However, there is emerging data supporting the role of other lifestyle and genetic factors underlying the development of the TMPRSS2:ERG fusion. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(10); 1231-3. ©2018 AACR.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Carcinogenesis ; 39(12): 1431-1437, 2018 12 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30165429

RESUMO

Circulating insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is consistently associated with prostate cancer risk. IGF-1 binds to IGF-1 receptor (IGF1R) and insulin receptor (IR), activating cancer hallmark pathways. Experimental evidence suggests that TMPRSS2:ERG may interact with IGF/insulin signaling to influence progression. We investigated IGF1R and IR expression and its association with lethal prostate cancer among 769 men. Protein expression of IGF1R, IR and ERG (i.e. a surrogate of ERG fusion genes) were assayed by immunohistochemistry. Cox models estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) adjusted for clinical characteristics. Among patients, 29% had strong tumor IGF1R expression and 10% had strong IR expression. During a mean follow-up of 13.2 years through 2012, 80 men (11%) developed lethal disease. Tumors with strong IGF1R or IR expression showed increased cell proliferation, decreased apoptosis and a higher prevalence of ERG. In multivariable models, strong IGF1R was associated with a borderline increased risk of lethal prostate cancer (HR 1.7; 95% CI 0.9-3.1). The association appeared greater in ERG-positive tumors (HR 2.8; 95% CI 0.9-8.4) than in ERG-negative tumors (HR 1.3; 95% CI 0.6-3.0, p-heterogeneity 0.08). There was no association between IR and lethal prostate cancer (HR 0.8; 95% CI 0.4-1.9). These results suggest that tumor IGF1R expression may play a role in prostate cancer progression to a lethal phenotype and that ERG-positive tumors may be more sensitive to IGF signaling. These data may improve our understanding of IGF signaling in prostate cancer and suggest therapeutic options for disease subtypes.


Assuntos
Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Receptor de Insulina/genética , Receptores de Somatomedina/genética , Idoso , Apoptose/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Progressão da Doença , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Insulina/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Receptor IGF Tipo 1 , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Regulador Transcricional ERG/genética
13.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 27(2): 193-200, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29167279

RESUMO

Background: The largest molecular subtype of primary prostate cancer is defined by the TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion. Few studies, however, have investigated etiologic differences by TMPRSS2:ERG status. Because the fusion is hormone-regulated and a man's hormonal milieu varies by height and obesity status, we hypothesized that both may be differentially associated with risk of TMPRSS2:ERG-defined disease.Methods: Our study included 49,372 men from the prospective Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Participants reported height and weight at baseline in 1986 and updated weight biennially thereafter through 2009. Tumor ERG protein expression (a TMPRSS2:ERG marker) was immunohistochemically assessed. We used multivariable competing risks models to calculate HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of ERG-positive and ERG-negative prostate cancer.Results: During 23 years of follow-up, we identified 5,847 incident prostate cancers, among which 913 were ERG-assayed. Taller height was associated with an increased risk of ERG-positive disease only [per 5 inches HR 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.50; Pheterogeneity = 0.07]. Higher body mass index (BMI) at baseline (per 5 kg/m2 HR 0.75; 95% CI, 0.61-0.91; Pheterogeneity = 0.02) and updated BMI over time (per 5 kg/m2 HR 0.86; 95% CI, 0.74-1.00; Pheterogeneity = 0.07) were associated with a reduced risk of ERG-positive disease only.Conclusions: Our results indicate that anthropometrics may be uniquely associated with TMPRSS2:ERG-positive prostate cancer; taller height may be associated with greater risk, whereas obesity may be associated with lower risk.Impact: Our study provides strong rationale for further investigations of other prostate cancer risk factors that may be distinctly associated with subtypes. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 27(2); 193-200. ©2017 AACR.


