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1.
Front Vet Sci ; 9: 827407, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35425833

RESUMO

The immune system is most likely developed to reduce the harmful impact of infections on the host homeostasis. This defense approach is based on the coordinated activity of innate and adaptive immune system components, which detect and target infections for containment, killing, or expulsion by the body's defense mechanisms. These immunological processes are responsible for decreasing the pathogen burden of an infected host to maintain homeostasis that is considered to be infection resistance. Immune-driven resistance to infection is connected with a second, and probably more important, defensive mechanism: it helps to minimize the amount of dysfunction imposed on host parenchymal tissues during infection without having a direct adverse effect on pathogens. Disease tolerance is a defensive approach that relies on tissue damage control systems to prevent infections from causing harm to the host. It also uncouples immune-driven resistance mechanisms from immunopathology and disease, allowing the body to fight infection more effectively. This review discussed the cellular and molecular processes that build disease tolerance to infection and the implications of innate immunity on those systems. In addition, we discuss how symbiotic relationships with microbes and their control by particular components of innate and adaptive immunity alter disease tolerance to infection.

2.
BMC Chem ; 16(1): 20, 2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35337384

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prunella vulgaris is medicinally important plant containing high-valued chemical metabolites like Prunellin which belong to family Lamiaceae and it is also known as self-heal. In this research, calli culture were exposed to differential ratios of gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles (1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 2:1 and 3:1) along with naphthalene acetic acid (2.0 mg NAA) to investigate its antimicrobial potential. A well diffusion method was used for antimicrobial properties. RESULTS: Here, two concentrations (1 and 2 mg/6 µl) of all treated calli cultures and wild plants were used against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, Bacillus atrophaeus, Bacillus subtilis, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Erwinia caratovora and Candida albicans. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and antibiotics were used as negative and positive controls. Here, the calli exposed to gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) and 2.0 mg naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) displayed the highest activity (25.7 mm) against Salmonella typhi than other extracts, which was considered the most susceptible species, while Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Candida albicans was the most resistance species. A possible mechanism of calli induced nanoparticles was also investigated for cytoplasmic leakage. CONCLUSION: From the above data it is concluded that Prunella vulgaris is medicinally important plant for the development of anti-microbial drugs using nanotechnology and applicable in various pharmaceutical research.

3.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 29(3): 1487-1500, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35280553

RESUMO

In the present study, 30 potential germplasm of oat (Avena sativa L.) were subjected to proximate, elemental, and HPLC analysis to provide a scientific basis to genetic diversity present among them. The extracts of the selected germplasms were also evaluated for their antioxidant potentials through DPPH and ABTS assays. Proximate analysis showed protein contents to be in the range 8.35-17.72% with the highest protein contents in the accession line 22,365 (17.72 ± 0.38%). The genotype-725 showed the highest carbohydrate, and dry matter (53.35 ± 0.01 and 93.50 ± 0.07% respectively) contents whereas, the germplasm-830 contained the highest fat (7.88 ± 0.12%) contents while the highest moisture contents were there in germplasm-22348 (11.95 ± 0.06%). The crude fiber contents (19.67 ± 0.19%) were found high in germplasm-832. The mentioned contents were also correlated to each other where a negative (-0.431*) correlation was noted for crude protein and carbohydrate while ash content to crude protein has a positive (0.38*) correlation. A positive and a negative correlation were there in Crude fats/crude protein (0.30*) and crude fats/moisture contents (-0.39*) respectively. Principal component analysis showed an Eigenvalue of 0.76 with a total variation of 85.01% when applied to proximate components. Based on cluster analysis to proximate composition all the oat germplasms were divided into 5 sub-clusters, where accession numbers 769 and 817 were found to be the most diverse genotypes. The elemental analysis confirmed the presence of magnesium (2.89-7.62 mg/L), sodium (3.71-8.03 mg/L), manganese (0.93-3.71 mg/L), copper (0.35-3.36 mg/L), iron (2.15-6.82 mg/L), zinc (1.30-3.37 mg/L), chromium (0.37-3.34 mg/L), and potassium (50.70-59.60 mg/L) in the selected germplasms. Principal component analysis for elemental composition showed the total variation of 73.75% with the Eigenvalue of 0.97. Cluster analysis on an elemental basis divided all the oat germplasms into 7 sub-clusters where accession numbers 769 and 22,350 were found to be the most diverse germplasm. Phytochemical analysis performed through HPLC resulted in the identification of nine possible compounds (malic acid, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, morin, ellagic acid, catechin hydrate, rutin, pyrogallol, and mandelic acid) in various germplasm of oat. A concentration-dependent antioxidant response was recorded when extracts were tested as an inhibitor of DPPH and ABTS free radicals. The results revealed that oat grains are a good source of nutrients, minerals, and phytochemicals that can be used as nutraceuticals and as food. The genetic differences revealed that this plant can be grown under varied environmental conditions.

