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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1078, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597508

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers varies by genetic and familial factors. About 50 common variants have been shown to modify BC risk for mutation carriers. All but three, were identified in general population studies. Other mutation carrier-specific susceptibility variants may exist but studies of mutation carriers have so far been underpowered. We conduct a novel case-only genome-wide association study comparing genotype frequencies between 60,212 general population BC cases and 13,007 cases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. We identify robust novel associations for 2 variants with BC for BRCA1 and 3 for BRCA2 mutation carriers, P < 10-8, at 5 loci, which are not associated with risk in the general population. They include rs60882887 at 11p11.2 where MADD, SP11 and EIF1, genes previously implicated in BC biology, are predicted as potential targets. These findings will contribute towards customising BC polygenic risk scores for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460452

RESUMO

The gut microbiota may play a role in breast cancer etiology by regulating hormonal, metabolic, and immunologic pathways. We investigated associations of fecal bacteria with breast cancer and non-malignant breast disease in a case-control study conducted in Ghana, a country with rising breast cancer incidence and mortality. To do this, we sequenced the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene to characterize bacteria in fecal samples collected at the time of breast biopsy (N = 379 breast cancer cases, N = 102 non-malignant breast disease cases, N = 414 population-based controls). We estimated associations of alpha diversity (observed amplicon sequence variants [ASVs], Shannon index, and Faith's phylogenetic diversity), beta diversity (Bray Curtis and unweighted/weighted UniFrac distance), and presence and relative abundance of select taxa with breast cancer and non-malignant breast disease using multivariable unconditional polytomous logistic regression. All alpha diversity metrics were strongly, inversely associated with odds of breast cancer and for those in the highest relative to lowest tertile of observed ASVs, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.21 (0.13-0.36; Ptrend  < 0.001). Alpha diversity associations were similar for non-malignant breast disease and breast cancer grade/molecular subtype. All beta diversity distance matrices and multiple taxa with possible estrogen-conjugating and immune-related functions were strongly associated with breast cancer (all P's < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between breast cancer and non-malignant breast disease cases in any microbiota metric. In conclusion, fecal bacteria characteristics were strongly and similarly associated with breast cancer and non-malignant breast disease. Our findings provide novel insight into potential microbially-mediated mechanisms of breast disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Br J Cancer ; 124(4): 842-854, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33495599

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies provide strong evidence for a role of endogenous sex hormones in the aetiology of breast cancer. The aim of this analysis was to identify genetic variants that are associated with urinary sex-hormone levels and breast cancer risk. METHODS: We carried out a genome-wide association study of urinary oestrone-3-glucuronide and pregnanediol-3-glucuronide levels in 560 premenopausal women, with additional analysis of progesterone levels in 298 premenopausal women. To test for the association with breast cancer risk, we carried out follow-up genotyping in 90,916 cases and 89,893 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. All women were of European ancestry. RESULTS: For pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, there were no genome-wide significant associations; for oestrone-3-glucuronide, we identified a single peak mapping to the CYP3A locus, annotated by rs45446698. The minor rs45446698-C allele was associated with lower oestrone-3-glucuronide (-49.2%, 95% CI -56.1% to -41.1%, P = 3.1 × 10-18); in follow-up analyses, rs45446698-C was also associated with lower progesterone (-26.7%, 95% CI -39.4% to -11.6%, P = 0.001) and reduced risk of oestrogen and progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer (OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.82-0.91, P = 6.9 × 10-8). CONCLUSIONS: The CYP3A7*1C allele is associated with reduced risk of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer possibly mediated via an effect on the metabolism of endogenous sex hormones in premenopausal women.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not known if modifiable lifestyle factors that predict survival after invasive breast cancer differ by subtype. METHODS: We analyzed data for 121,435 women diagnosed with breast cancer from 67 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium with 16,890 deaths (8,554 breast cancer-specific) over 10 years. Cox regression was used to estimate associations between risk factors and 10-year all-cause mortality and breast cancer-specific mortality overall, by estrogen receptor (ER) status, and by intrinsic-like subtype. RESULTS: There was no evidence of heterogeneous associations between risk factors and mortality by subtype (adjusted p>0.30). The strongest associations were between all-cause mortality and BMI {greater than or equal to}30 vs 18.5-25 kg/m2 (HR (95%CI): 1.19 (1.06,1.34)); current vs never smoking (1.37 (1.27,1.47)), high vs low physical activity (0.43 (0.21,0.86)), age {greater than or equal to}30 years vs <20 years at first pregnancy (0.79 (0.72,0.86)); >0 to <5 years vs {greater than or equal to}10 years since last full term birth (1.31 (1.11,1.55)); ever vs never use of oral contraceptives (0.91 (0.87,0.96)); ever vs never use of menopausal hormone therapy, including current estrogen-progestin therapy (0.61 (0.54,0.69)). Similar associations with breast cancer mortality were weaker; e.g. 1.11 (1.02,1.21) for current vs never smoking. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm associations between modifiable lifestyle factors and 10-year all-cause mortality. There was no strong evidence that associations differed by ER status or intrinsic-like subtype. IMPACT: Given the large dataset and lack of evidence that associations between modifiable risk factors and 10-year mortality differed by subtype, these associations could be cautiously used in prognostication models to inform patient-centered care.