Assuntos
Obesidade/complicações , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/análise , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estatura , Índice de Massa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/genética , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/química , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Fatores de Risco , Regulador Transcricional ERG/análise
14.
Int J Cancer ; 141(5): 933-944, 2017 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28543830

RESUMO

Obesity is associated with an increased risk of fatal prostate cancer. We aimed to elucidate the importance and relevant timing of obesity and weight change for prostate cancer progression. We identified 5,158 men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer (clinical stage T1/T2) from 1986 to 2012 in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. Men were followed for biochemical recurrence and lethal prostate cancer (development of distant metastasis or prostate cancer-specific mortality) until 2012. Cox regression estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for body mass index (BMI) at age 21, BMI at diagnosis, "long-term" weight change from age 21 to diagnosis and "short-term" weight change over spans of 4 and 8 years preceding diagnosis. Because weight, weight change and mortality are strongly associated with smoking, we repeated analyses among never smokers only (N = 2,559). Among all patients, neither weight change nor BMI (at age 21 or at diagnosis) was associated with lethal prostate cancer. Among never smokers, long-term weight gain was associated with an increased risk of lethal disease (HR for gaining >30 pounds vs. stable weight [±10 pounds] 1.59, 95% CI, 1.01-2.50, p-trend = 0.06). Associations between weight change, BMI and lethal prostate cancer were stronger for men with BMI ≥ 25 at age 21 compared to those with BMI < 25. Weight change and obesity were not associated with an increased risk of biochemical recurrence. Our findings among never smoker men diagnosed with localized prostate cancer suggest a positive association between long-term weight gain and risk of lethal prostate cancer. Metabolic changes associated with weight gain may promote prostate cancer progression.


Assuntos
Obesidade/complicações , Neoplasias da Próstata/complicações , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fatores de Risco
15.
Prostate ; 77(6): 647-653, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28102015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have considered etiological differences across molecular subtypes of prostate cancer, despite potential to improve opportunities for precision prevention of a disease for which modifiable risk factors have remained elusive. Factors that lead to DNA double-strand breaks, such as oxidative stress, may promote the formation of the TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion in prostate cancer. We tested the hypothesis that increasing levels of pre-diagnostic circulating antioxidants, which may reduce oxidative stress, are associated with lower risk of developing TMPRSS2:ERG positive prostate cancer. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study, including 370 cases and 2,470 controls, to evaluate associations between pre-diagnostic α- and ß-carotene, α- and γ-tocopherol, ß-cryptoxanthin, lutein, lycopene, retinol, and selenium with the risk of prostate cancer by ERG protein expression status (a marker of TMPRSS2:ERG). Multivariable unconditional polytomous logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: We did not find any of the antioxidants to be significantly associated with the risk of prostate cancer according to ERG status. CONCLUSIONS: The results do not support the hypothesis that circulating pre-diagnostic antioxidant levels protect against developing TMPRSS2:ERG positive prostate cancer. Additional studies are needed to explore mechanisms for the development of TMPRSS2:ERG positive disease. Prostate 77: 647-653, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores Tumorais/biossíntese , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Serina Endopeptidases/biossíntese , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Método Duplo-Cego , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Fatores de Risco , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Regulador Transcricional ERG/biossíntese , Regulador Transcricional ERG/genética
16.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 101(6): 2520-7, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27115058

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Prostate cancer metastases preferentially target bone, and the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) may play a role in promoting this metastatic progression. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the association of prostate tumor CaSR expression with lethal prostate cancer. DESIGN: A validated CaSR immunohistochemistry assay was performed on tumor tissue microarrays. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression and phosphatase and tensin homolog tumor status were previously assessed in a subset of cases by immunohistochemistry. Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age and body mass index at diagnosis, Gleason grade, and pathological tumor node metastasis stage were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of CaSR expression with lethal prostate cancer. SETTING: The investigation was conducted in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and Physicians' Health Study. PARTICIPANTS: We studied 1241 incident prostate cancer cases diagnosed between 1983 and 2009. MAIN OUTCOME: Participants were followed up or cancer-specific mortality or development of metastatic disease. RESULTS: On average, men were followed up 13.6 years, during which there were 83 lethal events. High CaSR expression was associated with lethal prostate cancer independent of clinical and pathological variables (HR 2.0; 95% CI 1.2-3.3). Additionally, there was evidence of effect modification by VDR expression; CaSR was associated with lethal progression among men with low tumor VDR expression (HR 3.2; 95% CI 1.4-7.3) but not in cases with high tumor VDR expression (HR 0.8; 95% CI 0.2-3.0). CONCLUSIONS: Tumor CaSR expression is associated with an increased risk of lethal prostate cancer, particularly in tumors with low VDR expression. These results support further investigating the mechanism linking CaSR with metastases.


