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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238665, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153463

RESUMO

Abstract Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Resumo A região de Malakand é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose cutânea (CL). No entanto, há um número limitado de estudos sobre esta doença no Paquistão. Portanto, foi realizado um estudo para entender o nível de atitude e prática de conscientização entre os residentes de Makaland em relação aos CL e os vetores da doença. Este estudo adotou uma abordagem transversal com um total de 400 entrevistados (n = 93 rural e n = 307 urbano). No geral, a população da região de Malakand (61,2%) estava bem informada sobre o papel da mosca na transmissão de doenças, mas a maioria não possui conhecimento sobre o comportamento do vetor e quase um quarto (24,5%) foi incapaz de fornecer conhecimento sobre medidas de controle adequadas . De maneira alarmante, a prática e as atitudes da população em geral não foram satisfatórias, pois cerca da metade (49,8%) da população adotou algum método de controle. Este estudo apela ao aumento da conscientização por meio de campanhas de educação em saúde para reduzir o risco de surtos de leishmaniose cutânea no futuro.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238735, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153486

RESUMO

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.

3.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238665, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33825759

RESUMO

Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , População Rural , População Urbana
4.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238665, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787717

RESUMO

Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Assuntos
Leishmaniose Cutânea , Psychodidae , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , População Rural , População Urbana
5.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238735, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33787718

RESUMO

Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Roedores , Roedores , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Paquistão , Ratos , Doenças dos Roedores/epidemiologia , Simbiose
6.
Foot (Edinb) ; 46: 101720, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33531204

RESUMO

AIMS: To assess the incidence of spring ligament failure in patients who have complete deltoid ruptures. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The authors retrospectively analysed ankle fractures in our trauma database from January 2015 to January 2019. 61 patients who sustained ankle fractures with complete deltoid ligament ruptures based on an AP ankle radiographs with increased medial joint space were identified. 25 patients attended clinic for assessment. Of these, 5 were found to have gross planovalgus with pre-existing spring ligament laxity in the uninjured control foot and these were excluded from the analysis. 20 patients were assessed for spring ligament failure /laxity. For each patient, the uninjured foot was used as the control. RESULTS: The TMT instability score and the lateral translation score showed statistically significant increases in the injured compared to the uninjured foot. The ratio of increase in both TMT instability and lateral translation scores (strain) in the injured versus the uninjured foot was assessed. A strong correlation (+0.62 pearson correlation coefficient) was found between the two ratios. CONCLUSION: All 20 patients showed increased spring ligament laxity and 19 patients showed increased TMT instability. Our results show that with complete deltoid rupture, there is likely greater disruption of the medial ligamentous structures of the foot than previously recognised. The degree of increase in the spring ligament strain also correlates with the degree of strain at the plantar TMT joint ligaments, and thus first ray instability. This finding has significant implications for the long-term assessment and management of ankle fractures involving complete deltoid disruption. Early intervention with orthotics in this cohort may prevent progressive destabilisation of the midfoot and the first ray. This evolving understanding may lead to the prospect of earlier surgical intervention to reconstitute the integrity of the spring ligament and protect the foot progressing to stage 2 AAFD.

7.
Br J Neurosurg ; : 1-5, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33170040

RESUMO

AIM: Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy (CSM) is a disabling condition arising from arthritic compression and consequent injury of the cervical spinal cord. Stratification of CSM severity has been useful to inform clinical practice and research analysis. In the UK the Myelopathy Disability Index (MDI) is a popular assessment tool and has been adopted by the British Spinal Registry. However, no categories of severity exist. Therefore, the aim of this study was to define categories of mild, moderate and severe. METHOD: An anchor-based analysis was carried out on previously collected data from a prospective observational cohort (N = 404) of patients with CSM scheduled for surgery and assessed pre-operatively and at 3, 12, 24 and 60 months post-operatively. Outcomes collected included the SF-36 version-1 quality of life measure, visual analogue scales for neck/arm/hand pain, MDI and Neck Disability Index (NDI). A Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis, using the NDI for an anchor-based approach, was performed to identify MDI thresholds. RESULTS: Complete data was available for 404 patients (219 Men, 185 Women). The majority of patients underwent anterior surgery (284, 70.3%). ROC curves plotted to identify the thresholds from mild to moderate to severe disease, selected optimal thresholds of 4-5 (AUC 0.83) and 8-9 (AUC 0.87). These MDI categories were validated against domains of the SF36 and VAS scores with expected positive linear correlations. CONCLUSION: Categories of mild, moderate and severe CSM according to the MDI of 4-5 and 8-9 were established based on the NDI.

8.
Eur J Dent Educ ; 22(3): e321-e326, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29024268

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The role of dental auxiliaries in collaborative care of patients with special needs is compelling. This study was undertaken to investigate the perceptions of Special Needs Dentistry (SND) education and practice amongst students enrolled in Australian programmes in dental auxiliary, namely dental hygiene, dental therapy and oral health therapy (DH/DT/OHT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: All Australian institutions offering DH/DT/OHT programmes (n = 14) were invited to participate in a self-administered questionnaire survey, conducted online, involving students across all academic years. Twelve institutions agreed to participate, but only five institutions were included in the final analysis, with a student response rate of 31.1%. Answers to open-ended questions were coded and grouped for measurement of frequencies. Quantitative data were analysed via chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests (significance taken as P < .05). RESULTS: The majority of students could not define SND (87.0%) were not aware of the existence of this specialty (53.5%) and did not have clinical experience treating patients with special needs (68.9%). Nevertheless, they felt comfortable and positive about treating these patients independently. Most agreed that they should receive clinical and didactic education in SND, with many of them expressing interest in pursuing a specialty training in this field. CONCLUSION: DH/DT/OHT students' comfort levels, positive attitudes and supportiveness for SND suggested positive implications for these practitioners to partake in multidisciplinary management of patients with special needs, thus indicating the need for standardised training requirements and practice guidelines in this area of care.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Auxiliares de Odontologia/educação , Assistência Odontológica para Pessoas com Deficiências , Educação em Odontologia , Austrália , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Eur J Dent Educ ; 21(4): e29-e38, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27273317

RESUMO

Poor oral health has been associated with compromised general health and quality of life. To promote comprehensive patient management, the role of medical professionals in oral health maintenance is compelling, thus indicating the need for educational preparation in this area of practice. This study aimed to determine the extent of training in oral health in Malaysian and Australian medical schools. An audio-recorded semi-structured phone interview involving Academic Programme Directors in Malaysian (n = 9, response rate=81.8%) and Australian (n = 7, response rate = 35.0%) medical schools was conducted during the 2014/2015 and 2014 academic years, respectively. Qualitative data was analysed via thematic analysis, involving coding and grouping into emerging themes. Quantitative data were measured for frequencies. It was found that medical schools in Malaysia and Australia offered limited teaching of various oral health-related components that were mostly integrated throughout the curriculum, in the absence of structured learning objectives, teaching methodologies and assessment approaches. Barriers to providing oral health education included having insufficient expertise and overloaded curriculum. As medical educators demonstrated support for oral health education, collaboration amongst various stakeholders is integral to developing a well-structured curriculum and practice guidelines on oral health management involving medical professionals.


Assuntos
Educação em Saúde Bucal , Faculdades de Odontologia , Estudantes de Medicina , Austrália , Currículo , Previsões , Malásia , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde
10.
East Mediterr Health J ; 22(9): 687-693, 2016 Dec 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27966771

RESUMO

The prevalence of obesity is increasing in Saudi Arabia and although caries is associated with obesity, this association has not been investigated in Medina. This study aimed to determine the association between dental caries, body mass index (BMI) and dietary habits of 12-year-old boys from four geographically distinct schools in Medina. Mean BMI was 22.17 kg/m² (± 5.15); 41% had normal BMI, 25% were overweight and 30% were obese. The mean Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) score was 1.46 (± 2.04). Those in the normal BMI range had a significantly higher prevalence of caries (57%) and DMFT score (1.92) compared with the overweight and obese groups (P < 0.05). These differences remained significant after controlling for possible confounders via linear regression. Mean BMI was significantly lower in boys with severe compared with mild or no caries. Normal and underweight participants had an almost 2 times greater risk of developing caries compared with their overweight and obese counterparts. The children had poor dietary habits and there were no significant associations between dietary variables and caries.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 11(1): 95, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26887579

