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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247374, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285623

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity, distribution (C) and relative abundance (RA) of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of Malakand and Dir Lower, Pakistan. Collection of specimens (n = 1087) was made during September 2018 to July 2019 at six different habitats including freshwater bodies, rice fields, animal sheds, indoors, drains and sewage waters. Specimens were collected through light traps, pyrethrum spray, aspirators and nets and subsequently killed, preserved and then arranged in entomological boxes for identification. Three genera were identified namely Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. A total of fourteen species were identified namely: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) and An. annularis (van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus was found constantly distributed in the study area with RA = 16.5% and C = 100%. An. annularis was found as a satellite species, sporadically distributed in the study area having RA = 0.9% and C = 17%. Diversity indices of mosquitoes in the studied habitats were found as, Shannon-Wiener Index (2.415), Simpson Index (9.919), Fisher's Index (2.269) and Margalef's Index (1.859). A statistically significant difference was recorded in mosquito diversity in the six habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, H = 17.5, df = 5, P = 0.003 at α = 0.05). The present study encompasses mosquito fauna of Malakand, Pakistan with respect to diversity, relative abundance and distribution in diverse habitats and all seasons of the year. This will assist scientists working in various fields related with epidemiology, medical and veterinary entomology, ecology and allied areas of biological sciences.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a diversidade, distribuição (C) e abundância relativa (RA) da fauna de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae) de Malakand e Dir Lower, Paquistão. A coleta de espécimes (n = 1087) foi feita durante o período de setembro de 2018 a julho de 2019 em seis habitats diferentes, incluindo corpos d'água, campos de arroz, galpões de animais, ambientes internos, ralos e águas residuais. Os espécimes foram coletados por meio de armadilhas luminosas, spray de piretro, aspiradores e redes e posteriormente mortos, preservados e depois dispostos em caixas entomológicas para identificação. Três gêneros foram identificados, nomeadamente Culex, Anopheles e Aedes. Um total de 14 espécies foi identificado, a saber: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762), An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) e An. annularis (Van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus foi encontrado constantemente distribuído na área de estudo com AR = 16,5% e C = 100%. A. annularis foi encontrada como espécie satélite, distribuída esporadicamente na área de estudo com RA = 0,9% e C = 17%. Os índices de diversidade de mosquitos nos habitats estudados foram encontrados como índice de Shannon-Wiener (2,415), índice de Simpson (9,919), índice de Fisher (2,269) e índice de Margalef (1,859). Uma diferença estatisticamente significativa foi registrada na diversidade de mosquitos nos seis habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, qui-quadrado, H = 17,5, df = 5, P = 0,003 em α = 0,05). O presente estudo abrange a fauna de mosquitos de Malakand, Paquistão, com respeito à diversidade, abundância relativa e distribuição em diversos habitats e em todas as estações do ano. Isso ajudará os cientistas que trabalham em vários campos relacionados com a epidemiologia, entomologia médica e veterinária, ecologia e áreas afins das ciências biológicas.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238665, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153463

RESUMO

Abstract Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Resumo A região de Malakand é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose cutânea (CL). No entanto, há um número limitado de estudos sobre esta doença no Paquistão. Portanto, foi realizado um estudo para entender o nível de atitude e prática de conscientização entre os residentes de Makaland em relação aos CL e os vetores da doença. Este estudo adotou uma abordagem transversal com um total de 400 entrevistados (n = 93 rural e n = 307 urbano). No geral, a população da região de Malakand (61,2%) estava bem informada sobre o papel da mosca na transmissão de doenças, mas a maioria não possui conhecimento sobre o comportamento do vetor e quase um quarto (24,5%) foi incapaz de fornecer conhecimento sobre medidas de controle adequadas . De maneira alarmante, a prática e as atitudes da população em geral não foram satisfatórias, pois cerca da metade (49,8%) da população adotou algum método de controle. Este estudo apela ao aumento da conscientização por meio de campanhas de educação em saúde para reduzir o risco de surtos de leishmaniose cutânea no futuro.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238735, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153486

RESUMO

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.