5.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 428-439, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility is widely used, but for many genes, evidence of an association with breast cancer is weak, underlying risk estimates are imprecise, and reliable subtype-specific risk estimates are lacking. METHODS: We used a panel of 34 putative susceptibility genes to perform sequencing on samples from 60,466 women with breast cancer and 53,461 controls. In separate analyses for protein-truncating variants and rare missense variants in these genes, we estimated odds ratios for breast cancer overall and tumor subtypes. We evaluated missense-variant associations according to domain and classification of pathogenicity. RESULTS: Protein-truncating variants in 5 genes (ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and PALB2) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.0001. Protein-truncating variants in 4 other genes (BARD1, RAD51C, RAD51D, and TP53) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.05 and a Bayesian false-discovery probability of less than 0.05. For protein-truncating variants in 19 of the remaining 25 genes, the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the odds ratio for breast cancer overall was less than 2.0. For protein-truncating variants in ATM and CHEK2, odds ratios were higher for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease than for ER-negative disease; for protein-truncating variants in BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, RAD51C, and RAD51D, odds ratios were higher for ER-negative disease than for ER-positive disease. Rare missense variants (in aggregate) in ATM, CHEK2, and TP53 were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.001. For BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53, missense variants (in aggregate) that would be classified as pathogenic according to standard criteria were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall, with the risk being similar to that of protein-truncating variants. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study define the genes that are most clinically useful for inclusion on panels for the prediction of breast cancer risk, as well as provide estimates of the risks associated with protein-truncating variants, to guide genetic counseling. (Funded by European Union Horizon 2020 programs and others.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
6.
J Pathol ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166087

RESUMO

Loss of the tumor suppressor gene Pten in murine prostate recapitulates human carcinogenesis and causes stromal proliferation surrounding murine prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (mPIN), which is reactive to microinvasion. In turn, invasion has been shown to be regulated in part by de novo fatty acid synthesis in prostate cancer. We therefore investigated the effects of genetic ablation of Fasn on invasive potential in prostate-specific Pten knockout mice. Combined genetic ablation of Fasn and Pten reduced the weight and volume of all the prostate lobes when compared to single knockouts. The stromal reaction to microinvasion and the cell proliferation that typically occurs in Pten knockout were largely abolished by Fasn knockout. To verify that Fasn knockout indeed results in decreased invasive potential, we show that genetic ablation and pharmacologic inhibition of FASN in prostate cancer cells significantly inhibit cellular motility and invasion. Finally, combined loss of PTEN with FASN overexpression was associated with lethality as assessed in 660 prostate cancer patients with 14.2 years of median follow-up. Taken together, these findings show that de novo lipogenesis contributes to the aggressive phenotype induced by Pten loss in murine prostate and targeting Fasn may reduce the invasive potential of prostate cancer driven by Pten loss. © 2020 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. on behalf of The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9688, 2020 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546843