RESUMO

A biosensor for measuring the antidiabetic potential of medicinal plants was developed by covalent immobilization of α-glucosidase (AG) enzyme onto amine-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs-NH2). The immobilized enzyme was entrapped in freeze-thawed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) together with p-nitrophenyl-α-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) on the screen-printed carbon electrode at low pH to prevent the premature reaction between PNPG and AG enzyme. The enzymatic reaction within the biosensor is inhibited by bioactive compounds in the medicinal plant extracts. The capability of medicinal plants to inhibit the AG enzyme on the electrode correlates to the potential of the medicinal plants to inhibit the production of glucose from the carbohydrate in the human body. Thus, the inhibition indicates the antidiabetic potential of the medicinal plants. The performance of the biosensor was evaluated to measure the antidiabetic potential of three medicinal plants such as Tebengau (Ehretis laevis), Cemumar (Micromelum pubescens), and Kedondong (Spondias dulcis) and acarbose (commercial antidiabetic drug) via cyclic voltammetry, amperometry, and spectrophotometry. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) response for the inhibition of the AG enzyme activity by Tebengau plant extracts showed a linear relation in the range from 0.423-8.29 µA, and the inhibition detection limit was 0.253 µA. The biosensor exhibited good sensitivity (0.422 µA/mg Tebengau plant extracts) and rapid response (22 s). The biosensor retains approximately 82.16 % of its initial activity even after 30 days of storage at 4 °C.

12.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; 29(12): 1972-6, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26364513

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to review the maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality associated with six or more caesarean section (CS). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review, at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH) in Jeddah, for all patients admitted between 2000 through 2010 and identified five patients having more than six CS deliveries. RESULTS: Deliveries occurred in the ranges of 31-38 weeks, from which four cases required emergency CS. There were two cases in the series with a placenta previa. There was a single case of uterine dehiscence. Only one case required a blood transfusion and was complicated with a placenta accreta, bladder injury, urinary tract infection, and prolonged maternal hospital stay with neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission. All cases had moderate to severe adhesion intra-operatively. Operative time was long in all cases with a range 55-106 min. One of the five cases had a postoperative wound infection. Finally, none of the current series showed fetal or maternal mortalities. CONCLUSIONS: The long-term complications associated with CS should be discussed with patients in the first and subsequent pregnancies. This case series highlighted the outcomes in these unique cases of higher order caesareans.


Assuntos
Cesárea/efeitos adversos , Reoperação/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Cesárea/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Reoperação/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
13.
Clin Obes ; 5(6): 302-11, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26567983

RESUMO

Obesity is a major health concern in the Middle East and the incidence is rising in all sections of the population. Efforts to control obesity through diet and lifestyle interventions, and by surgical means, have had limited effect, and the gene-environment interactions underpinning the development of obesity and related pathologies such as metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease and certain cancers are poorly defined. Lifestyle, genetics, inflammation and the interaction between the intestinal bacteria and host metabolism have all been implicated in creating an obesogenic environment. We summarize the role of metabolic and microbial phenotyping in understanding the aetiopathogenesis of obesity and in characterizing the metabolic responses to surgical and non-surgical interventions, and explore the potential for clinical translation of this approach.


Assuntos
Obesidade/metabolismo , Cirurgia Bariátrica , Dietoterapia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Oriente Médio , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/microbiologia , Obesidade/terapia , Fenótipo
14.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 61(6): 62-8, 2015 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26518897

RESUMO

Cancer is a multifaceted and genomically complex disease. Research over the years has gradually provided a near complete resolution of cancer landscape and it is now known that genetic/epigenetic mutations, inactivation of tumor suppressors, Overexpression of oncogenes, spatio-temporally dysregulated intracellular signaling cascades, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), metastasis and loss of apoptosis are some of the most extensively studied biological mechanisms that underpin cancer development and progression. Increasingly it is being realized that current therapeutic interventions are becoming ineffective because of tumor heterogeneity and rapidly developing resistance against drugs. Considerable biological activities exerted by bioactive ingredients isolated from natural sources have revolutionized the field of natural product chemistry and rapid developments in preclinical studies are encouraging. Viscum album has emerged as a deeply studied natural source with substantial and multifaceted biological activities. In this review we have attempted to provide recent breakthroughs in existing scientific literature with emphasis on targeting of protein network in cancer cells. We partition this review into different sections, highlighting latest information from cell culture studies, preclinical and clinically oriented studies. We summarized how bioactive ingredients of Viscum album modulated extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in cancer cells. However, surprisingly, none of the study reported stimulatory effects on TRAIL receptors. The review provided in-depth analysis of how Viscum album modulated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in cancer cells and how bioactive chemicals tactfully targeted cytoskeletal machinery in cancer cells as evidenced by cell culture studies. It is noteworthy that Viscum album has entered into various phases of clinical trials, however, there are still knowledge gaps in our understanding regarding how various bioactive constituents of Viscum album modulate intracellular signaling cascades in cancer. Better and deeper comprehension oncogenic signaling cascades will prove to be helful in getting a step closer to individualized medicine.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Viscum album/química , Animais , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Viscum album/fisiologia
15.
Eur J Dent Educ ; 19(1): 44-52, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24779684

RESUMO

A compromised oral health condition amongst patients with special health care needs (SHCN) has been associated with the reluctance and shortage of skills of dental professionals in managing such patients. Lack of training and experience at the undergraduate level are reported barriers to the provision of care for this patient cohort. Undergraduate education therefore, plays an important role in producing professionals with the knowledge, skills and positive attitude in treating patients with SHCN. This study aims to determine the level of knowledge, comfort and attitudes of Malaysian undergraduate dental students towards caring for patients with SHCN, as well as their perception on education in this field. A self-administered questionnaire was administered in the classroom style to final year undergraduate dental students in Malaysian public dental schools. Most students were aware of Special Needs Dentistry (SND) as a specialty after being informed by academic staff. The majority of the students demonstrated poor knowledge in defining SND and felt uncomfortable providing care for such patients. They perceived their undergraduate training in SND as inadequate with most students agreeing that they should receive didactic and clinical training at undergraduate level. A high percentage of students also expressed interest in pursuing postgraduate education in this area of dentistry despite the lack of educational exposure during undergraduate years. The study supports a need for educational reform to formulate a curriculum that is more patient-centred, with earlier clinical exposure in various clinical settings for students to treat patients with special health care needs, applying the concept of holistic care in a variable clinical condition.


Assuntos
Assistência Odontológica para Pessoas com Deficiências , Educação em Odontologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estudantes de Odontologia/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
East Mediterr Health J ; 20(11): 732-7, 2014 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25601812

RESUMO

Studies from Saudi Arabia have reported that the prevalence of dental caries among children is relatively high compared with other developing countries The aim was to determine the oral hygiene status and significant caries (SiC) index of 12-year-old males in Medina . In a cross-sectional, analytical study 360 students participated from 4 boys' schools. Dental caries, plaque, gingivitis, fluorosis and malocclusion were recorded using standard methods and indices. The mean DMFT score was 1.53 (SD 1.88). Caries prevalence was low (57.2%) but the mean SiC index was relatively high [3.63 (SD 1.66)]. The prevalences of plaque and gingivitis were high (82.8% and 70.8% respectively). Lower molars had the highest rate of caries. No children presented with dental fluorosis and 82.5% had a class I jaw relationship. Oral hygiene awareness programmes at schools, together with brushing and flossing programmes, are recommended in order to maintain and improve the oral health of young children in Medina.


Assuntos
Gengivite/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Higiene Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Dentárias/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Cárie Dentária/diagnóstico , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Placa Dentária/diagnóstico , Placa Dentária/epidemiologia , Diagnóstico Bucal/métodos , Fluorose Dentária/diagnóstico , Fluorose Dentária/epidemiologia , Gengivite/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Má Oclusão/diagnóstico , Má Oclusão/epidemiologia , Higiene Bucal/normas , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Doenças Dentárias/diagnóstico
17.
Expert Opin Biol Ther ; 12 Suppl 1: S79-84, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22594562

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in adults. Early detection and treatment of DR has been shown to reduce the risk of visual loss by as much as 90%. At present, there are no blood tests to detect DR. Previous studies have demonstrated the presence of nucleic acids in blood and raised levels of these markers have been reported in many conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the circulating levels of retina-specific mRNA in the assessment of DR. AREAS COVERED: Blood samples were taken into PAXgene Blood RNA tubes from 89 diabetic patients and 19 healthy individuals. A reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR assay was used to measure circulating levels of mRNA for rhodopsin (Rho), retinal amine oxidase (RAO) and phosphodiesterase 6C (PDE6C). The results were normalized against mRNA for ß-actin and total RNA. While mRNA for Rho, RAO and ß-actin were detected in 100% of the subjects, PDE6C mRNA was only found in 60% of the individuals and melanopsin mRNA was not detected. When diabetic subjects were divided according to their DR status, significant differences were observed for Rho and RAO-Rho increased while RAO tended to decrease. The area under the curve ROC for Rho and Rho/RAO ratio to differentiate mild or no DR from significant DR (pre-proliferative and proliferative stages) were 0.756 and 0.823, respectively. EXPERT OPINION: These findings suggest that circulating mRNA may be useful in assessing DR.


Assuntos
Retinopatia Diabética/sangue , RNA Mensageiro/sangue , Retina/metabolismo , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Retinopatia Diabética/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
18.
Biol Res Nurs ; 13(4): 425-32, 2011 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21112917

RESUMO

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been widely used for the treatment of inflammation. However, despite their effectiveness, most NSAIDs cause various side effects that negatively affect the management of inflammation and, in part, pain. Thus, there is a need to search for new anti-inflammatory agents with few, or no, side effects. Natural products of plant, animal, or microorganism origin have been good sources of new bioactive compounds. The present study was carried out to evaluate the acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil of the rhizomes of Zingiber zerumbet (Zingiberaceae) using the carrageenan-induced paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma tests, respectively. The effect of the essential oil on inflammatory- and noninflammatory-mediated pain was also assessed using the formalin test. Essential oil of Z. zerumbet, at doses of 30, 100, and 300 mg/kg, was administered intraperitoneally to rats. The substance exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity both in acute and chronic animal models. The essential oil also inhibited inflammatory- and noninflammatory-mediated pain when assessed using the formalin test. In conclusion, the essential oil of Z. zerumbet possessed anti-inflammatory activity, in addition to its antinociceptive activity, which may explain its traditional uses to treat inflammatory-related ailments.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Zingiberaceae/química , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ratos
19.
Gulf J Oncolog ; (8): 35-8, 2010 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20601337

RESUMO

Angiomyofibroblastoma is a rare benign mesenchymal tumor of lower female genital tract. It has characteristic histomorphology and shows myofibroblastic differentiation. Clinically it is imperative to differentiate angiomyofibroblastoma from other mesenchymal tumors of this region especially aggressive angiomyxoma which is locally infiltrative and needs long term followup. We report clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features of a case of angiomyofibroblastoma and discuss relevant points regarding histogenesis and biological behaviour. We stress the need to recognize this tumor on clinicopathologic basis to avoid any potential therapeutic implications.


Assuntos
Angiofibroma/patologia , Neoplasias Vulvares/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Gulf J Oncolog ; (7): 57-9, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20164011

RESUMO

Intravenous leiomyomatosis (IVL) is a rare neoplasm characterized by nodular masses of histologically benign looking smooth muscle cells growing within uterine or extrauterine venous system.The exact etiology is unclear and benign histological appearance of neoplastic smooth muscles can be deceptive since IVL might behave in a malignant fashion. Total abdominal hysterectomy and excision of any extrauterine tumor if technically feasible is the cornerstone of treatment. We report clinical, histological, and immunohistochemical features of a uterine IVL in a 48 year old lady who presented with menorrhagia. We also elaborate etiopathogenesis and conclude that knowledge about IVL is essential as it must be differentiated from malignant tumors to prevent overtreatment. Long term follow up is recommended in such cases.


Assuntos
Leiomiomatose/patologia , Neoplasias Uterinas/patologia , Neoplasias Vasculares/patologia , Veias/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Leiomiomatose/cirurgia , Menorragia/patologia , Menorragia/cirurgia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Uterinas/cirurgia , Neoplasias Vasculares/cirurgia , Veias/cirurgia
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