Assuntos
Próstata/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/metabolismo , Idoso , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Receptores de Calcitriol/metabolismo
17.
Br J Cancer ; 114(8): 939-44, 2016 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26986253

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Experimental studies have shown androgen receptor stimulation to facilitate formation of the TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion in prostate cell lines. No study has tested whether higher pre-diagnostic circulating sex hormone levels in men increase risk of developing TMPRSS2:ERG-positive prostate cancer specifically. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study of 200 prostate cancer cases and 1057 controls from the Physicians' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study. We examined associations between pre-diagnostic circulating levels of total testosterone, free testosterone, DHT, androstanediol glucuronide, estradiol, and SHBG and risk of prostate cancer by TMPRSS2:ERG status. TMPRSS2:ERG was estimated by ERG immunohistochemistry. We used multivariable unconditional polytomous logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of ERG-positive (n=94) and, separately, ERG-negative (n=106) disease. RESULTS: Free testosterone was significantly associated with the risk of ERG-positive prostate cancer (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.05-1.77), but not ERG-negative prostate cancer (OR: 1.09, 95% CI: 0.86-1.38) (Pdiff=0.17). None of the remaining hormones evaluated showed clear differential associations with ERG-positive vs ERG-negative disease. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide some suggestive evidence that higher pre-diagnostic free testosterone levels are associated with an increased risk of developing TMPRSS2:ERG-positive prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/sangue , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Transativadores/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estradiol/sangue , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica/métodos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Receptores Androgênicos/metabolismo , Risco , Serina Endopeptidases/metabolismo , Testosterona/sangue , Regulador Transcricional ERG
18.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 103(3): 851-60, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26817504

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence that supports etiologically distinct molecular subtypes of prostate cancer, the identification of which may improve prevention. Given their antioxidant properties, we hypothesized that lycopene and tomato sauce may be especially protective against diseases harboring the common gene fusion transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2):v-ets avian erythroblastosis virus E26 oncogene homolog (ERG). OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine associations between estimated lycopene and tomato sauce intake and the risk of prostate cancer defined by ERG protein expression subtype. DESIGN: Our study population consisted of a prospective cohort of 46,719 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. TMPRSS2:ERG was assessed by ERG immunohistochemistry on tumor tissue microarrays constructed from radical prostatectomy specimens. We used multivariable competing risk models to calculate HRs and 95% CIs for the risk of ERG-positive and, separately, ERG-negative disease. We implemented inverse probability weighting to account for evaluating ERG status only in surgically treated cases. RESULTS: During 23 y of follow-up, 5543 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer, among whom 884 were assayed for ERG (426 ERG-positive). With inclusion of only the latter cases, increasing cumulative average tomato sauce intake was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer overall (≥2 servings/wk compared with <1 serving/mo; multivariable HR: 0.70; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.95; P-trend = 0.002). With respect to molecular subtypes, cumulative average tomato sauce intake was associated with a decreased risk of ERG-positive disease (HR: 0.54; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.81; P-trend = 0.004) but not with ERG-negative disease (HR: 0.96; 95% CI: 0.62, 1.50; P-trend = 0.10) (P-heterogeneity = 0.04). Increasing quintiles of lycopene intake were associated with a decreased risk of both subtypes (P-heterogeneity = 0.79). Inverse probability weighting did not materially change the results. CONCLUSIONS: Our results lend some support to the hypothesis that prostate cancers that harbor TMPRSS2:ERG may be etiologically distinct from fusion-negative cancers. In particular, tomato sauce consumption may play a role in reducing TMPRSS2:ERG-positive disease.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Carotenoides/uso terapêutico , Dieta , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Próstata/prevenção & controle , Transativadores/metabolismo , Adulto , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/uso terapêutico , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Licopeno , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/metabolismo , Regulador Transcricional ERG
19.
Eur Urol ; 70(4): 549-552, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26724257