4.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(5)2022 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35268147

RESUMO

The current study aimed to investigate the monitoring behaviors of the NEDAP system in buffaloes, to evaluate the validation, accuracy, and precision over visual observation and video recording. The NEDAP neck and leg tags were attached on the left side of the neck and left front leg of multiparous dairy buffaloes (n = 30). The feeding, rumination, lying, and standing behaviors were monitored by the NEDAP system, visual observation, and video recording. The feeding time monitored by NEDAP was 25.2 ± 2.7 higher (p < 0.05) than visual observation and video recording. However, the rumination, lying, and standing time was lower (p < 0.05) in buffaloes when monitored by the NEDAP technology than by visual observation and video recording. The Pearson correlation between NEDAP technology with visual observation and video recording for feeding, rumination, lying, and standing was 0.91, 0.85, 0.93, and 0.87, respectively. The concordance correlation coefficient between the NEDAP with visual observation and video recording was high for rumination and standing (0.91 for both), while moderate for feeding and lying (0.85 and 0.88, respectively). The Bland-Altman plots were created to determine the association between NEDAP and visual observation and video recording, showing no bias. Therefore, a high level of agreement was found. In conclusion, the current finding showed that the NEDAP system can be used for monitoring feeding, rumination, lying, and standing behaviors in buffaloes. Moreover, these results revealed that the buffalo behavior was monitored precisely using NEDAP technology than visual observation and video recording. This technology will be useful for the diagnosis of diseases.

5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 149: 112834, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35339108

RESUMO

Cassia plants have a considerable position in conventional systems of medicine. The possible anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-neuropathic properties of Cassia artemisiodes (CAD) extract were tested using the standard animal models. In this study, in vitro antioxidant, cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and 2), and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibitory assays were performed. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan, histamine, and serotonin-induced paw edema models. Antipyretic activity, thermally and chemically-induced nociception, and naloxone antagonistic activities were carried out. The CAD extract was tested for anti-neuropathic activity in the streptozotocin-induced diabetic neuropathy model. Suppressing the effect of CAD extract on the mRNA level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), COX-2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, IL-6) was determined by performing RT-PCR. The CAD extract inhibited COX-2 and 5-LOX enzymes, paw inflammation, and reduced nociceptive behaviors. The mRNA gene expression of iNOS, COX-2, and inflammatory cytokines was reduced significantly with increased DPPH scavenging activity. The extract significantly reduced the diabetes-induced neuropathic pain. In a nutshell, these results recommended that the CAD extract has anti-nociceptive and anti-neuropathic activities due to inhibition of inflammatory and oxidative signaling.


Assuntos
Cassia , Diabetes Mellitus , Neuropatias Diabéticas , Neuralgia , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Carragenina/uso terapêutico , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Neuropatias Diabéticas/tratamento farmacológico , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Nociceptividade , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , RNA Mensageiro/uso terapêutico
6.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 5562849, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35047637

RESUMO

The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized via green synthesis approach using Euporbia serpens Kunth aqueous extract. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy and Furrier Transformer Infra-Red spectroscopy to justify the reduction and stabilization of AgNPs from its precursors. AgNPs characteristic absorption peak was observed at 420 nm in the UV-visible spectrum. The SEM and TEM analysis demonstrated the spherical shape of the synthesized nanoparticles with particle sizes ranging from 30 nm to 80 nm. FTIR transmission bands at 2920 cm-1, 1639 cm-1, 1410 cm-1, 3290 cm-1, and 1085 cm-1 were attributed to C-H, C=O, C-C, N-H, and C-N functional groups, respectively. XRD peaks could be attributed to (111), (200), (220), and (311) crystalline plane of the faced-centered cube (FCC) crystalline structure of the metallic silver nanoparticles. The AgNPs showed good antibacterial activity against all the tested bacteria at each concentration. The particles were found to be more active against Escherichia coli (E. coli) with 20 ± 06 mm and Salmonella typhi (S. typhi) with 18 ± 0.5 mm zone of inhibition in reference to standard antibiotic amoxicillin with 23 ± 0.3 mm and 20 ± 0.4 mm zone of inhibition, respectively. Moderate antifungal activities were observed against Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Alternaria alternata (A. alternata) with zone of inhibitions 16.5 mm and 15 mm, respectively, compared to the standard with 23 mm of inhibition. Insignificant antifungal inhibition of 7.5 mm was observed against Fusarium gramium (F. gramium). All the tested concentrations of AgNPs showed comparable % RSA with the standard reference ascorbic acid in the range sixty percent to seventy five percent. The percent motility at 3 hours postincubation showed quick response and most Tetramorium caespitum were found deceased or paralyzed. Similarly, the percent mortality showed a linear response at concentration and time. It was observed that 1 µg/mL to 2 µg/mL concentration of AgNPs displayed a significant cytotoxic activity against Artemia salina with LD50 of 5.37 and 5.82, respectively.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Antioxidantes , Citotoxinas , Euphorbia/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Prata , Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/síntese química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Citotoxinas/síntese química , Citotoxinas/química , Citotoxinas/farmacologia , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Prata/química , Prata/farmacologia
8.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 199: 77-85, 2022 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34968547

RESUMO

Triazinoindole bearing thiadiazole derivatives (1-25) have been synthesized and characterized through different spectroscopic techniques such as 1H, 13C-NMR and HREI-MS. The purpose of the study was to investigate the anti-diabetic activity of the synthesized triazinoindole bearing thiadiazole derivatives by inhibition of α-glucosidase. All synthesized analogues showed outstanding inhibition of α-glucosidase enzyme with IC50 values ranging from 2.5 ± 0.10 to 38.10 ± 0.10 µM as compared to the standard drug acarbose (IC50 = 38.45 ± 0.80 µM). Analogue 4 (IC50 = 2.5 ± 0.10 µM) was identifies as the most potent analogue in the series with fifteen folds more active than standard acarbose. Structure activity relationship (SAR) studies suggested that α-glucosidase activities of triazinoindole bearing thiadiazole are primarily dependent upon on number and position of different substitutions present on phenyl parts. Molecular docking study were conducted of the optimized compounds (i.e., compound 4, 6, and 3 etc. using MOE default parameters), the results revealed that compound 4, 6, and 3 showed numerous key interactions with the target protein, which indicate the high potential of these compounds against the target compound. All these compounds were screened for cytotoxic activity against normal normal Vero cell line and found non-toxic.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Tiadiazóis , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Tiadiazóis/química , Tiadiazóis/farmacologia , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
9.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 789977, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34966814

RESUMO

Haemonchus contortus is an infectious gastrointestinal nematode parasite of small ruminants. This study addresses the in vitro/in vivo anti-haemonchiasis potential, toxicological effects, and mechanism of action of nanoparticles. Online databases were used to search and retrieve the published literature (2000 to 2021). A total of 18 articles were selected and reviewed, out of which, 13 (72.2%) studies reported in vitro, 9 (50.0%) in vivo, and 4 (22.2%) both in vitro/in vivo efficacy of different nanoparticles. Mostly, organic nanoparticles (77.7%) were used including polymeric (85.7%) and lipid nanoparticles (14.3%). The highest efficacy, in vitro, of 100% resulted from using encapsulated bromelain against eggs, larvae, and adult worm mortality at 4, 2, and 1 mg/ml, respectively. While in vivo, encapsulated Eucalyptus staigeriana oil reduced worm burden by 83.75% and encapsulated Cymbopogon citratus nano-emulsion by 83.1%. Encapsulated bromelain, encapsulated Eucalyptus staigeriana oil, and encapsulated Cymbopogon citratus nano-emulsion were safe and non-toxic in vivo. Encapsulated bromelain damaged the cuticle, caused paralysis, and death. Nanoparticles could be a potential source for developing novel anthelmintic drugs to overcome the emerging issue of anthelmintic resistance in H. contortus. Studies on molecular effects, toxicological consequences, and different pharmacological targets of nanoparticles are required in future research.

10.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770749

RESUMO

Fagonia indica is a rich source of pharmacologically active compounds. The variation in the metabolites of interest is one of the major issues in wild plants due to different environmental factors. The addition of chemical elicitors is one of the effective strategies to trigger the biosynthetic pathways for the release of a higher quantity of bioactive compounds. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the effects of chemical elicitors, aluminum chloride (AlCl3) and cadmium chloride (CdCl2), on the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, biomass, and the antioxidant system in callus cultures of F. indica. Among various treatments applied, AlCl3 (0.1 mM concentration) improved the highest in biomass accumulation (fresh weight (FW): 404.72 g/L) as compared to the control (FW: 269.85 g/L). The exposure of cultures to AlCl3 (0.01 mM) enhanced the accumulation of secondary metabolites, and the total phenolic contents (TPCs: 7.74 mg/g DW) and total flavonoid contents (TFCs: 1.07 mg/g DW) were higher than those of cultures exposed to CdCl2 (0.01 mM) with content levels (TPC: 5.60 and TFC: 0.97 mg/g) as compared to the control (TPC: 4.16 and TFC: 0.42 mg/g DW). Likewise, AlCl3 and CdCl2 also promoted the free radical scavenging activity (FRSA; 89.4% and 90%, respectively) at a concentration of 0.01 mM, as compared to the control (65.48%). For instance, the quantification of metabolites via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) revealed an optimum production of myricetin (1.20 mg/g), apigenin (0.83 mg/g), isorhamnetin (0.70 mg/g), and kaempferol (0.64 mg/g). Cultures grown in the presence of AlCl3 triggered higher quantities of secondary metabolites than those grown in the presence of CdCl2 (0.79, 0.74, 0.57, and 0.67 mg/g). Moreover, AlCl3 at 0.1 mM enhanced the biosynthesis of superoxide dismutase (SOD: 0.08 nM/min/mg-FW) and peroxidase enzymes (POD: 2.37 nM/min/mg-FW), while CdCl2 resulted in an SOD activity up to 0.06 nM/min/mg-FW and POD: 2.72 nM/min/mg-FW. From these results, it is clear that AlCl3 is a better elicitor in terms of a higher and uniform productivity of biomass, secondary cell products, and antioxidant enzymes compared to CdCl2 and the control. It is possible to scale the current strategy to a bioreactor for a higher productivity of metabolites of interest for various pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Células Vegetais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , Polifenóis/biossíntese , Metabolismo Secundário/efeitos dos fármacos , Zygophyllaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Zygophyllaceae/metabolismo , Cloreto de Alumínio/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/biossíntese , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/metabolismo , Polifenóis/química , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Zygophyllaceae/química
11.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 357, 2021 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34798893

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Toxoplasma gondii is an important parasite that belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa, distributed globally, causing major health issues for a wide range of hosts, including humans, native and wild animals. METHODS: In the present study, we detected IgG and IgM antibodies through an ELISA kit and DNA of T. gondii through PCR in 197 pets and stray cats in Peshawar, Charsadda, Mardan, and Kohat districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (Pakistan) to estimate the existence of feline toxoplasmosis. RESULTS: The current study revealed that stray cats have a significant infection rate of T. gondii (74.6%) as compared to pet cats (25.4%). In all the four districts, the prevalence of T. gondii was pointedly higher in district Kohat (95.5%) in the feline population. In comparison to the female (75.18%) and male (both pets and stray) cats have a maximum infection of (81.66%) non-significantly. The prevalence of T. gondii was observed to be significantly higher (91.66%) in the older and greater than 4 year old population of cats as compared to the younger ones. In poor health condition, the cat populations has a higher risk of infection of 92.3% as compared to healthy and poor body condition (73.91%) and (82.6%) respectively. The chronic and reactivated chronic conditions of toxoplasmosis were higher (58.37%) as compared to the acute condition. CONCLUSION: It has been concluded that toxoplasmosis is widely spread in the studied population.The outcomes of the present study show that T. gondii infection has a significant impact on the type of cat, age, and area, which implies a serious threat to human beings. Therefore, genotyping of T. gondii strains from different hosts is needed to forecast the current approach for prevention and control of this zoonotic parasite.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Toxoplasmose Animal/epidemiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Gatos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Animais de Estimação/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/imunologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34484393