4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e231509, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249242

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was aimed at comparing the brain size of mahseer (Tor putitora) in relation to their body weight and standard length, to investigate the potential impact of rearing environment on brain development in fish. The weight of the brain and three of its subdivisions cerebellum (CB), optic tectum (OT), and telencephalon (TC) were measured for both wild and hatchery-reared fish. The data was analysed using multiple analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and discriminate function analysis (DFA). We found the fish reared under hatchery conditions exhibit smaller brain size related to body weight, when compared to the wild ones. A significant (p<0.5) difference was observed in the length of CB and OT concerning the standard body length while no significant difference was found in TC of the fish from both the origins. The results of the current study highlight a logical assumption that neural deficiency affects the behaviour of fish, that's why the captive-reared fish show maladaptive response and face fitness decline when released to the natural environment for wild stock enhancement. The current study concluded that hatchery-reared fish exhibit variations in gross brain morphology as compared to their wild counterpart.


Resumo O presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar o tamanho do cérebro de mahseer (Tor putitora) em relação ao seu peso corporal e comprimento padrão, para investigar o impacto potencial do ambiente de criação no desenvolvimento do cérebro em peixes. O peso do cérebro e três de suas subdivisões — cerebelo (CB), tectum óptico (OT) e telencéfalo (TC) — foram medidos para peixes selvagens e criados em incubadoras. Os dados foram analisados usando análise múltipla de covariância (MANCOVA), análise de covariância (ANCOVA) e análise de função discriminante (DFA). Descobrimos que os peixes criados em condições de incubação apresentam menor tamanho do cérebro em relação ao peso corporal quando comparados aos selvagens. Uma diferença significativa (p <0,5) foi observada no comprimento do CB e OT em relação ao comprimento corporal padrão, enquanto nenhuma diferença significativa foi encontrada no CT dos peixes de ambas as origens. Os resultados do estudo atual destacam uma suposição lógica de que a deficiência neural afeta o comportamento dos peixes. É por isso que os peixes criados em cativeiro mostram uma resposta mal adaptativa e enfrentam declínio de aptidão quando liberados no ambiente natural para o aprimoramento do estoque selvagem. O estudo atual concluiu que os peixes criados em incubadoras exibem variações na morfologia cerebral bruta em comparação com suas contrapartes selvagens.

5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238339, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278513

RESUMO

Abstract The present research was carried out to explore the spider fauna of Buner valley with taxonomic study from February 2018 to January 2019. For this purpose samples were collected, four times at each month from 4 tehsils: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan and Totalai. Two methods were used, hand picking and sweep net for collection of samples. During day and night, three habitats, arid area, agriculture land and building area were search for collection. A total of 534 samples of spider were collected from four sampling sites, in which 379 were belonging to family Araniedae. After confirmation, the identified species were belonging to 8 genera (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia and Poltys) and 19 species. 18 of them were identified to specie level while a single specie to its generic level. The genus Neoscona was the dominant genus 26.31% having 5 species while the genus Argiope 21.05% is the second dominant having 4 species followed by Cyclosa 15.78% having 3 species followed by Cyrtophora and Araneus 10.52% having two species both. The Poltys and Larinia 5.26% are the rarest genera represent single-single specie both. Statistical analysis show that specie richness (D) = 5.77, Simpson index (1-D) = 0.87, Shannon index (H) = 2.33. Diversity of spiders was evenly distributed and calculated Evenness value was H/InS = 0.5408. There is also few atypical species and Fisher alpha estimate high value (Fisher α) = 4.42. Chao-1 estimated we have reported 22 species.


Resumo A presente pesquisa foi realizada para explorar a fauna de aranhas do vale Buner, em um estudo taxonômico realizado de fevereiro de 2018 a janeiro de 2019. Para esse fim, foram coletadas amostras, quatro vezes por mês, a partir de 4 subdistritos: Daggar, Gagra, Mandan e Totalai. Foram utilizados dois métodos, coleta manual e rede de varredura, para a obtenção das amostras. Durante o dia e a noite, foram pesquisados ​​três habitats: área árida, área agrícola e área de construção. Foram coletadas 534 amostras de aranha em quatro locais de amostragem, sendo que 379 pertenciam à família Araneidae. Após a confirmação, as espécies identificadas pertenciam a 8 gêneros (Neoscona, Argiope, Cyclosa, Araneus, Cyrtophora, Larinia, Erivoxia e Poltys) e a 19 espécies (18 delas foram identificados em seu nível de espécie, enquanto uma única foi identificada em seu nível genérico). O gênero Neoscona foi dominante (26,31%), com 5 espécies, seguido pelos gêneros Argiope (21,05%), com 4 espécies, Cyclosa (15,78%), com 3 espécies, e Cyrtophora e Araneus (10,52%), com 2 espécies. Poltys e Larinia (5,26%) são os gêneros mais raros, representando a mesma espécie. A análise estatística mostrou que a riqueza de espécies (D) foi de 5,77, o índice de Simpson (1-D) foi de 0,87 e o índice de Shannon (H) foi de 2,33. A diversidade de aranhas foi distribuída uniformemente, e o valor calculado da uniformidade foi H / InS = 0,5408. Também existem poucas espécies atípicas, e o alfa de Fisher (Fisher α) estimou o valor de 4,42. Já Chao-1 estimou 22 espécies.

6.
J Prosthodont ; 2021 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480386

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This in vitro study aims to assess the impact of various surface treatments on the shear bond strength (SBS) of two types of artificial teeth and denture base resins (DBRs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two types of DBRs (CAD/CAM-milled and heat-polymerized) and two types of denture teeth (acrylic and composite) were investigated. Teeth were cut into slices (5 × 5 × 2mm) and divided according to surface treatment into four subgroups (n = 10): no treatment (control), air abrasion (Alumina-blasting; AB), bur roughening, and dichloromethane (DCM) subgroups. According to manufacturer recommendations, the treated tooth slices were bonded to the acrylic disk of DBRs. The SBS test was performed using a universal testing machine. ANOVA was used for results analysis followed by Tukey's post-hoc tests (α = 0.05). RESULTS: DCM and AB increased the SBS of acrylic teeth to heat-polymerized DBR compared with other groups (P<0.001). All surface treatments showed no significant difference in CAD/CAM DBR with acrylic teeth (P = 0.059; AB, P = 0.319; bur roughening, P = 0.895; DCM), while there was a significant decrease in SBS with composite teeth (P˂0.001). Between teeth, acrylic teeth showed a statistically significant increase in SBS compared to composite teeth (P<0.001). CONCLUSION: AB and DCM application improved the SBS for acrylic teeth with the heat-polymerized DBR when compared with the untreated group, but none of the surface treatment agents showed significant improvement with CAD/CAM DBR. All surface treatment agents reduced the SBS for composite teeth with CAD/CAM DBR while AB only increased the SBS with heat-polymerized DBR. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

7.
Eur J Med Genet ; : 104333, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517090

RESUMO

Mandibular hypoplasia, Deafness, Progeroid features, and Lipodystrophy (MDPL) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in POLD1 gene and characterized by mandibular hypoplasia, deafness, progeroid features and lipodystrophy. One recurrent mutation p.(Ser605del) was reported in almost all affected patients. We report a novel de novo c.3214A>C p.(Thr1072Pro) variant in POLD1 in a 28-year-old male with MDPL syndrome. We provide a clinical description, molecular/immunohistological results, and literature review.

8.
Ann Diagn Pathol ; 55: 151810, 2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482217

RESUMO

The diagnosis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) relies primarily on identifying peripheral blood cytopenia and morphologic dysplasia as well as detecting cytogenetic aberrations in a subset of patients. Accumulating data points to the importance of examining certain immunophenotypic changes characteristic of MDS, most of which are tested by flow cytometry. The role of immunohistochemistry in the diagnostic workup of MDS is less known. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry to survey the expression patterns of CD177, P53, CD105 and c- kit in a cohort of MDS bone marrow specimens (n = 57) and compared the results with a control group of patients who had cytopenia for other benign conditions (n = 49). MDS cases showed significant higher rates of: CD177-loss (13/57, 23% vs 1/49, 2%; P = .0016), P53 overexpression (8/57, 14% vs none; P = .005) and the presence of clusters of CD105-positive cells (6/57, 11% vs none; P = .021). Increased c-kit-positive cells was more common in MDS patients, but not statistically significant (17/57, 30% vs 8/49, 16%; P = .102). On multivariate analysis, only loss of CD177 expression was significantly higher in MDS group (P = .014). These findings suggest that a panel of immunohistochemical stains could serve as an adjunct tool in investigating unexplained cytopenias and warrant further comparative studies with flow cytometry.

9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 417, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34507551

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The future productivity of wheat (T. aestivum L.) as the most grown crop worldwide is of utmost importance for global food security. Thousand kernel weight (TKW) in wheat is closely associated with grain architecture-related traits, e.g. kernel length (KL), kernel width (KW), kernel area (KA), kernel diameter ratio (KDR), and factor form density (FFD). Discovering the genetic architecture of natural variation in these traits, identifying QTL and candidate genes are the main aims of this study. Therefore, grain architecture-related traits in 261 worldwide winter accessions over three field-year experiments were evaluated. RESULTS: Genome-wide association analysis using 90K SNP array in FarmCPU model revealed several interesting genomic regions including 17 significant SNPs passing false discovery rate threshold and strongly associated with the studied traits. Four of associated SNPs were physically located inside candidate genes within LD interval e.g. BobWhite_c5872_589 (602,710,399 bp) found to be inside TraesCS6A01G383800 (602,699,767-602,711,726 bp). Further analysis reveals the four novel candidate genes potentially involved in more than one grain architecture-related traits with a pleiotropic effects e.g. TraesCS6A01G383800 gene on 6A encoding oxidoreductase activity was associated with TKW and KA. The allelic variation at the associated SNPs showed significant differences betweeen the accessions carying the wild and mutated alleles e.g. accessions carying C allele of BobWhite_c5872_589, TraesCS6A01G383800 had significantly higher TKW than the accessions carying T allele. Interestingly, these genes were highly expressed in the grain-tissues, demonstrating their pivotal role in controlling the grain architecture. CONCLUSIONS: These results are valuable for identifying regions associated with kernel weight and dimensions and potentially help breeders in improving kernel weight and architecture-related traits in order to increase wheat yield potential and end-use quality.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sementes/anatomia & histologia , Sementes/genética , Triticum/anatomia & histologia , Triticum/genética , Grão Comestível/anatomia & histologia , Grão Comestível/genética , Variação Genética , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Locos de Características Quantitativas
10.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(17): 5561-5577, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533807

RESUMO

We aimed this systematic review to analyze and review the currently available published literature related to long COVID, understanding its pattern, and predicting the long-term effects on survivors. We thoroughly searched the databases for relevant articles till May 2021. The research articles that met our inclusion and exclusion criteria were assessed and reviewed by two independent researchers. After preliminary screening of the identified articles through title and abstract, 249 were selected. Consequently, 167 full-text articles were assessed and reviewed based on our inclusion criteria and thus 20 articles were regarded as eligible and analyzed in the present analysis. All the studies included adult population aged between 18 and above 60 years. The median length of hospital stay of the COVID-19 patients during the acute infection phase ranged from 8 days to 17 days. The most common prevalent long-term symptoms in COVID-19 patients included persistent fatigue and dyspnea in almost all of the studies. Other reported common symptoms included: shortness of breath, cough, joint pain, chest pain or tightness, headache, loss of smell/taste, sore throat, diarrhea, loss of memory, depression, anxiety. Associated cardiovascular events included arrhythmias, palpitations and hypotension, increased HR, venous thromboembolic diseases, myocarditis, and acute/decompensated heart failure as well. Among neurological manifestations headache, peripheral neuropathy symptoms, memory issues, concentration, and sleep disorders were most commonly observed with varying frequencies. Mental health issues affecting mental abilities, mood fluctuations namely anxiety and depression, and sleep disorders were commonly seen. Further, diarrhea, vomiting, digestive disorders, and Loss of appetite or weight loss are common gastrointestinal manifestations. Therefore, appropriate clinical evaluation is required in long COVID cases which in turn may help us to identify the risk factors, etiology, and to my help, we treat them early with appropriate management strategies.

11.
Psychol Trauma ; 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34498900

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Emotion dysregulation theoretically and empirically explains the link between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and posttrauma reckless and self-destructive behaviors (RSDBs). METHOD: The current study uniquely examined the role of emotion dysregulation in the association between the four heterogeneous PTSD clusters (intrusions, avoidance, negative alterations in cognitions and mood [NACM], and alterations in arousal and reactivity [AAR]) and an overall measure of posttrauma RSDBs. Trauma-exposed participants (n = 411) completed self-report measures assessing PTSD symptoms (PTSD Checklist for DSM-5), emotion dysregulation (Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale-16), and engagement in RSDBs (Posttrauma Risky Behaviors Questionnaire). RESULTS: Direct and indirect effects were examined using PROCESS Model 4. The bias-corrected bootstrap revealed a significant indirect effect of emotion dysregulation in posttrauma RSDBs' relation with PTSD's intrusions (B = -.13, SE = .04, 95% CI [-.23, -.06]), avoidance (B =.15, SE =.07, 95% CI [.04, .33]), NACM (B =.17, SE =.05, 95% CI [.09, .27]), and AAR (B =.14, SE =.05, 95% CI [.05, .27]). CONCLUSIONS: Emotion dysregulation explained associations between the severity of each PTSD symptom cluster and overall posttrauma RSDBs. PTSD treatments targeting emotion dysregulation may help to reduce posttrauma RSDBs for trauma-exposed individuals. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

12.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34518755

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which emerged in December 2019, continues to be a serious health concern worldwide. There is an urgent need to develop effective drugs and vaccines to control the spread of this disease. In the current study, the main phytochemical compounds of Nigella sativa were screened for their binding affinity for the active site of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) enzyme of the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). The binding affinity was investigated using molecular docking methods, and the interaction of phytochemicals with the RdRp active site was analyzed and visualized using suitable software. Out of the nine phytochemicals of N. sativa screened in this study, a significant docking score was observed for four compounds, namely α-hederin, dithymoquinone, nigellicine, and nigellidine. Based on the findings of our study, we report that α-hederin, which was found to possess the lowest binding energy (-8.6 kcal/mol) and hence the best binding affinity, is the best inhibitor of RdRp of SARS-CoV-2, among all the compounds screened here. Our results prove that the top four potential phytochemical molecules of N. sativa, especially α-hederin, could be considered for ongoing drug development strategies against SARS-CoV-2. However, further in vitro and in vivo testing are required to confirm the findings of this study.

13.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255193, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Home delivery (HD) without skilled birth attendants (SBAs) are considered crucial risk factors increasing maternal and child mortality rates in Loa PDR. While a few studies in the literature discuss the choice of delivery in remote areas of minority ethnic groups; our work aims to identify factors that indicated their delivery place, at home or in the health facilities. METHODS: A community-based qualitative study was conducted between February and March 2020. Three types of interviews were implemented, In-depth interviews with 16 women of eight rural villages who delivered in the last 12 months in Xepon District, Savannakhet Province, Lao PDR. Also, three focus group discussions (FGDs) with nine HCPs and key-informant interviews of ten VHVs were managed. Factors affecting the choice of the delivery place were categorized according to the social-ecological model. RESULTS: Our sample included five Tri women and two Mangkong women in the HD group, while the FD group included three Tri women, two Mangkong women, one Phoutai woman, two Laolung women and one Vietnamese. Our investigation inside the targeted minority showed that both positive perceptions of home delivery (HD) and low-risk perception minorities were the main reasons for the choice of HD, on the individual level. On the other hand, fear of complication, the experience of stillbirth, and prolonged labour pain during HD were reasons for facility-based delivery (FD). Notably, the women in our minority reported no link between their preference and their language, while the HCPs dated the low knowledge to the language barrier. On the interpersonal level, the FD women had better communication with their families, and better preparation for delivery compared to the HD group. The FD family prepared cash and transportation using their social network. At the community level, the trend of the delivery place had shifted from HD to FD. Improved accessibility and increased knowledge through community health education were the factors of the trend. At the societal (national policy) level, the free delivery policy and limitation of HCPs' assisted childbirth only in health facilities were the factors of increasing FD, while the absence of other incentives like transportation and food allowance was the factor of remaining of HD. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the main findings of this study, we urge the enhancement of family communication on birth preparedness and birthplace. Furthermore, our findings support the need to educate mothers, especially those of younger ages, about their best options regarding the place of delivery. We propose implementing secondary services of HD to minimize the emergency risks of HD. We encourage local authorities to be aware of the medical needs of the community especially those of pregnant females and their right for a free delivery policy.

14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 25(15): 4909-4918, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34355363

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to determine the prevalence, patterns and contributing factors for tobacco usage amongst Saudi population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between April and June 2013, a cross-sectional study was organized among 10735 individuals aged 15 years or older. The survey consisted of face-face interview for collecting data on socio-demographics, tobacco usage, diet, physical activity and comorbidities. Univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression was applied to check for the association of prevalence (both smoked and smokeless) with socio-demographic factors. The strength of association was examined by approximating odds ratios (OR) with their 95% CI using SPSS software and p-value set at < 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 10195 respondents aged from 15 to 101 were considered. Overall prevalence of current smoking was 12.8%. Daily smoking was reported by 12% of the population. Sex, age group, education, married and occupation were strong predictors of tobacco use in both univariate and multivariable model. From multivariable model, men were 14.54 times more likely to smoke tobacco (aOR 14.54, 95% CI 11.07-19.11) when compared with women. Respondents between 15 to 30 years, 31 to 45 years, were 3.36 times (aOR 3.36, 95% CI 2.29-4.93) and 3.51 times (aOR 3.51, 95% CI 2.47-4.98) more likely to smoke tobacco when compared to >60 years. CONCLUSIONS: The results of present study indicate a significant, but differing purpose of sex, age group, education, marital status and work status on tobacco usage in the country.

15.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e247374, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431916

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to evaluate the diversity, distribution (C) and relative abundance (RA) of the mosquito fauna (Diptera: Culicidae) of Malakand and Dir Lower, Pakistan. Collection of specimens (n = 1087) was made during September 2018 to July 2019 at six different habitats including freshwater bodies, rice fields, animal sheds, indoors, drains and sewage waters. Specimens were collected through light traps, pyrethrum spray, aspirators and nets and subsequently killed, preserved and then arranged in entomological boxes for identification. Three genera were identified namely Culex, Anopheles and Aedes. A total of fourteen species were identified namely: Cx. quinquefasciatus (Say, 1823), An. stephensi (Liston, 1901), Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (Giles, 1901), Ae. vittatus (Bigot, 1861), An. maculatus (Theobald, 1901), An. fluviatilis (James, 1902), Cx. vishnui (Theobald, 1901), Ae. aegypti (Linnaeus, 1762) An. subpictus (Grassi, 1899), An. dthali (Patton, 1905), An. culicifascies (Giles, 1901), An. pallidus (Theobald, 1901), Ae. albopictus (Skuse, 1894) and An. annularis (van der Wulp, 1884). Cx. quinquefasciatus was found constantly distributed in the study area with RA = 16.5% and C = 100%. An. annularis was found as a satellite species, sporadically distributed in the study area having RA = 0.9% and C = 17%. Diversity indices of mosquitoes in the studied habitats were found as, Shannon-Wiener Index (2.415), Simpson Index (9.919), Fisher's Index (2.269) and Margalef's Index (1.859). A statistically significant difference was recorded in mosquito diversity in the six habitats (Kruskal-Wallis, chi-squared, H = 17.5, df = 5, P = 0.003 at α = 0.05). The present study encompasses mosquito fauna of Malakand, Pakistan with respect to diversity, relative abundance and distribution in diverse habitats and all seasons of the year. This will assist scientists working in various fields related with epidemiology, medical and veterinary entomology, ecology and allied areas of biological sciences.


Assuntos
Culicidae , Animais , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Paquistão , Estações do Ano
16.
J Prosthodont ; 2021 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347351

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This in vitro study evaluated the flexural strength, impact strength, hardness, and surface roughness of 3D-printed denture base resin subjected to thermal cycling treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: According to ISO 20795-1:2013 standards, 120 acrylic resin specimens (40/flexural strength test, 40/impact strength, and 40/surface roughness and hardness test, n = 10) were fabricated and distributed into two groups: heat-polymerized; (Major.Base.20) as control and 3D-printed (NextDent) as experimental group. Half of the specimens of each group were subjected to 10,000 thermal cycles of 5 to 55°C simulating 1 year of clinical use. Flexural strength (MPa), impact strength (KJ/m2 ), hardness (VHN), and surface roughness (µm) were measured using universal testing machine, Charpy's impact tester, Vickers hardness tester, and profilometer, respectively. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey honestly significant difference (HSD) test (α = 0.05). RESULTS: The values of flexural strength (MPa) were 86.63 ± 1.0 and 69.15 ± 0.88; impact strength (KJ/m2 )-6.32 ± 0.50 and 2.44 ± 0.31; hardness (VHN)-41.63 ± 2.03 and 34.62 ± 2.1; and surface roughness (µm)-0.18 ± 0.01 and 0.12 ± 0.02 for heat-polymerized and 3D-printed denture base materials, respectively. Significant differences in all tested properties were recorded between heat-polymerized and 3D-printed denture base materials (P < 0.001). Thermal cycling significantly lowered the flexural strength (63.93 ± 1.54 MPa), impact strength (2.40 ± 0.35 KJ/m2 ), and hardness (30.17 ± 1.38 VHN) of 3D-printed resin in comparison to thermal cycled heat-polymerized resin, but surface roughness showed non-significant difference (p = 0.262). CONCLUSION: 3D-printed resin had inferior flexural strength, impact strength, and hardness values than heat-polymerized resin, but showed superior surface roughness. Temperature changes (thermal cycling) significantly reduced the hardness and flexural strength and increased surface roughness, but did not affect the impact strength.

17.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-7, 2021 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459316

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study to evaluate the risk of Cushing's syndrome (CS) and maternal and fetal complications using the American Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective study using the Health Care Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample database from 2004 to 2014. We compared pregnancies with CS versus non-CS regarding pregnancy, delivery, and neonatal outcomes using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: We identified 9,096,788 pregnancies during the study period. Cushing's syndrome complicated 135 pregnancies at a rate of 1-2 cases per 100,000 births. Cushing's syndrome subjects were more likely to be older, obese, have private insurance, chronic hypertension, and pre-gestational diabetes (p<.001). The maternal mortality rate was 0.7 and 0.007% in Cushing's syndrome and control groups, respectively, although due to small numbers of cases, this should be interpreted with caution. Preeclampsia was higher in CS compared to controls after controlling for confounding variables, aOR 2.20. Operative vaginal delivery and blood transfusion rates were higher in CS patients than controls after controlling for confounding factors, aOR 6.49 and 3.09, respectively. The rates of preterm delivery (8.9 versus 7.2%) and gestational diabetes (8.1 versus 5.8%) were not statistically different between CS and control groups. CONCLUSION: Cushing's syndrome patients begin pregnancies often with maladies making them more at risk for complications including, preeclampsia, blood transfusion, and operative vaginal delivery. These patients might benefit from prevention methods for preeclampsia, and increased surveillance to decrease maternal morbidity and mortality. However, the nature of the database and its limitations, including the lack of information about CS activity and treatments received by patients, warrant careful interpretation of these results.

18.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256647, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34464417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early detection and management of hearing loss are important to develop ordinary speaking language and academic skills during childhood. Lack of knowledge by either parents or health care providers could hinder the process of hearing loss diagnosis, such that the intervention will be less effective. There is little evidence about the knowledge and practice of family physicians regarding hearing screening in Saudi Arabia and worldwide. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess family physicians' knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to hearing loss in children. This in turn will help policy makers and educational institutions to establish and promote a program concerned with screening, diagnosis and intervention of paediatric hearing loss. METHODS: A cross-sectional descriptive study enrolled 133 family physicians working at primary health centres in Saudi Arabia from March 2020 to September 2020. A self-reported questionnaire was used to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of family physicians concerning hearing loss in children. RESULTS: The majority of the participants were working under the umbrella of the Ministry of Health and around half of them did not screen any child for hearing loss. Despite that, 91.7% indicated the importance of neonatal hearing screening, 70.7% indicate infant candidacy for cochlear implant and only 33.1% know about the existence of the early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) governmental program in kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Participants were able to identify factors associated with hearing loss such as a family history of hearing loss (85.6%), meningitis (75%) and craniofacial anomalies (51.5%). The most frequent specialists for patient referrals were ear nose and throat ENT (75.2%) and audiologists (67.7%). CONCLUSION: This study shows that family physicians have good general background about the benefits of EHDI programs and the management of hearing loss in the paediatric population. However, it also indicated insufficient knowledge in other domains of hearing loss, including assessments and the presence of the EHDI governmental program in KSA. Further actions on the involvement of family physicians in the process of neonatal hearing screening, diagnosis and intervention for hearing impairment are needed.

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443997

RESUMO

The world is still in need of an effective therapy to treat coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). This cross-sectional study was conducted on COVID-19 survivors in Saudi Arabia to investigate the influence of a healthy diet on the recovery time from COVID-19. A questionnaire was developed to assess participants' dietary habits, based on the 2015 Dutch food-based dietary guidelines. A total of 738 COVID-19 survivors participated in the study, of whom 237 (32.1%) were hospitalized for COVID-19 treatment while 501 (76.9%) were not hospitalized, and 320 (43.4%) were females and 418 (56.6%) were males. Overall, no significant difference was noted in healthy diet score between males and females; however, this score was significantly lower for Saudis compared to non-Saudis. Among the non-hospitalized patients, eating a more healthy diet was associated with a shorter duration of recovery (p < 0.05) and was significantly affected by gender (15.8 ± 9.3 male vs. 12.1 ± 8.9 female; p < 0.001) and marital status (12.1 ± 8.4 singles vs. 13.7 ± 9.3 married vs. 16.1 ± 11.8 divorced; p < 0.05). In contrast, no significant correlation was found with age or BMI. In this study, a more healthy diet was associated with a shorter duration of recovery from COVID-19. However, further studies are needed to thoroughly investigate the relationship between diet and recovery time from COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Dieta Saudável , COVID-19/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(8)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404670

RESUMO

A family of three siblings affected with gyrate atrophy of the choroid and retina is presented. Ultrawide field fundus imaging was used to monitor the progression of the disease objectively over 5 years.


Assuntos
Atrofia Girata , Adolescente , Atrofia/patologia , Criança , Corioide/diagnóstico por imagem , Corioide/patologia , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Feminino , Fundo de Olho , Atrofia Girata/complicações , Atrofia Girata/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Masculino , Ornitina , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/patologia
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