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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e239219, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153471

RESUMO

Abstract Salmo trutta fario is the most important fish species of family Salmonidae inhibited in cool waters all over the world including the nortern parts of Pakistan. This study was aimed to find out the prey selection and feeding habits of the species. One hundred and eighty five Salmo trutta fario were captured from March 2016 to April 2017. Feeding intensity as represented by a fullness index (FI), changing with various length groups and season. Out of 185 Brown trout 24 fish stomaches were found empty. The most important and common food items of brown trout were Brachycentridae, Blepharocera, Hydropsychidae, ephemerella spp. Kruskal Wallis H-test were applied on feeding intensity groups consisting of three month group. The test statistic for K.W-H-test were (H=8.13 with df =3) had a p-value of 0.043 < (alpha=0.05 indicates favor of the alternative hypothesis of at least one difference among the feeding intensity groups. The linear relationship of N with index of relative importance and %IRI denoted by least square regression line (N = 35.2 + 22.1%IRI), shows that for 22 prey there is 1% change in IRI. The relationship between total length (mm) and fish body weight (gm) is expressed by Pearson correlation coefficient (r = 0.976), showed that total length (mm) and fish body weight (gm.) is highly correlated. Descriptive statistics are used for the stomach fullness, which shows that feeding intensity was recorded higher from March to May. A total of 2289 preys was recorded including the most common were; Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae, Brachycentridae, diptera, blepharocera, ephemerala, chironomida, honey bees, grass hopper, locust, trout egg, trochanter, plant tissue, stones were retrieved from the gut contents of brown trout. According to index of relative importance IRI% four preys represents major components of the diet. The highest IRI% was recorded in Brachycentridae (39.38%), followed by blepharocera (13.23%), Hydropsychidae (10.76%) and ephemerella spp (8.28%). The relationship between IRI and FO is (r =0.556) is moderately correlated with coefficient of determination (r2=0.31). This study will help in the development of an artificial diet for the species for better growth performance in captivity.


Resumo Salmo trutta fario é a espécie de peixe mais importante da família dos salmonídeos, inibida em águas frias em todo o mundo, incluindo as partes do noroeste do Paquistão. Este estudo teve como objetivo conhecer a seleção de presas e os hábitos alimentares da espécie. Cento e oitenta e cinco Salmo trutta fario foram capturados de março de 2016 a abril de 2017. Intensidade de alimentação representada por um índice de plenitude (FI), mudando com vários grupos de comprimento e estação. De 185 trutas, 24 estômagos de peixes foram encontrados vazios. Os itens alimentares mais importantes e comuns da truta marrom foram brachycentridae, blepharocera, hydropsychidae, ephemerellaspp. O teste H de Kruskal Wallis foi aplicado em grupos de intensidade de alimentação consistindo de um grupo de três meses. A estatística de teste para o teste KW-H foi (H = 8,13 com df = 3) teve um valor de p de 0,043 <(alfa = 0,05 indica favor da hipótese alternativa de pelo menos uma diferença entre os grupos de intensidade de alimentação. relação de N com o índice de importância relativa e% IRI denotado pela linha de regressão do mínimo quadrado (N = 35,2 + 22,1% IRI), mostra que para 22 presas há 1% de mudança no IRI. A relação entre comprimento total (mm) e peixes o peso corporal (gm) é expresso pelo coeficiente de correlação de Pearson (r = 0,976), mostrou que o comprimento total (mm) e o peso corporal dos peixes (gm.) são altamente correlacionados. Estatísticas descritivas são usadas para a plenitude do estômago, o que mostra que a intensidade da alimentação foi registrado mais alto de março a maio. Um total de 2.289 presas foi registrado, incluindo os mais comuns foram; trichoptera, hydropsychidae, brachycentridae, diptera, blepharocera, efemérala, chironomida, abelhas, funil de grama, gafanhoto, ovo de truta, trocânter, tecido vegetal, pedras foram retiradas do intestino conteúdo de truta marrom. De acordo com o índice de importância relativa IRI%, quatro presas representam os principais componentes da dieta. O maior IRI% foi registrado em brachycentridae (39,38%), seguido por blepharocera (13,23%), hydropsychidae (10,76%) e ephemerellaspp (8,28%). A relação entre IRI e FO é (r = 0,556) está moderadamente correlacionada com o coeficiente de determinação (r2 = 0,31). Este estudo auxiliará no desenvolvimento de uma dieta artificial para a espécie para melhor desempenho de crescimento em cativeiro.