RESUMO

In the present study, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were prepared using ZnCl2.2H2O as a precursor, via green route using leaf extract of Rhazya stricta as capping and reducing agent. The prepared ZnO nanoparticles were examined using UV-visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction spectrometer (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The UV-Vis absorption spectrum at 355 nm showed an absorption peak, which indicates the formation of ZnO NPs. The FT-IR spectra analysis was performed to identify the potential biomolecule of the as-prepared ZnO NPs. The FT-IR spectra showed peaks at 3455, 1438, 883, and 671 cm-1 in the region of 4000-500 cm-1, which indicates -OH, NH, C-H, and M-O groups, respectively. The SEM images showed aggregation of ZnO nanoparticles with an average size of 70-90 nm. The XRD study indicated that the ZnO NPs were crystalline in nature with hexagonal wurtzite structure and broad peaks were observed at 2 theta positions 31.8°, 34.44°, 36.29°, 47.57°, 56.61°, 67.96°, and 69.07°. The synthesized ZnO NPs were found to be good antiplasmodial with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 3.41 µg/mL. It is concluded from the current study that the ZnO NPs exhibited noble antiplasmodial activity, and for the improvement of antiplasmodial medications, it might be used after further in vivo studies.

14.
Empir Econ ; : 1-20, 2021 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462614

RESUMO

This study investigates the relationship between daily returns of oil and ten European industrial equity indices for the period 2008-2017 using the spatial econometric technique. In our settings, the historical co-movements of sectoral returns are incorporated while modelling the contemporaneous relationships between oil and European sectoral returns. After controlling for regional and global equity risk factors, we find that oil returns pose a significantly positive effect on sectoral indices' returns in line with previous studies. However, the magnitude of economic impact found mostly by earlier studies was largely underestimated without considering the co-movements of sectoral indices. The use of spatial econometric technique allowed us to disaggregate the total impact into a direct (due to oil price) and an indirect (due to spillover effect because of intra-industry co-movements) effect of oil price changes. Our results indicate that the direct economic impact of changes in oil prices on industrial returns is almost 31% more than what has been found by earlier studies. The negative spatial dependence among sectoral indices provides a useful tool to identify the source of the indirect impact of oil on overall equity prices in Europe that in turn explains the overestimation of direct impact by 31%.

15.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 394(10): 2033-2047, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34254154

RESUMO

Gabapentinoids are effective drugs in most animal models of pain and inflammation with variable effects in humans. The current study evaluated the pharmacological activity of gabapentin (GBP) and its salicylaldehyde derivative (gabapentsal; [2-(1-(((2-hydroxybenzylidene) amino) methyl) cyclohexyl) acetic acid]; GPS) in well-established mouse models of nociceptive pain, inflammatory edema, and pyrexia at doses of 25-100 mg/kg. GPS allayed tonic visceral pain as reflected by acetic acid-induced nociception and it also diminished thermally induced nociception as a mimic of phasic thermal pain. Antagonism of GPS-induced antinociceptive activities by naloxone (NLX, 1.0 mg/kg, subcutaneously, s.c), beta-funaltrexamine (ß-FNT, 5.0 mg/kg, s.c), naltrindole (NT, 1.0 mg/kg, s.c), and nor-binaltorphimine (NOR-BNI, 5.0 mg/kg, s.c), and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ-15 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, i.p) implicated an involvement of both opioidergic and GABAergic mechanisms. Tail immersion test was conducted in order to delineate the mechanistic insights of antinociceptive response. Inflammatory edema induced by carrageenan, histamine, or serotonin was also effectively reversed by GPS in a fashion analogous to aspirin (150 mg/kg, i.p), chlorpheniramine (1.0 mg/kg, i.p), and mianserin (1.0 mg/kg, i.p), respectively. Additionally, yeast-induced pyrexia was decreased by GPS in a comparable manner to acetaminophen (50 mg/kg, i.p). These observations suggest that GPS possesses ameliorative properties in tonic, phasic, and tail immersion tests of nociception via opioidergic and GABAergic mechanisms, curbs inflammatory edema, and is antipyretic in nature.


Assuntos
Aldeídos/uso terapêutico , Analgésicos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antipiréticos/uso terapêutico , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Febre/tratamento farmacológico , Gabapentina/análogos & derivados , Gabapentina/uso terapêutico , Dor Nociceptiva/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Carragenina , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Histamina , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Serotonina
16.
Infect Genet Evol ; 94: 105012, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34302994

RESUMO

Fasciola gigantica and Fasciola hepatica are digenetic trematodes causing fasciolosis in ruminants. The host and geographical distribution of both Fasciola species are influenced by environmental and climatic conditions favouring survival and development of free-living stages and intermediate hosts, and livestock management practices. The aim of the present study was to describe the host distribution of the two Fasciola species in buffalo, cattle, goats, and sheep in the Balochistan and Punjab provinces of Pakistan. 359 flukes were collected from a total of 32 livers from the four livestock species. Deep amplicon sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer region 2 of ribosomal DNA (rDNA ITS-2) and mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase 1 (mtDNA ND-1) loci confirmed co-infection of F. hepatica and F. gigantica in Balochistan and single species F. gigantica infection in Punjab. In Balochistan, co-infections and hybrids of both Fasciola species were identified in cattle, with more F. hepatica detected than F. gigantica. However, F. hepatica was the only species identified in goats, and F. gigantica was the only species identified in buffalo. In Punjab, all flukes were confirmed as F. gigantica in each of the four livestock species. Overall, the results indicate differences in the host and geographical distribution of F. gigantica and F. hepatica, and provide useful knowledge for the development of control strategies for livestock and humans.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Fasciola/isolamento & purificação , Fasciolíase/veterinária , Doenças das Cabras/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/epidemiologia , Animais , Búfalos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/parasitologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , DNA de Helmintos/análise , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , DNA Ribossômico/análise , Fasciolíase/epidemiologia , Fasciolíase/parasitologia , Doenças das Cabras/parasitologia , Cabras , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/veterinária , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/parasitologia , Carneiro Doméstico , Especificidade da Espécie
17.
Pharmaceutics ; 13(3)2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34156396

RESUMO

Bioassays guided phytochemical investigations on the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the root material of Ballota pseudodictamnus (L.) Benth. led to the isolation of two new compounds, ballodiolic acid A (1) and ballodiolic acid B (2), along with three known compounds ballodiolic acid (3), ballotenic acid (4), and ß-amyrin (5), which were also isolated for the first time from this species by using multiple chromatographic techniques. The structures of the compounds (1-5) were determined by modern spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and chemical studies. In three separate experiments, the isolated compounds (1-5) demonstrated potent antioxidant scavenging activity, with IC50 values ranging from 07.22-34.10 µM in the hydroxyl radical (•OH) inhibitory activity test, 58.10-148.55 µM in the total ROS (reactive oxygen species) inhibitory activity test, and 6.23-69.01 µM in the peroxynitrite (ONOO-) scavenging activity test. With IC50 values of (07.22 ± 0.03, 58.10 ± 0.07, 6.23 ± 0.04 µM) for •OH, total ROS, and scavenge ONOO-, respectively, ballodiolic acid B (2) showed the highest scavenging ability. Antibacterial and antifungal behaviors were also exposed to the pure compounds 1-5. In contrast to compounds 4 and 5, compounds 1-3 were active against all bacterial strains studied, with a good zone of inhibition proving these as a potent antibacterial agent. Similarly, compared to compounds 3-5, compounds 1 and 2 with a 47 percent and 45 percent respective inhibition zone were found to be more active against tested fungal strains.

18.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 49(1): 450-460, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993821

RESUMO

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) have been produced by physical and chemical methods. Here, the comparative evaluation of both chemically-synthesised ZnO-NPs (C-ZNPs) and in-vitro cultured S. marianum mediated green-synthesised ZnO-NPs (G-ZNPs) were investigated on seed germination frequency, root and shoot growth, callus induction and biochemical profile of medicinally important plant Silybum marianum. Of all the treatments, callus-mediated ZnO-NPs gave optimum results for seed germination (65%), plantlet's root length (4.3 cm), shoot length (5.3 cm) and fresh and dry weights (220.4 g L-1 and 21.23 g L-1, respectively). Similarly, the accumulation of phenolic (12.3 µg/mg DW) and flavonoid (2.8 µg/mg DW) contents were also enhanced in callus cultures treated with G-ZNPs. We also observed maximum antioxidant activity (99%) in callus cultures treated with G-ZNPs, however, in case of plantlets, these activities were found highest for in-vitro whole plant-mediated ZnO-NPs. Moreover, G-ZNPs also enhanced total protein content (265.32 BSAE/20g FW) in callus cultures. G-ZNPs were further assessed for their effects on several multidrug resistant bacterial strains and human liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells and our findings revealed that callus extracts treated with G-ZNPs show ameliorated antibacterial (highest zone of inhibition (19 mm) against Klebsiella pneumonia) and anticancer (highest cytotoxicity of 64%) activities.