RESUMO

In breast cancer, high levels of homeobox protein Hox-B13 (HOXB13) have been associated with disease progression of ER-positive breast cancer patients and resistance to tamoxifen treatment. Since HOXB13 p.G84E is a prostate cancer risk allele, we evaluated the association between HOXB13 germline mutations and breast cancer risk in a previous study consisting of 3,270 familial non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer cases and 2,327 controls from the Netherlands. Although both recurrent HOXB13 mutations p.G84E and p.R217C were not associated with breast cancer risk, the risk estimation for p.R217C was not very precise. To provide more conclusive evidence regarding the role of HOXB13 in breast cancer susceptibility, we here evaluated the association between HOXB13 mutations and increased breast cancer risk within 81 studies of the international Breast Cancer Association Consortium containing 68,521 invasive breast cancer patients and 54,865 controls. Both HOXB13 p.G84E and p.R217C did not associate with the development of breast cancer in European women, neither in the overall analysis (OR = 1.035, 95% CI = 0.859-1.246, P = 0.718 and OR = 0.798, 95% CI = 0.482-1.322, P = 0.381 respectively), nor in specific high-risk subgroups or breast cancer subtypes. Thus, although involved in breast cancer progression, HOXB13 is not a material breast cancer susceptibility gene.

8.
Nat Genet ; 52(6): 572-581, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424353

RESUMO

Breast cancer susceptibility variants frequently show heterogeneity in associations by tumor subtype1-3. To identify novel loci, we performed a genome-wide association study including 133,384 breast cancer cases and 113,789 controls, plus 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer) of European ancestry, using both standard and novel methodologies that account for underlying tumor heterogeneity by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and tumor grade. We identified 32 novel susceptibility loci (P < 5.0 × 10-8), 15 of which showed evidence for associations with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 0.05). Five loci showed associations (P < 0.05) in opposite directions between luminal and non-luminal subtypes. In silico analyses showed that these five loci contained cell-specific enhancers that differed between normal luminal and basal mammary cells. The genetic correlations between five intrinsic-like subtypes ranged from 0.35 to 0.80. The proportion of genome-wide chip heritability explained by all known susceptibility loci was 54.2% for luminal A-like disease and 37.6% for triple-negative disease. The odds ratios of polygenic risk scores, which included 330 variants, for the highest 1% of quantiles compared with middle quantiles were 5.63 and 3.02 for luminal A-like and triple-negative disease, respectively. These findings provide an improved understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer subtypes and will inform the development of subtype-specific polygenic risk scores.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Mutação , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
9.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359158

RESUMO

We evaluated the joint associations between a new 313-variant PRS (PRS313) and questionnaire-based breast cancer risk factors for women of European ancestry, using 72,284 cases and 80,354 controls from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Interactions were evaluated using standard logistic regression, and a newly developed case-only method, for breast cancer risk overall and by estrogen receptor status. After accounting for multiple testing, we did not find evidence that per-standard deviation PRS313 odds ratio differed across strata defined by individual risk factors. Goodness-of-fit tests did not reject the assumption of a multiplicative model between PRS313 and each risk factor. Variation in projected absolute lifetime risk of breast cancer associated with classical risk factors was greater for women with higher genetic risk (PRS313 and family history), and on average 17.5% higher in the highest vs lowest deciles of genetic risk. These findings have implications for risk prevention for women at increased risk of breast cancer.

10.
Biostatistics ; 2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32112086

RESUMO

Cancers are routinely classified into subtypes according to various features, including histopathological characteristics and molecular markers. Previous genome-wide association studies have reported heterogeneous associations between loci and cancer subtypes. However, it is not evident what is the optimal modeling strategy for handling correlated tumor features, missing data, and increased degrees-of-freedom in the underlying tests of associations. We propose to test for genetic associations using a mixed-effect two-stage polytomous model score test (MTOP). In the first stage, a standard polytomous model is used to specify all possible subtypes defined by the cross-classification of the tumor characteristics. In the second stage, the subtype-specific case-control odds ratios are specified using a more parsimonious model based on the case-control odds ratio for a baseline subtype, and the case-case parameters associated with tumor markers. Further, to reduce the degrees-of-freedom, we specify case-case parameters for additional exploratory markers using a random-effect model. We use the Expectation-Maximization algorithm to account for missing data on tumor markers. Through simulations across a range of realistic scenarios and data from the Polish Breast Cancer Study (PBCS), we show MTOP outperforms alternative methods for identifying heterogeneous associations between risk loci and tumor subtypes. The proposed methods have been implemented in a user-friendly and high-speed R statistical package called TOP (https://github.com/andrewhaoyu/TOP).