2.
Trop Biomed ; 38(1): 1-7, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797516

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to evaluate the in-vitro and in-vivo antibacterial effects of the Typha elephantina aqueous extract (TE.AQ), ethanolic extract (TE.ET) and T. elephantina methanolic extract (TE.ME) against eight selected clinical pathogens. The test samples were tested for in-vitro analysis (by disc diffusion method) at different concentrations of 5, 15, 25, 50 and 100 mg/dL against both gram positive and gram-negative strains. The highest potential was observed in TE.ME at a concentration of 100 mg/dL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa exhibiting 19.67 ± 0.577 mm zone of inhibition (ZOI). The same fraction also showed good activity against Staphylococus aureus with ZOI of 17.50 ± 0.70 mm. The TE.ET was found most active against P. aeruginosa and Streptococcus pyogenes having ZOI of 18.53 ± 0.503 and 16.2 ± 1.55 mm respectively at a concentration of 100 mg/dL. The most sensitive bacteria P. aeruginosa was selected for in-vivo study (using poultry chicks) for induction of infection in chicks. The effects of TE.AQ, TE.ET and TE.ME were determined at concentrations of 300 mg/kg body weight based on hematological parameters, liver enzymes and gross pathological findings of lungs and livers. The findings of the in-vivo study in chick's model showed that treatment of experimental animals with TE.ME significantly restored the hematological parameters, liver enzymes and architecture of lungs and livers. Based on scientific evidence, the current study suggests that TE.ME may serve as a best and new natural antibacterial agent and can be used against infections caused by P. aeruginosa.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33830921

RESUMO

Classifying and modeling texture images, especially those with significant rotation, illumination, scale, and view-point variations, is a hot topic in the computer vision field. Inspired by local graph structure (LGS), local ternary patterns (LTP), and their variants, this paper proposes a novel image feature descriptor for texture and material classification, which we call Petersen Graph Multi-Orientation based Multi-Scale Ternary Pattern (PGMO-MSTP). PGMO-MSTP is a histogram representation that efficiently encodes the joint information within an image across feature and scale spaces, exploiting the concepts of both LTP-like and LGS-like descriptors, in order to overcome the shortcomings of these approaches.We first designed two single-scale horizontal and vertical Petersen Graph-based Ternary Pattern descriptors (PGTPh and PGTPv). The essence of PGTPh and PGTPv is to encode each 5×5 image patch, extending the ideas of the LTP and LGS concepts, according to relationships between pixels sampled in a variety of spatial arrangements (i.e., up, down, left, and right) of Petersen graph-shaped oriented sampling structures. The histograms obtained from the single-scale descriptors PGTPh and PGTPv are then combined, in order to build the effective multi-scale PGMO-MSTP model. Extensive experiments are conducted on sixteen challenging texture data sets, demonstrating that PGMO-MSTP can outperform state-of-the-art handcrafted texture descriptors and deep learning-based feature extraction approaches. Moreover, a statistical comparison based on the Wilcoxon signed rank test demonstrates that PGMO-MSTP performed the best over all tested data sets.

4.
Int Urogynecol J ; 2021 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909095

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Urogynecology fellowship program websites are an important source of information to potential applicants, especially given the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic and resulting travel restrictions. Our study evaluated the publicly available information on American and Canadian urogynecology fellowship websites and present recommendations for website content development to promote the subspecialty of urogynecology. METHODS: Data were collected from all active American and Canadian urogynecology fellowship program websites between May and June 2020 against 72 criteria developed from previously published studies. The criteria included the following sections: Recruitment, Faculty Information, Current Fellows, Research and Education, Surgical Program, Clinical Work, Benefits and Career Planning, Wellness, and Environment. RESULTS: 54 American urogynecology program websites and 11 Canadian urogynecology program websites were analyzed. The mean score of American and Canadian websites was 46.46% (n = 33.45 ± 7.20 out of 72) and 27.40% (n = 19.73 ± 3.77 out of 72), respectively. American program websites scored significantly higher on available information than Canadian websites. The highest prevalence section across American websites was Wellness (64%, n = 1.92 ± 0.85 out of 3 criteria) while the lowest prevalence section was Clinical Work (15.17%, n = 0.91 ± 1.02 out of 6 criteria). Comparatively, Canadian websites scored highest in the Faculty Information section (43.12%, 3.45 ± 2.02) and lowest in the Clinical Work section (6%, n = 0.36 ± 0.67 out of 6 criteria). CONCLUSIONS: American and Canadian websites thoroughly covered the Wellness and Faculty Information sections, respectively. Program websites should consider adding details about Benefits and Career Planning and Clinical Work.