Assuntos
Cardo-Mariano , Antibacterianos , Anti-Infecciosos , Antioxidantes , Química Verde , Plântula , Óxido de Zinco
19.
Neurochem Int ; 144: 104981, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33549629

RESUMO

Paclitaxel is an anti-microtubule agent, most widely used chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of malignant solid tumors. However, it is associated with some severe side effects including painful neurotoxicity with reporting of neuropathic pain and sensory abnormalities by patients during and after paclitaxel therapy. Peripheral neuropathy was induced by the administration of paclitaxel (4 mg/kg on days 1, 3, 5, and 7). In this study, the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory propensity of 3-Hydroxyflavone (3HF) in mice and the preventive effect of 3HF against paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were investigated. Moreover, tactile and cold allodynia, thermal and tail immersion hyperalgesia, and effects on motor-coordination were also evaluated. Furthermore, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines i.e. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and Substance P from the spinal cord was examined through RT-PCR. Additionally, a computational structural biology approach was applied to search the potential therapeutic targets and to predict the binding mechanism of 3HF. Treatment of 3HF alleviated the nociceptive pain, paw edema, development of tactile and cold allodynia, and hyperalgesia. Similarly, treatment with 3HF suppressed the paclitaxel-induced increase in mRNA expression of several inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor -α (TNF-α), interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), and interleukin-6 (IL-6), CGRP, and Substance P. However, the daily treatment of 3HF did not affect the motor behaviors of rats. The inhibitory mechanism of 3HF in neuropathic pain is predicted with extensive computational bioinformatics approach which indicates that the 3HF effectively interacts with the binding domains of Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), CGRP receptor and the receptor of Substance P to exert its inhibitory activities. However, the computationally predicted binding affinities revealed that the potential of binding of the compound with Substance P receptor (Neurokinin 1 receptor) is higher than the other receptors; there NK1R could be the most possible binding target of 3HF. These findings indicate that 3HF has anti-nociceptive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-neuropathic pain effects against paclitaxel-induced neuropathic pain.


Assuntos
Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/antagonistas & inibidores , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Nociceptividade/efeitos dos fármacos , Paclitaxel/toxicidade , Substância P/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/toxicidade , Peptídeo Relacionado com Gene de Calcitonina/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Neuralgia/induzido quimicamente , Neuralgia/metabolismo , Nociceptividade/fisiologia , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Substância P/metabolismo
20.
Behav Brain Res ; 405: 113190, 2021 05 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607164

RESUMO

Gabapentin (GBP) is an established drug that has been used in the management of symptoms of neuropathy but it is associated with unwanted side effects such as sedation and motor incoordination. The goal of the study was to find out a drug with greater efficacy and safety for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Our previously synthesized GABA analogue (Gabapentsal, GPS) was tested (25-100 mg/kg, i.p) in chronic constriction injury (CCI) induced nociceptive model of static allodynia, dynamic allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical hyperalgesia and cold allodynia in rats (Sprague Dawley). Open field and rotarod tests were performed to assess the impact of GPS on the motor performance of the animals. GBP (100 mg/kg, i.p) was used as a standard for comparison. GPS dose dependently reduced static (P <0.001) and dynamic allodynia (P <0.001), thermal hyperalgesia (P <0.001), mechanical hyperalgesia (P < 0.001) and cold allodynia (P < 0.001). In comparison to GBP, GPS failed to alter any significantly the motor performance of rats in both the open field and rotarod assays. These results suggest that GPS is effective in alleviating nociception in CCI neuropathic pain model but free from the side effect of motor discoordination seen in the treatment with GBP. In conclusion, GPS may prove to be a prospectively more effective and safer option in the management of neuropathic syndromes.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/farmacologia , Gabapentina/análise , Hiperalgesia/tratamento farmacológico , Neuralgia/tratamento farmacológico , Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Doença Crônica , Constrição , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Neuralgia/etiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Neuropatia Ciática/complicações
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