RESUMO

The long noncoding RNA SChLAP1 is overexpressed in a subset of prostate cancers (PCa), and high SChLAP1 expression by in situ hybridization (ISH) independently predicts biochemical recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Importantly, although biochemical recurrence is a significant clinical outcome, it is not a validated surrogate for PCa-related mortality. Thus, we evaluated the association between SChLAP1 expression and development of lethal PCa in a large cohort of American men with PCa and long-term follow-up. SChLAP1 ISH was performed on tissue microarrays containing representative formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded PCa tissue from all patients and scored using a semiquantitative method (ISH score range 0-400). Hazard ratios (HRs) for the association between SChLAP1 expression and time to development of lethal PCa were estimated using multivariable Cox regression analysis. Of the 937 patients evaluated, 89 (9.5%) had high SChLAP1 expression (ISH score ≥100), which in patients treated with radical prostatectomy was strongly associated with development of lethal PCa independent of age, Gleason score, pathologic stage, and PTEN status (HR 2.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1-4.1). These results suggest that SChLAP1 may be a useful tissue-based biomarker for identifying PCa patients at higher risk of lethal progression. PATIENT SUMMARY: We examined expression of the RNA molecule SChLAP1 in a large group of prostate cancer patients with long-term follow-up and found that patients with high SChLAP1 expression had a significantly higher chance of developing lethal disease.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias Ósseas/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Idoso , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Humanos , Hibridização In Situ , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/metabolismo , Prostatectomia , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Taxa de Sobrevida
20.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 108(2)2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26615022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PTEN is a tumor suppressor frequently deleted in prostate cancer that may be a useful prognostic biomarker. However, the association of PTEN loss with lethal disease has not been tested in a large, predominantly surgically treated cohort. METHODS: In the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and Physicians' Health Study, we followed 1044 incident prostate cancer cases diagnosed between 1986 and 2009 for cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. A genetically validated PTEN immunohistochemistry (IHC) assay was performed on tissue microarrays (TMAs). TMPRSS2:ERG status was previously assessed in a subset of cases by a genetically validated IHC assay for ERG. Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age and body mass index at diagnosis, Gleason grade, and clinical or pathologic TNM stage were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association with lethal disease. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: On average, men were followed 11.7 years, during which there were 81 lethal events. Sixteen percent of cases had complete PTEN loss in all TMA cores and 9% had heterogeneous PTEN loss across cores. After adjustment for clinical-pathologic variables, complete PTEN loss was associated with lethal progression (HR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2 to 2.9). The association of PTEN loss (complete or heterogeneous) with lethal progression was only among men with ERG-negative (HR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.7 to 5.7) but not ERG-positive (HR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.7 to 2.2) tumors. CONCLUSIONS: PTEN loss is independently associated with increased risk of lethal progression, particularly in the ERG fusion-negative subgroup. These validated and inexpensive IHC assays may be useful for risk stratification in prostate cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/análise , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica/análise , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/análise , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Serina Endopeptidases/análise , Transativadores/análise , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/análise , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Progressão da Doença , Seguimentos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Gradação de Tumores , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Razão de Chances , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias da Próstata/química , Neoplasias da Próstata/cirurgia , Medição de Risco , Regulador Transcricional ERG , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA