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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253555, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355900

RESUMO

Abstract The aim of the present study is to assess the effects of selenium nanoparticles on the growth, hematology and nutrients digestibility of Labeorohita fingerlings. Fingerlings were fed with seven isocaloric sunflower meal-based diet supplemented with different concentrations of nanoparticles naming T1 to T7 (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, and 3 mg/kg), with 5% wet body weight while chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. After experimentation for 90 days T3 treated group (1mg/kg -1Se-nano level) showed the best result in hematological parameters (WBC's 7.97 ×103mm-3, RBC's 2.98 ×106 mm-3 and Platelet count 67), nutrient digestibility (crude protein: 74%, ether extract: 76%, gross energy: 70%) and growth performance (weight gain 13.24 g, weight gain% 198, feed conversion ratio 1.5, survival rate 100%) as compared to the other treatment groups. Specific growth rates were found significantly higher in T5 than in other groups. The present study indicated positive effect of 1 mg/kg Se-nanoparticles on growth advancement, hematological parameters, and nutrients digestibility of L. rohita fingerlings.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo é avaliar os efeitos das nanopartículas de selênio no crescimento, hematologia e digestibilidade dos nutrientes de alevinos de Labeo rohita. Os alevinos foram alimentados com sete dietas isocalóricas à base de farinha de girassol suplementada com diferentes concentrações de nanopartículas, nomeando T1 a T7 (0, 0,5, 1, 1,5, 2, 2,5 e 3 mg / kg), com 5% do peso corporal úmido enquanto o óxido crômico foi usado como um marcador indigesto. Após a experimentação por 90 dias, o grupo tratado com T3 (nível 1mg / kg -1Se-nano) mostrou o melhor resultado em parâmetros hematológicos (WBC's 7,97 × 103mm-3, RBC's 2,98 × 106mm-3 e contagem de plaquetas 67), digestibilidade dos nutrientes (proteína bruta: 74%, extrato de éter: 76%, energia bruta: 70%) e desempenho de crescimento (ganho de peso 13,24 g, ganho de peso % 198, taxa de conversão alimentar 1,5, taxa de sobrevivência 100%) em comparação com os outros grupos de tratamento. As taxas de crescimento específicas foram encontradas significativamente mais altas em T5 do que em outros grupos. O presente estudo indicou efeito positivo de 1 mg / kg de nanopartículas de Se no avanço do crescimento, parâmetros hematológicos e digestibilidade de nutrientes de alevinos de L. rohita.


Assuntos
Animais , Nanopartículas , Helianthus , Nutrientes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dieta , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal
2.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e262533, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36228226

RESUMO

Fish is thought to be the most appropriate for indication of toxicity in water. So, purpose of present study was to determine the concentrations of few metals (Na, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cd, Pb and Zn) in relation to the body size and condition factor in Scomberoides commersonnianus. A total of 73 samples of marine fish, S. commersonnianus with various sizes that ranged from 93.4-1180 g of body weight and total length 20.5-56.9cm were randomly collected from the Arabian Sea of Karachi Pakistan, for examination of elemental composition. The concentration of Calcium found maximum while Cadmium found minimum in S. commersonnianus. Concentrations of Zn showed highly significant (P<0.001) negative, while Na and Ca exhibited strong positive correlation with the fish size. Correlations of Pb, K and Mg were found least significant (P<0.05) with the wet weight and total length of S. commersonnianus. Whereas, Fe and Cd were remained insignificantly correlated (P>0.05) with the fish size. Condition factor showed highly significant correlation (P<0.001) with all studied metals except cadmium and lead which were found insignificantly correlated (P>0.05) with condition factor of S. commersonnianus.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Perciformes , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Cádmio , Cálcio , Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes , Chumbo , Metais Pesados/análise , Paquistão , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
3.
Cureus ; 14(9): e29461, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36299957

RESUMO

Giant cell tumor of tendon sheath (GCTTS) is a benign proliferative disorder of the synovial joints and tendon sheaths that typically manifests as a painless, firm, localized, and slow-growing mass. Commonly seen among women in the third to fifth decades, GCTTS can be diagnosed clinically; however, histopathological confirmation is required. The tumor is primarily removed surgically. Recurrence after excision is possible and occurs in up to 45% of cases.

4.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(20): 7522-7532, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36314323

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) still has no accepted pharmacological therapy. Even though monotherapy of L-carnitine or magnesium supplementation exhibits an essential beneficial role in NAFLD treatment, and despite that new NAFLD treatment strategies focus on combination therapies, the combination of L-carnitine with magnesium has not yet been examined in NAFLD patients. We aimed to assess the efficacy of L-carnitine in combination with magnesium in NAFLD patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Double-blinded, randomized controlled trial with 22 NAFLD participants who were randomized to either control group receiving placebo for the first 8 weeks and an additional 8 weeks with CIRRHOS product (2 gr L-carnitine and 150 mg magnesium) or treatment group receiving CIRRHOS product for 16 weeks. Weight, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were measured monthly. Lipid profile and serum insulin levels were monitored at baseline and at week 16 of treatment. Shear-wave elastography was used to evaluate liver stiffness (LS). RESULTS: While AST and ALT levels decreased progressively over 16 weeks of treatment in the treatment group, AST and ALT levels of the control group were increased modestly or unaffected. AST and ALT levels of the treatment group decreased by 25% (p=0.9) and 20% (p=0.1) respectively, compared to AST and ALT levels at baseline. However, serum CRP levels, insulin levels, lipid profile and LS were not affected by treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that L-carnitine with magnesium supplementation could be a potential therapy for NAFLD. However, further studies with a larger population and high-sensitivity diagnostic parameters for early stages of NAFLD are needed to elucidate L-carnitine and magnesium efficacy in NAFLD.


Assuntos
Insulinas , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , Humanos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Carnitina/uso terapêutico , Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Magnésio/metabolismo , Projetos Piloto , Hidróxido de Magnésio/metabolismo , Hidróxido de Magnésio/farmacologia , Hidróxido de Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Alanina Transaminase , Aspartato Aminotransferases , Lipídeos , Insulinas/farmacologia , Fígado/metabolismo
5.
Dermatol Ther (Heidelb) ; 12(12): 2653-2668, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36197589

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although previously regarded as a children's disease, it is clear that atopic dermatitis (AD) is also highly prevalent in adults. Because AD is not associated with mortality, it is usually neglected compared with other, fatal diseases. However, several studies have highlighted that AD burden is significant due to its substantial humanistic burden and psychosocial effects. This study aims to summarize and quantify the clinical, economic, and humanistic burden of AD in adults and adolescents. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (CRD), EconPapers, The Professional Society for Health Economics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR), The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), and The Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH). Studies were included if they reported clinical, economic, or humanistic effects of AD on adults or adolescents, from January 2011 to December 2020. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment tool was used to assess risk of bias for the included studies. Regression models were used to explain the correlation between factors such as disease severity and quality of life (QoL). RESULTS: Among 3400 identified records, 233 studies were included. Itch, depression, sleep disturbance, and anxiety were the most frequently reported parameters related to the clinical and humanistic burden of AD. The average utility value in studies not stratifying patients by severity was 0.779. The average direct cost of AD was 4411 USD, while the average indirect cost was 9068 USD annually. CONCLUSIONS: The burden of AD is significant. The hidden disease burden is reflected in its high indirect costs and the psychological effect on QoL. The magnitude of the burden is affected by the severity level. The main limitation of this study is the heterogeneity of different studies in terms of data reporting, which led to the exclusion of potentially relevant data points from the summary statistics.


Atopic dermatitis is a very common skin disease among children and adults. The disease is nonfatal but may lead to patients and families having a low quality of life and decreased productivity, especially in its severe state. Because atopic dermatitis is more common in children than adults, most published research is directed to studying the effect of the disease on children. Atopic dermatitis affects patients' health, quality of life, financial state, and productivity. Therefore, our study aims to study and quantify the burden caused by the disease represented in the clinical burden, humanistic burden, and economic burden. We conducted a systematic literature review to determine all relevant studies providing specific values for the burden. The studies included are those providing information on the percentage of patients affected by specific symptoms, costs paid for treatment, number of days of productivity lost due to the disease, and quality-of-life questionnaire results for patients with atopic dermatitis or their caregivers. We analyzed the data from all relevant studies to calculate average values and quantify the burden. The results of our study should help healthcare sector decision-makers in understanding the real effect of the disease on adults and adolescents and rearrange their priorities for treating different diseases based on the specific burden of each disease.

6.
Cureus ; 14(8): e28456, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36176849

RESUMO

The agenesis of the left common carotid artery, with independent origins of the external and internal carotid arteries from the aortic arch, is a well-described but extremely rare congenital anomaly. We present a case of agenesis of the left common carotid artery with the independent origin of the left internal and left external arteries from the arch of the aorta in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis which was depicted by CT angiogram and magnetic resonance angiography. The diagnosis of this anatomical variant especially before interventional procedures is of great importance, as it could complicate the catheterization of these arteries.

7.
Nat Sci Sleep ; 14: 1651-1663, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36164410

RESUMO

Purpose: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has many psychological and physical effects to which university students are vulnerable. We aimed in this study to assess the prevalence of insomnia among university students in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown and associated factors. Patients and Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study using a questionnaire to collect the responses of 5140 students from Saudi universities between April 24 and 30, 2020. Responders completed demographic questions and psychological scales, including the Insomnia Severity Scale (ISI), during the national lockdown period in Saudi Arabia. Results: Approximately, 41% of the sample suffered from moderate to severe insomnia. The mean ISI score was recorded as 12.9 (SD 6.62). Insomnia was associated with female sex, younger age, students from new universities, junior students, if a relative suffered from COVID-19, having a chronic medical illness, and having a psychiatric disorder. Insomnia was associated also with suicidal ideation. Conclusion: Insomnia prevalence was very high among Saudi university students during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown. There were sociodemographic and medical factors associated with high insomnia prevalence. Universities need to plan and implement protective and intervention strategies to deal with this important issue.

8.
Front Cell Dev Biol ; 10: 943924, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36147741

RESUMO

Neuroblastoma is a pediatric tumour that accounts for more than 15% of cancer-related deaths in children. High-risk tumours are often difficult to treat, and patients' survival chances are less than 50%. Retinoic acid treatment is part of the maintenance therapy given to neuroblastoma patients; however, not all tumours differentiate in response to retinoic acid. Within neuroblastoma tumors, two phenotypically distinct cell types have been identified based on their super-enhancer landscape and transcriptional core regulatory circuitries: adrenergic (ADRN) and mesenchymal (MES). We hypothesized that the distinct super-enhancers in these different tumour cells mediate differential response to retinoic acid. To this end, three different neuroblastoma cell lines, ADRN (MYCN amplified and non-amplified) and MES cells, were treated with retinoic acid, and changes in the super-enhancer landscape upon treatment and after subsequent removal of retinoic acid was studied. Using ChIP-seq for the active histone mark H3K27ac, paired with RNA-seq, we compared the super-enhancer landscape in cells that undergo neuronal differentiation in response to retinoic acid versus those that fail to differentiate and identified unique super-enhancers associated with neuronal differentiation. Among the ADRN cells that respond to treatment, MYCN-amplified cells remain differentiated upon removal of retinoic acid, whereas MYCN non-amplified cells revert to an undifferentiated state, allowing for the identification of super-enhancers responsible for maintaining differentiation. This study identifies key super-enhancers that are crucial for retinoic acid-mediated differentiation.

9.
Hum Genet ; 2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36048236

RESUMO

Genetic variants in GJB2 are the most frequent cause of congenital and childhood hearing loss worldwide. The purpose of this study was to delineate the genetic and phenotypic landscape of GJB2 SNV variants. All possible single-nucleotide substitution variants of the coding region of GJB2 (N = 2043) were manually curated following the ACMG/AMP hearing loss guidelines. As a result, 60 (2.9%), 177 (8.7%), 1499 (73.4%), 301 (14.7%) and 6 (0.3%) of the variants were classified as pathogenic, likely pathogenic, variant of uncertain significance, likely benign, and benign, respectively. 53% (84/158) of the pathogenic/likely pathogenic missense variants were not present in ClinVar. The second transmembrane domain and the 310 helix were highly enriched for pathogenic missense variants, while the intracellular loops were tolerant to variation. The N-terminal tail and the extracellular loop showed high clustering of variants that are associated with syndromic or dominant non-syndromic hearing loss. In conclusion, our study interpreted all possible single-nucleotide substitution coding variants, characterized novel clinically significant variants in GJB2, and revealed significant genotype-phenotype correlations at this common hearing loss locus. Our work provides a prototype for other genes with similarly high genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity.

10.
Chemosphere ; 307(Pt 3): 136018, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35973494

RESUMO

The noxious side effects of pesticides on human health and environment have prompted the search of effective and reliable treatment techniques for pesticide removal. The removal of pesticides can be accomplished through physical, chemical and biologicals. Physical approaches such as filtration and adsorption are prevailing pesticide removal strategies on account of their effectiveness and ease of operation. Membrane-based filtration technology has been recognized as a promising water and wastewater treatment approach that can be used for a wide range of organic micropollutants including pesticides. Nanofiltration (NF), reverse osmosis (RO) and forward osmosis (FO) have been increasingly explored for pesticide removal from aquatic environment owing to their versatility and high treatment efficiencies. This review looks into the remedial strategies of pesticides from aqueous environment using membrane-based processes. The potentials and applications of three prevailing membrane processes, namely NF, RO and FO for the treatment of pesticide-containing wastewater are discussed in terms of the development of advanced membranes, separation mechanisms and system design. The challenges in regards to the practical implementation of membrane-based processes for pesticide remediation are identified. The corresponding research directions and way forward are highlighted. An in depth understanding of the pesticide nature, water chemistry and the pesticide-membrane interactions is the key to achieving high pesticide removal efficiency. The integration of membrane technology and conventional removal technologies represents a new dimension and the future direction for the treatment of wastewater containing recalcitrant pesticides.


Assuntos
Praguicidas , Purificação da Água , Filtração/métodos , Humanos , Membranas Artificiais , Osmose , Tecnologia , Águas Residuárias , Água , Purificação da Água/métodos
11.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35929950

RESUMO

The Earth's geomagnetic field (GMF) is an inescapable environmental factor for plants that affects all growth and yield parameters. Both strong and weak magnetic fields (MF), as compared to the GMF, have specific roles in plant growth and development. MF technology is an eco-friendly technique that does not emit waste or generate harmful radiation, nor require any external power supply, so it can be used in sustainable modern agriculture. Thus, exposure of plants to MF is a potential affordable, reusable and safe practice for enhancing crop productivity by changing physiological and biochemical processes. However, the effect of MF on plant physiological and biochemical processes is not yet well understood. This review describes the effects of altering MF conditions (higher or lower values than the GMF) on physiological and biochemical processes of plants. The current contradictory and inconsistent outcomes from studies on varying effects of MF on plants could be related to species and/or MF exposure time and intensity. The reviewed literature suggests MF have a role in changing physiological processes, such as respiration, photosynthesis, nutrient uptake, water relations and biochemical attributes, including genes involved in ROS, antioxidants, enzymes, proteins and secondary metabolites. MF application might efficiently increase growth and yield of many crops, and as such, should be the focus for future research.

12.
Clin Spine Surg ; 2022 Aug 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35943873

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: The present study is the first to investigate whether cervical paraspinal sarcopenia is associated with cervicothoracic sagittal alignment parameters after posterior cervical fusion (PCF). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Few studies have investigated the association between sarcopenia and postoperative outcomes after cervical spine surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients undergoing PCF from C2-T2 at a single institution between the years 2017-2020. Two independent reviewers utilized axial cuts of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences to perform Goutallier classification of the bilateral semispinalis cervicis (SSC) muscles. Cervical sagittal alignment parameters were compared between subgroups based upon severity of SSC sarcopenia. RESULTS: We identified 61 patients for inclusion in this study, including 19 patients with mild SSC sarcopenia and 42 patients with moderate or severe SSC sarcopenia. The moderate-severe sarcopenia subgroup demonstrated a significantly larger change in C2-C7 sagittal vertical axis (+6.8 mm) from the 3-month to 1-year postoperative follow-up in comparison to the mild sarcopenia subgroup (-2.0 mm; P=0.02). The subgroup of patients with moderate-severe sarcopenia also demonstrated an increase in T1-T4 kyphosis (10.9-14.2, P=0.007), T1 slope (28.2-32.4, P=0.003), and C2 slope (24.1-27.3, P=0.05) from 3-month to 1-year postoperatively and a significant decrease in C1-occiput distance (6.3-4.1, P=0.002) during this same interval. CONCLUSIONS: In a uniform cohort of patients undergoing PCF from C2-T2, SSC sarcopenia was associated with worsening cervicothoracic alignment from 3-month to 1-year postoperatively.

13.
Int J Eat Disord ; 55(11): 1541-1552, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Limited studies have been conducted in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia on eating disorders (EDs). This study presents national epidemiological survey data on the prevalence and correlates of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and binge-eating disorder (BED) and their association with other mental health disorders, impairment in role functioning, and individual help-seeking behaviors in the Saudi National Mental Health Survey (SNMHS). METHOD: A face-to-face survey was conducted in a nationally representative household sample of Saudi citizens aged 15-65 (n = 4004). The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) was used to produce estimates of lifetime and 12-month prevalence and treatment of common DSM-IV mental disorders. RESULTS: Twelve-month prevalence of any of the three EDs was 3.2%; the overall lifetime prevalence was 6.1%. Education and marital status were significantly associated with both 12-month and lifetime EDs prevalence. Significant mental health comorbidities associated with 12-month EDs were anxiety, mood, and impulse-control disorders, while lifetime EDs were significantly related to all disorders. A similar percentage of respondents that reported having ED-related treatment at some point in their lifetime utilized healthcare and nonhealthcare sector. There was a significant relationship between body mass index category, and lifetime BED and BN. DISCUSSION: The 12-month prevalence of EDs in the Saudi population was higher than the EDs rates reported worldwide. These findings can help healthcare experts, and policymakers in the implementation of initiatives for raising awareness of EDs among the Saudi population, and the development of a country-wide plan for the prevention of EDs. PUBLIC SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The study presents data on the prevalence, correlates, and help-seeking behaviors of AN, BN, and BED, in the Saudi National Mental Health Survey (SNMHS). Obtaining information on this underrepresented region is essential due to the large differences in cross-national data in addition to cultural beliefs about mental illness and treatment seeking to exert an important influence on eating disorders. Such knowledge could provide a better understand of mechanisms underlying the development of eating disorders and thereby improve prediction, prevention, and treatment.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar , Bulimia Nervosa , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Humanos , Bulimia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Transtorno da Compulsão Alimentar/diagnóstico , Anorexia Nervosa/complicações , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos
14.
Malays J Pathol ; 44(2): 269-276, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36043590

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Human brucellosis is a zoonotic disease in Malaysia. This study analysed six-year retrospective seropositivity trends of human brucellosis cases from 2014 to 2019. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 1,281 serum samples were obtained from suspected brucellosis patients were included. The sera were tested using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for IgM and IgG antibodies for Brucella spp. Samples with equivocal or positive antibody index were confirmed with an immunocapture agglutination. RESULTS: During the study period, 5.8% (n=74) of suspected cases showed seropositivity for human brucellosis. The central region has the highest seropositivity cases of human brucellosis. Consumption of unpasteurised milk was significantly associated with human brucellosis in this study with adjusted odds ratio ((AOR) = 4.56, 95% CI = 2.6, 8.02, p-value < 0.001). The age group of less than 15 years old was more likely to contract brucellosis ((AOR) = 2.81, 95% CI = 1.01, 7.84 p-value < 0.048). CONCLUSION: Serological tests have been widely used for the diagnosis of human brucellosis. However, diagnosis using serology is often challenging without the presence of a convalescent sample. In conclusion, even though human brucellosis has a low prevalence rate, the disease has serious public health implications. The usage of effective diagnostic tools as well as implementation of 'One Health' approach are the way forward to prevent and control of brucellosis in the country.


Assuntos
Brucella , Brucelose , Adolescente , Anticorpos Antibacterianos , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Humanos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
J Anim Sci ; 100(9)2022 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35775420

RESUMO

Vasoconstriction is a known effect associated with ergot alkaloid consumption. The vascular contractile responses are often sustained for an extended period after exposure. Ergot alkaloids exist in two molecular configurations, the C-8-(R)-isomer (R-epimer) and the C-8-(S)-isomer (S-epimer). The sustained vascular contractile response to the R-epimers has been studied previously, unlike the S-epimers which are thought to be biologically inactive. Additionally, antagonists have been utilized to attenuate the vascular contraction associated with the R-epimers of ergot alkaloids utilizing ex vivo techniques. This study utilized an arterial tissue bath to examine and compare the sustained vascular contractile response attributed to ergocristine (R) and ergocristinine (S) using dissected bovine metatarsal arteries. The contractile blocking effect of a noncompetitive alpha-adrenergic antagonist, phenoxybenzamine (POB), was also investigated in precontracted arteries. Arteries (n = 6/epimer) were exposed to a single dose of ergocristine or ergocristinine (1 × 10-6 M in buffer). Each of the epimer doses was followed by a POB (1 × 10-3 M) or methanol (control) treatment at 90 min and the response was observed for another 90 min. Both epimers produced a sustained contractile response over the 180-min incubation period in the control groups. The R-epimer caused a greater sustained contractile response from 60 to 180 min post epimer exposure, compared to the S-epimer (P < 0.05, generalized estimating equations, independent t-test). Phenoxybenzamine caused a decrease in the contractile response induced by ergocristine and ergocristinine from 105 to 180 min, compared to the control (P < 0.05, generalized estimating equations, paired t-test). Overall, these results demonstrate the presence of a sustained vascular contractile response attributed to the R- and S-epimer of an ergot alkaloid with differences in contractile response between the epimers, suggesting differences in receptor binding mechanisms. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that a noncompetitive antagonist could attenuate the sustained arterial contractile effects of both ergot configurations ex vivo. Additional investigation into S-epimers of ergot alkaloids is needed. This research contributes to the understanding of the ergot epimer-vascular receptor binding mechanisms, which may support the investigation of different approaches of minimizing ergot toxicity in livestock.


Ergot alkaloids cause blood vessels to contract when contaminated feed is consumed by animals. Vascular contraction often remains for a prolonged period and involves the binding of ergot to specific receptors in the blood vessels. This study assessed and compared the sustained contraction of cow arteries after exposure to two forms of an ergot alkaloid, namely, ergocristine and ergocristinine. The effects of a specific receptor blocker, phenoxybenzamine, on the vascular contraction induced by these forms were also examined. This study showed that both forms of ergot caused a sustained contraction of cow arteries but to different magnitudes. Differences in contraction could be related to differences in how each form of ergot binds to receptors. The receptor blocker decreased the sustained contractile response of both forms of ergot. Further understanding of how the different forms of ergot bind to receptors, and how to decrease the adverse effects, may help mitigate the toxic effects of ergotism.


Assuntos
Alcaloides de Claviceps , Metanol , Animais , Bovinos , Ergolinas , Alcaloides de Claviceps/química , Fenoxibenzamina
16.
Spine (Phila Pa 1976) ; 47(20): 1426-1434, 2022 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35797647

RESUMO

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: The present study is the first to assess the impact of paraspinal sarcopenia on patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) following posterior cervical decompression and fusion (PCDF). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: While the impact of sarcopenia on PROMs following lumbar spine surgery is well-established, the impact of sarcopenia on PROMs following PCDF has not been investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients undergoing PCDF from C2 to T2 at a single institution between the years 2017 and 2020. Two independent reviewers who were blinded to the clinical outcome scores utilized axial cuts of T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences to assess fatty infiltration of the bilateral multifidus muscles at the C5-C6 level and classify patients according to the Fuchs Modification of the Goutalier grading system. PROMs were then compared between subgroups. RESULTS: We identified 99 patients for inclusion in this study, including 28 patients with mild sarcopenia, 45 patients with moderate sarcopenia, and 26 patients with severe sarcopenia. There was no difference in any preoperative PROM between the subgroups. Mean postoperative Neck Disability Index scores were lower in the mild and moderate sarcopenia subgroups (12.8 and 13.4, respectively) than in the severe sarcopenia subgroup (21.0, P <0.001). A higher percentage of patients with severe multifidus sarcopenia reported postoperative worsening of their Neck Disability Index (10 patients, 38.5%; P =0.003), Visual Analog Scale Neck scores (7 patients, 26.9%; P =0.02), Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System Physical Component Scores (10 patients, 38.5%; P =0.02), and Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System Mental Component Scores (14 patients, 53.8%; P =0.02). CONCLUSION: Patients with more severe paraspinal sarcopenia demonstrate less improvement in neck disability and physical function postoperatively and are substantially more likely to report worsening PROMs postoperatively. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3.


Assuntos
Sarcopenia , Doenças da Coluna Vertebral , Fusão Vertebral , Vértebras Cervicais/cirurgia , Descompressão , Humanos , Músculos Paraespinais/diagnóstico por imagem , Músculos Paraespinais/cirurgia , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico por imagem , Fusão Vertebral/efeitos adversos , Fusão Vertebral/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(29): 8931-8941, 2022 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830571

RESUMO

Detoxification of ergot-contaminated feed by ammonia would be a practical application, given that ammonia is routinely used in the agriculture industry. To assess the effects of ammonia on ergot alkaloids, natural ergot-contaminated wheat was ammoniated. The total concentration of ergot alkaloids (R- and S-epimers) decreased after exposure to ammonia (8-29%). Separately, the total R-epimers decreased in concentration (40-66%), whereas the total S-epimers increased (21-81%). Specific ergot alkaloids demonstrated degradation and/or epimerization after exposure to ammonia, potentially associated with structural differences, and influenced the total concentrations observed. Ammonization of ergot standards resulted in potential degradation products and epimerization, supporting the above results. The use of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry provides an updated assessment of the detoxification potential of ammonia for ergot alkaloids and the quantification of the S-epimers. Ammonia alters the R- and S-epimers of ergot alkaloids, which may lead to a potential practical detoxification process of ergot-contaminated feed.


Assuntos
Claviceps , Alcaloides de Claviceps , Amônia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Alcaloides de Claviceps/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Compostos Heterocíclicos de 4 ou mais Anéis , Triticum/química
18.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e262603, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35857953

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to estimate the size at first sexual maturity (Lm) for 36 species belonging to 24 families from the marine habitat of Balochistan and Sindh in Arabian Sea, Pakistan through maximum length based an empirical and logistic model using commercial catch during June 2020 to May 2021. Individual total length (TL) was noted up to 0.1 cm using measuring broad. The Lm was calculated using two formulae; (i) log (Lm) = - 0.1246 + 0.9924 * log (Lmax) for Elasmobranchs and (ii) log (Lm) = -0.1189 + 0.9157* log (Lmax) for ray-finned fishes. The minimum Lm was recorded as 10.27 cm TL for Caranx malabaricus and 108.38 cm TL for Isurus oxyrinchus, respectively. Around Lm with 58.33% species were ranges from 19.00 cm to 25.00 cm TL. This study was estimated 16 newly Lm which is globally absent and rest 20 Lm are absent in the Arabian Sea (Pakistan coastal habitats). Therefore, the results will be helpful for the sustainable management and conservation of these marine fishes through the establishment of mesh size of trawl nets based on the size at sexual maturity (Lm).


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Água , Animais , Peixes , Paquistão
20.
Heliyon ; 8(6): e09442, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35677420

RESUMO

The effect of layering structures on mechanical and thermal hybrid bacterial cellulose (BC) sheet/Kevlar reinforced epoxy composites was investigated. The BC sheet was extracted from Nata de Coco and used as green reinforcement material hybrid with Kevlar reinforced epoxy composites. The BC/Kevlar reinforced epoxy composite was fabricated by using hand lay-up technique equipped with vacuum bagging system and the BC sheets and Kevlar layers were laminated into different layered structures. The performance of the hybrid BC/Kevlar reinforced epoxy composites was characterized through tensile test and low velocity impact according to ASTM D3039 and ASTM D7136, respectively. The thermal performance of the hybrid composites was characterized by using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) test. Tensile test on BC sheet composites with Kevlar and epoxy demonstrated that the addition of BC sheet in BC/Kevlar could not withstand the tensor stress by reducing the tensile stress and Young's modulus. The one layer of Kevlar which was replaced with three to six BC sheets had increased the ability to absorb impact force. The storage modulus (E') and Tan δ were significantly dependent on the number of BC sheets and its layering structure. The highest value of E' was observed when BC sheets were arranged alternately with the Kevlar layers. Different damage mechanisms associated with the number of BC sheets and its layered-structure suggested that the BC sheet was functioning as an impact energy absorber as well as strengthening fibers. This study will upsurge interest in BC reinforced composites and the development of new ideas in automotive, marine and bullet applications.

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