5.
Int J Pharm ; 601: 120555, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798686

RESUMO

The application of in-line Raman spectroscopy to monitor the formation of a 1:1 cocrystal of ibuprofen (IBU) as a BCS class II drug and nicotinamide as coformer using hot-melt extrusion (HME) was investigated. The process was monitored over different experimental conditions inserting the Raman probe before the extruder die. Partial least square (PLS) was applied as a robust chemometric technique to build predictive models at different levels of chemometric by dividing the experimental data set into calibration and validation subsets. Powder X-Ray diffraction (PXRD) spectra of a set of standard samples were used as calibration to calculate the cocrystal yield from HME experiments regressed by the PLS models. Examination of the full spectra with standard normal variate (SNV) scatter correction with first derivative provided the best fitting goodness and reliability for prediction. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used as a complementary technique to confirm the composition of the extrudates. Tracking the cocrystal formation throughout the barrel by inserting two Raman probes simultaneously in two different heating zones revealed highly valuable information for understanding the mechanism of cocrystal formation during the HME process.

6.
Environ Pollut ; 277: 116741, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652179

RESUMO

Recently Xiamen (China) has encountered various challenges of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) such as lack of a complete garbage sorting and recycling system, the absence of waste segregation between organic and dry waste at source, and a shortage of complete and clear information about the MSW generated. This article critically analyzes the existing bottlenecks in its waste management system and discusses the way forward for the city to enhance its MSWM by drawing lessons from Hong Kong's effectiveness in dealing with the same problems over the past decades. Solutions to the MSWM problem are not only limited to technological options, but also integrate environmental, legal, and institutional perspectives. The solutions include (1) enhancing source separation and improving recycling system; (2) improving the legislation system of the MSWM; (3) improvement of terminal disposal facilities in the city; (4) incorporating digitization into MSWM; and (5) establishing standards and definitions for recycled products and/or recyclable materials. We also evaluate and compare different aspects of MSWM in Xiamen and Hong Kong SAR (special administrative region) under the framework of 'One Country, Two Systems' concerning environmental policies, generation, composition, characteristics, treatment, and disposal of their MSW. The nexus of society, economics of the MSW, and the environment in the sustainability sphere are established by promoting local recycling industries and the standardization of recycled products and/or recyclable materials. The roles of digitization technologies in the 4th Industrial Revolution for waste reduction in the framework of circular economy (CE) are also elaborated. This technological solution may improve the city's MSWM in terms of public participation in MSW separation through reduction, recycle, reuse, recovery, and repair (5Rs) schemes. To meet top-down policy goals such as a 35% recycling rate for the generated waste by 2030, incorporating digitization into the MSWM provides the city with technology-driven waste solutions.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos , Gerenciamento de Resíduos , China , Cidades , Hong Kong , Humanos , Reciclagem , Resíduos Sólidos/análise , Tecnologia
7.
J Environ Manage ; 287: 112265, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730674

RESUMO

This study investigated the feasibility of integrated ammonium stripping and/or coconut shell waste-based activated carbon (CSWAC) adsorption in treating leachate samples. To valorize unused biomass for water treatment application, the adsorbent originated from coconut shell waste. To enhance its performance for target pollutants, the adsorbent was pretreated with ozone and NaOH. The effects of pH, temperature, and airflow rate on the removal of ammoniacal nitrogen (NH3-N) and refractory pollutants were studied during stripping alone. The removal performances of refractory compounds in this study were compared to those of other treatments previously reported. To contribute new knowledge to the field of study, perspectives on nutrients removal and recovery like phosphorus and nitrogen are presented. It was found that the ammonium stripping and adsorption treatment using the ozonated CSWAC attained an almost complete removal (99%) of NH3-N and 90% of COD with initial NH3-N and COD concentrations of 2500 mg/L and 20,000 mg/L, respectively, at optimized conditions. With the COD of treated effluents higher than 200 mg/L, the combined treatments were not satisfactory enough to remove target refractory compounds. Therefore, further biological processes are required to complete their biodegradation to meet the effluent limit set by environmental legislation. As this work has contributed to resource recovery as the driving force of landfill management, it is important to note the investment and operational expenses, engineering applicability of the technologies, and their environmental concerns and benefits. If properly managed, nutrient recovery from waste streams offers environmental and socio-economic benefits that would improve public health and create jobs for the local community.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Biodegradação Ambiental , Nitrogênio , Nutrientes , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
8.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e239219, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787749

RESUMO

Salmo trutta fario is the most important fish species of family Salmonidae inhibited in cool waters all over the world including the nortern parts of Pakistan. This study was aimed to find out the prey selection and feeding habits of the species. One hundred and eighty five Salmo trutta fario were captured from March 2016 to April 2017. Feeding intensity as represented by a fullness index (FI), changing with various length groups and season. Out of 185 Brown trout 24 fish stomaches were found empty. The most important and common food items of brown trout were Brachycentridae, Blepharocera, Hydropsychidae, ephemerella spp. Kruskal Wallis H-test were applied on feeding intensity groups consisting of three month group. The test statistic for K.W-H-test were (H=8.13 with df =3) had a p-value of 0.043 < (alpha=0.05 indicates favor of the alternative hypothesis of at least one difference among the feeding intensity groups. The linear relationship of N with index of relative importance and %IRI denoted by least square regression line (N = 35.2 + 22.1%IRI), shows that for 22 prey there is 1% change in IRI. The relationship between total length (mm) and fish body weight (gm) is expressed by Pearson correlation coefficient (r = 0.976), showed that total length (mm) and fish body weight (gm.) is highly correlated. Descriptive statistics are used for the stomach fullness, which shows that feeding intensity was recorded higher from March to May. A total of 2289 preys was recorded including the most common were; Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae, Brachycentridae, diptera, blepharocera, ephemerala, chironomida, honey bees, grass hopper, locust, trout egg, trochanter, plant tissue, stones were retrieved from the gut contents of brown trout. According to index of relative importance IRI% four preys represents major components of the diet. The highest IRI% was recorded in Brachycentridae (39.38%), followed by blepharocera (13.23%), Hydropsychidae (10.76%) and ephemerella spp (8.28%). The relationship between IRI and FO is (r =0.556) is moderately correlated with coefficient of determination (r2=0.31). This study will help in the development of an artificial diet for the species for better growth performance in captivity.


Assuntos
Rios , Truta , Animais , Abelhas , Dieta , Hábitos , Paquistão
9.
Int J Pharm ; 600: 120472, 2021 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33737101

RESUMO

In this study, an image processing technique is implemented to measure complete two-dimensional particle size and liquid content distribution (2D-distribution) of the granules produced in twin screw granulation (TSG). The effects of liquid binder viscosity and liquid to solid ratio (L/S) on the 2D-distribution, and the residence time distribution were studied. The effect of screw configuration on granule formation at different conditions was also investigated, were the mean residence time distribution (MRTD) in conveying elements decreases with the increase of L/S ratio and viscosity. While in kneading elements the MRTD decreases with the increase of L/S and increases with the increase of viscosity. The mean liquid saturation level of the granule is exponentially related to its size. As well, the increase in binder viscosity and L/S ratio leads to more uneven/bi-model particle size distribution (PSD) in the conveying elements, while kneading elements change the initial bi-model PSDs into more homogenous mono-model like distributions.

10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2716, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526831

RESUMO

Multi-functionalized fibrous silica KCC-1 (MF-KCC-1) bearing amine, tetrasulfide, and thiol groups was synthesized via a post-functionalization method and fully characterized by several methods such as FTIR, FESEM, EDX-Mapping, TEM, and N2 adsorption-desorption techniques. Due to abundant surface functional groups, accessible active adsorption sites, high surface area (572 m2 g-1), large pore volume (0.98 cm3 g-1), and unique fibrous structure, mesoporous MF-KCC-1 was used as a potential adsorbent for the uptake of acid fuchsine (AF) and acid orange II (AO) from water. Different adsorption factors such as pH of the dye solution, the amount of adsorbent, initial dye concentration, and contact time, affecting the uptake process were optimized and isotherm and kinetic studies were conducted to find the possible mechanism involved in the process. For both AF and AO dyes, the Langmuir isotherm model and the PFO kinetic model show the most agreement with the experimental data. According to the Langmuir isotherm, the calculated maximum adsorption capacity for AF and AO were found to be 574.5 mg g-1 and 605.9 mg g-1, respectively, surpassing most adsorption capacities reported until now which is indicative of the high potential of mesoporous MF-KCC-1 as an adsorbent for removal applications.

11.
J Hazard Mater ; 411: 125074, 2021 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461011

RESUMO

High-performance novel iron oxyhydroxide (limonite) nanostructure, with improved surface reactive sites, was prepared via one-pot, eco-friendly, free precursor and cold glow discharge N2-plasma technique. Natural and plasma treated (PTNL/N2) limonite samples were characterized by FESEM, XPS, XRD, FTIR, AAS, EDX, BET/BJH and pHpzc to confirm the successful synthesis. Central composite design (CCD) and artificial neural network (ANN, topology of 4:8:1) methods were utilized to study the oxidation/mineralization of phenazopyridine (PhP) as a hazardous contaminant by heterogeneous catalytic ozonation process (HCOP). The obtained results indicated that PTNL/N2 had the highest catalytic performance in PhP degradation (98.6% in 40 min) and mineralization (80.4% in 120 min). The degradation mechanism in different processes was investigated by dissolved ozone concentration, various organic scavengers (BQ and TBA) and inorganic salts (NaNO3, NaCl, Na2CO3 and NaH2PO4). Moreover, reusability-stability, Fe and nitrogen (NO3- and NH4+) ions release were assessed during different AOPs. Furthermore, toxicity tests indicated that the HCOP using PTNL/N2 was able to detoxify the PhP solutions efficiently. Finally, Density Functional Theory (DFT) studies were employed to introduce the most plausible contaminant degradation pathway, reactive sites and byproducts. This research provided a new insight into the improvement of wastewater treatment studies by a combination of experiment and computer simulation.

12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1609, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452374

RESUMO

To date, many nanoadsorbents have been developed and used to eliminate heavy metal contamination, however, one of the challenges ahead is the preparation of adsorbents from processes in which toxic organic solvents are used in the least possible amount. Herein, we have developed a new carboxylic acid-functionalized layered double hydroxide/metal-organic framework nanocomposite (LDH/MOF NC) using a simple, effective, and green in situ method. UiO-66-(Zr)-(COOH)2 MOF nanocrystals were grown uniformly over the whole surface of COOH-functionalized Ni50Co50-LDH ultrathin nanosheets in a green water system under a normal solvothermal condition at 100 °C. The synthesized LDH/MOF NC was used as a potential adsorbent for removal of toxic Cd(II) and Pb(II) from water and the influence of important factors on the adsorption process was monitored. Various non-linear isotherm and kinetic models were used to find plausible mechanisms involved in the adsorption, and it was found that the Langmuir and pseudo-first-order models show the best agreement with isotherm and kinetic data, respectively. The calculated maximum adsorption capacities of Cd(II) and Pb(II) by the LDH/MOF NC were found to be 415.3 and 301.4 mg g-1, respectively, based on the Langmuir model (pH = 5.0, adsorbent dose = 0.02 g, solution volume = 20 mL, contact time = 120 min, temperature = 25 â„ƒ, shaking speed 200 rpm).

13.
Indian Heart J ; 72(5): 462-465, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189215

RESUMO

Cardiovascular complications in ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction survivors remain substantial despite advances in the management of STEMI. We aimed to determine effect of AH on the area at risk (AAR), final infarct size (FIS), and salvage index (SI) in STEMI patients using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). 43 successfully reperfused STEMI patients were recruited. CMR was utilized to estimate AAR and FIS, SI was calculated: SI = AAR- FIS/AAR. AH showed significant positive correlations to FIS (r-value = 0.538, P = < 0.001), and AAR (r-value = 0.435, P = 0.002), and a negative correlation with SI (r-value = -0.378, P = 0.006).

14.
Int J Pharm ; 591: 120018, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122111

RESUMO

In this study, a complete two dimensional (internal coordinates) population balance model (2D-PBM) is developed, calibrated and validated as a predictive tool for predicting the particle size and the liquid content distribution of the granules produced from twin screw granulation (TSG). The model is calibrated and validated using experimental distributions for the two internal coordinates that are captured using image processing. Granulation runs are conducted at multiple liquid to solid (L/S) ratios and liquid binder viscosities, and then used to calibrate and validate the 2D-PBM. The mathematical model accounts for aggregation and breakage of the particles occurring in three zones of the TSG with inhomogeneous screw configurations (2 conveying zones and 1 kneading zone). A Madec aggregation kernel, and a linear breakage selection function are used in the 2D-PBM and finite volume numerical approximation is used for solving the model. The calibrated model shows that the aggregation rate in the conveying elements is higher than in the kneading elements while the breakage rate in the kneading elements is much higher than in the conveying elements. Also, the increase in L/S ratio and liquid viscosity leads to higher aggregation rates and lower breakage rates.

15.
J Clean Prod ; : 124775, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33106733

RESUMO

Over the past years, Indonesia, the world's fourth most populous country, has confronted environmental problems due to uncontrolled generation of municipal solid waste (MSW). While the integrated solid waste management (ISWM) represents a critical strategy for Indonesia to control its production, it is also recognized that economic approaches also need to be promoted to address the waste problem concertedly. In this case study, empirical approaches are developed to understand how a volume-based waste fee could be incorporated into MSW collection services and how to apply a zero-waste approach in Indonesia by adapting resource recovery initiatives, adapted from Germany's mature experiences in integrating the CE paradigm into the latter's MSWM practices. Currently, Sukunan village (Yogyakarta, Indonesia) promotes waste reduction at sources in the framework of community-based solid waste management (CBSWM) by mobilizing the local community for waste separation (organic and non-organic) and waste recycling. As a result, about 0.2 million Mt of CO2-eq emissions was avoided annually from local landfills. The economic benefits of recycling activities by the village's community also resulted in 30% reduction of the waste generated. This CBSWM scheme not only saves the government budget on waste collection, transport and disposal, but also extends the lifetime of local landfills as the final disposal sites. By integrating the CE paradigm into its MSWM practices through the implementation of economic instruments and adherence to the rule of law in the same way as Germany does, Indonesia could make positive changes to its environmental policy and regulation of MSW. A sound MSWM in Indonesia could play important roles in promoting the effectiveness of urban development with resource recovery approaches to facilitate its transition towards a CE nationwide in the long-term.

16.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20198309

RESUMO

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel SARS-CoV-2, continues to spread globally with significantly high morbidity and mortality rates. Immunological surrogate markers, in particular antigen-specific responses, are of unquestionable value for clinical management of patients with COVID-19. Here, we investigated the kinetics of IgM, IgG against the spike (S) and nucleoproteins (N) proteins and their neutralizing capabilities in hospitalized patients with RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 infection. Our data show that SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG, IgM and neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) were readily detectable in almost all COVID-19 patients with various clinical presentations. Notably, anti-S and -N IgG, peaked 20-40 day after disease onset, and were still detectable for at least up to 70 days, with nAbs observed during the same time period. Moreover, nAbs titers were strongly correlated with IgG antibodies. Significantly higher levels of nAbs as well as anti-S1 and N IgG and IgM antibodies were found in patients with more severe clinical presentations, patients requiring admission to intensive care units (ICU) or those with fatal outcomes. Interestingly, lower levels of antibodies, particularly anti-N IgG and IgM in the first 15 days after symptoms onset, were found in survivors and those with mild clinical presentations. Collectively, these findings provide new insights into the characteristics and kinetics of antibody responses in COVID-19 patients with different disease severity.