11.
Int J Cancer ; 147(6): 1535-1547, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068253

RESUMO

Higher proportions of early-onset and estrogen receptor (ER) negative cancers are observed in women of African ancestry than in women of European ancestry. Differences in risk factor distributions and associations by age at diagnosis and ER status may explain this disparity. We analyzed data from 1,126 cases (aged 18-74 years) with invasive breast cancer and 2,106 controls recruited from a population-based case-control study in Ghana. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for menstrual and reproductive factors using polytomous logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Among controls, medians for age at menarche, parity, age at first birth, and breastfeeding/pregnancy were 15 years, 4 births, 20 years and 18 months, respectively. For women ≥50 years, parity and extended breastfeeding were associated with decreased risks: >5 births vs. nulliparous, OR 0.40 (95% CI 0.20-0.83) and 0.71 (95% CI 0.51-0.98) for ≥19 vs. <13 breastfeeding months/pregnancy, which did not differ by ER. In contrast, for earlier onset cases (<50 years) parity was associated with increased risk for ER-negative tumors (p-heterogeneity by ER = 0.02), which was offset by extended breastfeeding. Similar associations were observed by intrinsic-like subtypes. Less consistent relationships were observed with ages at menarche and first birth. Reproductive risk factor distributions are different from European populations but exhibited etiologic heterogeneity by age at diagnosis and ER status similar to other populations. Differences in reproductive patterns and subtype heterogeneity are consistent with racial disparities in subtype distributions.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 146(10): 2694-2702, 2020 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318977

RESUMO

Family history is among the strongest known risk factors for prostate cancer (PCa). Emerging data suggest molecular subtypes of PCa, including two somatic genetic aberrations: fusions of androgen-regulated promoters with ERG and, separately, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) loss. We examined associations between family history and incidence of these subtypes in 44,126 men from the prospective Health Professionals Follow-up Study. ERG and PTEN status were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Multivariable competing risks models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between self-reported family history of PCa and molecular subtypes of disease. Thirteen percent of men had a positive family history of PCa at baseline. During a median follow-up of 18.5 years, 5,511 PCa cases were diagnosed. Among them, 888 were assayed for ERG status (47% ERG-positive) and 715 were assayed for PTEN loss (14% PTEN null). Family history was more strongly associated with risk of ERG-negative (HR: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.71-2.70) than ERG-positive (HR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.13-1.95) disease (pheterogeneity : 0.04). The strongest difference was among men with an affected father (HRERG-negative : 2.09; 95% CI: 1.64-2.66; HRERG-positive : 1.30; 95% CI: 0.96-1.76; pheterogeneity : 0.01). Family history of PCa was positively associated with both PTEN null (HR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.26-3.49) and PTEN intact (HR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.39-2.13) PCa (pheterogeneity : 0.47). Our results indicate that PCa family history may be positively associated with PCa in all ERG and PTEN subtypes, suggesting a role of genetic susceptibility in their development. It is possible that ERG-negative disease could be especially associated with positive family history.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Regulador Transcricional ERG/genética
13.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 112(3): 278-285, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: External validation of risk models is critical for risk-stratified breast cancer prevention. We used the Individualized Coherent Absolute Risk Estimation (iCARE) as a flexible tool for risk model development and comparative model validation and to make projections for population risk stratification. METHODS: Performance of two recently developed models, one based on the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium analysis (iCARE-BPC3) and another based on a literature review (iCARE-Lit), were compared with two established models (Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool and International Breast Cancer Intervention Study Model) based on classical risk factors in a UK-based cohort of 64 874 white non-Hispanic women (863 patients) age 35-74 years. Risk projections in a target population of US white non-Hispanic women age 50-70 years assessed potential improvements in risk stratification by adding mammographic breast density (MD) and polygenic risk score (PRS). RESULTS: The best calibrated models were iCARE-Lit (expected to observed number of cases [E/O] = 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.87 to 1.11) for women younger than 50 years, and iCARE-BPC3 (E/O = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.93 to 1.09) for women 50 years or older. Risk projections using iCARE-BPC3 indicated classical risk factors can identify approximately 500 000 women at moderate to high risk (>3% 5-year risk) in the target population. Addition of MD and a 313-variant PRS is expected to increase this number to approximately 3.5 million women, and among them, approximately 153 000 are expected to develop invasive breast cancer within 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: iCARE models based on classical risk factors perform similarly to or better than BCRAT or IBIS in white non-Hispanic women. Addition of MD and PRS can lead to substantial improvements in risk stratification. However, these integrated models require independent prospective validation before broad clinical applications.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Modelos Estatísticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Risco , Adulto Jovem
14.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(5): 1086-1093, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31754047

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Statins are associated with lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer, but lethal prostate cancer is understudied and contributing mechanisms are unclear. We prospectively examined statins and lethal prostate cancer risk in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (HPFS), tested associations with molecular subtypes, and integrated gene expression profiling to identify putative mechanisms. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Our study included 44,126 men cancer-free in 1990, followed for prostate cancer incidence through 2014, with statin use recorded on biennial questionnaires. We used multivariable Cox regression to examine associations between statins and prostate cancer risk overall, by measures of clinically significant disease, and by ERG and PTEN status. In an exploratory analysis, age-adjusted gene set enrichment analysis identified statin-associated pathways enriched in tumor and adjacent normal prostate tissue. RESULTS: During 24 years of follow-up, 6,305 prostate cancers were diagnosed and 801 (13%) were lethal (metastatic at diagnosis or metastatic/fatal during follow-up). Relative to never/past use, current statin use was inversely associated with risk of lethal prostate cancer [HR, 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.60-0.96] but not overall disease. We found a strong inverse association for risk of PTEN-null cancers (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.19-0.87) but not PTEN-intact cancers (HR, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.95-1.48; P heterogeneity = 0.01). Associations did not differ by ERG. Inflammation and immune pathways were enriched in normal prostate tissue of statin ever (n = 10) versus never users (n = 103). CONCLUSIONS: Molecular tumor classification identified PTEN and inflammation/immune activation as potential mechanisms linking statins with lower lethal prostate cancer risk. These findings support a potential causal association and could inform selection of relevant biomarkers for statin clinical trials.

15.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 5: 38, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700994

RESUMO

Breast cancer is a common disease partially caused by genetic risk factors. Germline pathogenic variants in DNA repair genes BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, ATM, and CHEK2 are associated with breast cancer risk. FANCM, which encodes for a DNA translocase, has been proposed as a breast cancer predisposition gene, with greater effects for the ER-negative and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtypes. We tested the three recurrent protein-truncating variants FANCM:p.Arg658*, p.Gln1701*, and p.Arg1931* for association with breast cancer risk in 67,112 cases, 53,766 controls, and 26,662 carriers of pathogenic variants of BRCA1 or BRCA2. These three variants were also studied functionally by measuring survival and chromosome fragility in FANCM -/- patient-derived immortalized fibroblasts treated with diepoxybutane or olaparib. We observed that FANCM:p.Arg658* was associated with increased risk of ER-negative disease and TNBC (OR = 2.44, P = 0.034 and OR = 3.79; P = 0.009, respectively). In a country-restricted analysis, we confirmed the associations detected for FANCM:p.Arg658* and found that also FANCM:p.Arg1931* was associated with ER-negative breast cancer risk (OR = 1.96; P = 0.006). The functional results indicated that all three variants were deleterious affecting cell survival and chromosome stability with FANCM:p.Arg658* causing more severe phenotypes. In conclusion, we confirmed that the two rare FANCM deleterious variants p.Arg658* and p.Arg1931* are risk factors for ER-negative and TNBC subtypes. Overall our data suggest that the effect of truncating variants on breast cancer risk may depend on their position in the gene. Cell sensitivity to olaparib exposure, identifies a possible therapeutic option to treat FANCM-associated tumors.