17.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl ; 31(4): 805-813, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801241

RESUMO

Accurate assessment of volume status (VS) in hemodialysis (HD) patients is challenging. The use of chest ultrasound (CUS) for detection of extravascular lung water has recently gained wide acceptance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of CUS in VS assessment in HD patients in comparison to clinical and inferior vena cava (IVC) indices and to assess their relation with volume displacement after ultrafiltration. This prospective cohort study was carried out on 38 patients on regular HD. VS was assessed using a 13-point clinical score, and IVC indices and CUS score were measured pre- and post-ultrafiltration. Correlation between these parameters and with ultrafiltration volume was tested. There was a statistically significant reduction in post-ultrafiltration CUS score and the 13-point clinical score (P < 0.01). Moreover, reduction in all the IVC indices (inspiratory and expiratory diameters and collapsing index) was detected, but did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.185, P = 0.296, and P = 0.194, respectively). CUS score had statistically significant correlations with ultrafiltration volume and New York Heart Association classes (P < 0.001 and <0.001, respectively). Neither clinical signs nor IVC indices can be used independently for the assessment of VS in HD patients. CUS is a useful guide in VS assessment, and we recommend its routine use in the management of HD patients. Concomitant use of bio- impedance analysis (BIA) may be needed in addition to CUS for more accurate assessment of VS in HD patients.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32763854

RESUMO

Active Lamb-wave-based structural health monitoring techniques have been widely studied to inspect large structures using permanently installed arrays of sensors and actuators. Most of these methods depend on comparing baseline signals recorded from the structure before going into service and test signals acquired during inspection. Temperature changes affects the propagation of the wave in a nonlinear and mode-dependent manner. As a result, baseline comparison methods fail when the test and baseline signals are acquired at vastly different temperatures. Approximate methods that compensate for the effects of temperature on the waves using signal stretch models have been introduced in the literature. These methods are effective when the temperature changes are small and the propagation distances are short. However, they perform poorly when these conditions are not satisfied. Consequently, there is a need for better temperature compensation algorithms than presently available. This paper presents a data-driven approach that separately compensates for the effects of temperature on different mode components of the sensor signals. The performance of the temperature compensation algorithm of this paper is compared with that of a commonly used baseline signal stretch (BSS) algorithm using experimental signals measured from an aluminum panel and a unidirectional composite panel. Analysis results indicate that the method of this paper outperforms the BSS algorithm for large temperature differences. The usefulness of the temperature compensation algorithm is further validated by demonstrating the ability of compensated signals to accurately reconstruct anomaly maps associated with damaged composite structures.

19.
Sensors (Basel) ; 20(17)2020 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858928

RESUMO

In this paper, we present a navigation strategy exclusively designed for social robots with limited sensors for applications in homes. The overall system integrates a reactive design based on subsumption architecture and a knowledge system with learning capabilities. The component of the system includes several modules, such as doorway detection and room localization via convolutional neural network (CNN), avoiding obstacles via reinforcement learning, passing the doorway via Canny edge's detection, building an abstract map called a Directional Semantic Topological Map (DST-Map) within the knowledge system, and other predefined layers within the subsumption architecture. The individual modules and the overall system are evaluated in a virtual environment using Webots simulator.

20.
Cureus ; 12(6): e8534, 2020 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665881

RESUMO

Primary cutaneous CD4+ small/medium T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder (PCSM-LPD) is a rare indolent disorder often associated with a favourable prognosis. It typically presents as a solitary skin lesion, mainly in the head, neck, or upper trunk region. Multifocal PCSM-LPD is a rare entity, with no standard treatment approaches available. In this article, we present the case of a 56-year-old male patient with multifocal biopsy-proven PCSM-LPD that was treated with methotrexate orally at 10 mg/m2 body surface area weekly and successfully achieved full clinical resolution by the 10th week of therapy. A review of the literature indicates the efficacy of combination chemotherapy. However, due to the indolent nature of this disorder and the undesired side effects from combination chemotherapy, our treatment method involved oral methotrexate alone, and it was successful. Oral methotrexate is a potential therapeutic option in the management of multifocal PCSM-LPD and it warrants further investigations.

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