16.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12524, 2019 08 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31467304

RESUMO

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a genetically heterogeneous disorder with 22 disease-causing genes reported to date. In some FA genes, monoallelic mutations have been found to be associated with breast cancer risk, while the risk associations of others remain unknown. The gene for FA type C, FANCC, has been proposed as a breast cancer susceptibility gene based on epidemiological and sequencing studies. We used the Oncoarray project to genotype two truncating FANCC variants (p.R185X and p.R548X) in 64,760 breast cancer cases and 49,793 controls of European descent. FANCC mutations were observed in 25 cases (14 with p.R185X, 11 with p.R548X) and 26 controls (18 with p.R185X, 8 with p.R548X). There was no evidence of an association with the risk of breast cancer, neither overall (odds ratio 0.77, 95%CI 0.44-1.33, p = 0.4) nor by histology, hormone receptor status, age or family history. We conclude that the breast cancer risk association of these two FANCC variants, if any, is much smaller than for BRCA1, BRCA2 or PALB2 mutations. If this applies to all truncating variants in FANCC it would suggest there are differences between FA genes in their roles on breast cancer risk and demonstrates the merit of large consortia for clarifying risk associations of rare variants.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação C da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Deleção de Sequência , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação C da Anemia de Fanconi/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos
17.
J Hum Genet ; 64(6): 545-550, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30850729

RESUMO

Mosaic protein truncating variants (PTVs) in the phosphatase, Mg2+/Mn2+dependent 1D (PPM1D) gene in blood-derived DNA have been associated with increased risk of breast cancer. We analyzed PPM1D PTVs in blood from 3817 breast cancer cases and 3058 controls by deep sequencing of a previously defined region in exon 6 of PPM1D. We identified 50 of 6875 (0.73%) participants having a mosaic PPM1D PTV. We observed a higher frequency of mosaic PPM1D PTVs with increasing age (Ptrend = 2.9 × 10-6). We did not observe an overall association between PPM1D PTVs and increased breast cancer risk (OR = 1.51, 95% CI = 0.84-2.71). Evidence for an association was observed in a subset of cases with DNA collected 1-year or more before breast cancer diagnosis (OR = 3.44, 95% CI = 1.62-7.30, P-value = 0.001); however, no significant association was observed for the larger series of cases with DNA collected post diagnosis (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.51-2.01, P-value = 0.98). Our study indicates that the PPM1D PTVs are present at higher rates than previously reported and the frequency of PPM1D PTVs increases with age. We observed limited evidence for an association between mosaic PPM1D PTVs and breast cancer risk, suggesting mosaic PPM1D PTVs in the blood likely do not influence risk of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteína Fosfatase 2C/genética , Idoso , Envelhecimento/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Éxons , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Fatores de Risco
18.
Eur Urol ; 76(1): 33-40, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301696

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence shows that clinical and molecular subtypes of prostate cancer (PCa) have specific risk factors. Observational studies suggest that physical activity may lower the risk of aggressive PCa. To our knowledge, the association between physical activity and PCa defined by TMPRSS2:ERG has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine the association between physical activity and risk of PCa defined by clinical features and TMPRSS2:ERG. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We studied 49160 men aged 40-75 yr in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study from 1986 to 2012. Data was collected at baseline and every 2 yr with >90% follow-up. Total and vigorous physical activity were measured in metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-h/wk. OUTCOME MEASURES AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Advanced PCa was defined as stage T3b, T4, N1, or M1 at diagnosis and lethal PCa as distant metastases or death due to disease over follow-up. Presence of TMPRSS2:ERG was estimated by immunohistochemistry of ERG protein expression. Cox proportional hazards models were used to obtain multivariable hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incidence of subtype-specific PCa. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: During 26 yr of follow-up, 6411 developed PCa overall and 888 developed lethal disease. There were no significant associations between total physical activity and risk of PCa in the overall cohort. In multivariable-adjusted models, men in the highest quintile of vigorous activity had a significant 30% lower risk of advanced PCa (HR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.53-0.92) and 25% lower risk of lethal PCa (HR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59-0.94) than men in the lowest quintile of vigorous activity. The association was independent of screening history. Vigorous activity was not associated with total PCa in the overall cohort but was inversely associated among highly screened men (top vs bottom quintile, HR: 0.83, 95% CI: 0.70-0.97). Of all cases, 945 were assayed for ERG (48% ERG-positive). Men with higher vigorous activity had a lower risk of ERG-positive PCa (top vs bottom quintile, HR: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.52-0.97). There was no significant association with the risk of ERG-negative disease (p heterogeneity=0.09). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms that vigorous physical activity is associated with lower risk of advanced and lethal PCa and provides novel evidence for a lower risk of TMPRSS2:ERG-positive disease. PATIENT SUMMARY: The identification of modifiable lifestyle factors for prevention of clinically important prostate cancer (PCa) is needed. In this report, we compared risk of PCa in men with different levels of physical activity. Men with higher vigorous activity had a lower risk of developing advanced and lethal PCa and PCa with the common TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Modificador do Efeito Epidemiológico , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Proteínas de Fusão Oncogênica , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fatores de Risco , Regulador Transcricional ERG/genética
19.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 21-34, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554720

RESUMO

Stratification of women according to their risk of breast cancer based on polygenic risk scores (PRSs) could improve screening and prevention strategies. Our aim was to develop PRSs, optimized for prediction of estrogen receptor (ER)-specific disease, from the largest available genome-wide association dataset and to empirically validate the PRSs in prospective studies. The development dataset comprised 94,075 case subjects and 75,017 control subjects of European ancestry from 69 studies, divided into training and validation sets. Samples were genotyped using genome-wide arrays, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected by stepwise regression or lasso penalized regression. The best performing PRSs were validated in an independent test set comprising 11,428 case subjects and 18,323 control subjects from 10 prospective studies and 190,040 women from UK Biobank (3,215 incident breast cancers). For the best PRSs (313 SNPs), the odds ratio for overall disease per 1 standard deviation in ten prospective studies was 1.61 (95%CI: 1.57-1.65) with area under receiver-operator curve (AUC) = 0.630 (95%CI: 0.628-0.651). The lifetime risk of overall breast cancer in the top centile of the PRSs was 32.6%. Compared with women in the middle quintile, those in the highest 1% of risk had 4.37- and 2.78-fold risks, and those in the lowest 1% of risk had 0.16- and 0.27-fold risks, of developing ER-positive and ER-negative disease, respectively. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that this PRS was well calibrated and predicts disease risk accurately in the tails of the distribution. This PRS is a powerful and reliable predictor of breast cancer risk that may improve breast cancer prevention programs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco
20.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 173(3): 667-677, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30387004

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In post-menopausal women, high body mass index (BMI) is an established breast cancer risk factor and is associated with worse breast cancer prognosis. We assessed the associations between BMI and gene expression of both breast tumor and adjacent tissue in estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and estrogen receptor-negative (ER-) diseases to help elucidate the mechanisms linking obesity with breast cancer biology in 519 post-menopausal women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII. METHODS: Differential gene expression was analyzed separately in ER+ and ER- disease both comparing overweight (BMI ≥ 25 to < 30) or obese (BMI ≥ 30) women to women with normal BMI (BMI < 25), and per 5 kg/m2 increase in BMI. Analyses controlled for age and year of diagnosis, physical activity, alcohol consumption, and hormone therapy use. Gene set enrichment analyses were performed and validated among a subset of post-menopausal cases in The Cancer Genome Atlas (for tumor) and Polish Breast Cancer Study (for tumor-adjacent). RESULTS: No gene was differentially expressed by BMI (FDR < 0.05). BMI was significantly associated with increased cellular proliferation pathways, particularly in ER+ tumors, and increased inflammation pathways in ER- tumor and ER- tumor-adjacent tissues (FDR < 0.05). High BMI was associated with upregulation of genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition in ER+ tumor-adjacent tissues. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insights into molecular mechanisms of BMI influencing post-menopausal breast cancer biology. Tumor and tumor-adjacent tissues provide independent information about potential mechanisms.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Pós-Menopausa , Adulto , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Transcriptoma
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