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1.
J Immigr Minor Health ; 23(6): 1159-1169, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33543426

RESUMO

The Rohingyas fled from their home to escape ethnic persecution. Due to their status as refugees they have difficulties in accessing healthcare leading to avoidable mortality and morbidity. Infectious diseases are reported to be among the causes. To ease access to healthcare, IMAM Response and Relief Team (IMARET) provides a free monthly clinic for them. The objective of this study is to determine the proportion of infectious diseases and appropriateness of antimicrobial usage among its pediatrics patients. It was conducted in 2017, through universal sampling. Information retrieved were via interviews and medical records. The majority diagnosis were infectious diseases (57.1%), which include respiratory infections (77.3%), skin (13.6%), gastrointestinal (4.5%), eye and ear infection (both 1%). Albendazole (40.7%) was the most prescribed. Only 7.4% were appropriately prescribed antimicrobials. Age (p = 0.005) and BMI (p = 0.006) were significantly associated with infections.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Pediatria , Refugiados , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Clero , Doenças Transmissíveis/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Unidades Móveis de Saúde , Prescrições
2.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 263, 2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32787921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although gamification increases user engagement, its effectiveness in point-of-care ultrasonographic training has yet to be fully established. This study was conducted with the primary outcome of evaluating its effectiveness in point-of-care ultrasonographic training as compared to conventional approach. METHODS: Participants consisting of junior doctors were randomized into either the (1) gamified or the (2) conventional educational approach for ultrasonographic training. RESULTS: A total of 31 junior doctors participated in this study (16 participants in gamified arm, 15 in the conventional arm after one participant from the conventional arm dropped out due to work commitment). Two-way mixed ANOVA test showed that there was no statistically significant interaction between the types of educational approach and time of testing (pre-test, post-test, 2 months post-training) for both theoretical knowledge score and practical skills score, with F(2, 58) = 39.6, p < 0.001, partial η2 = 0.4 and F(2, 58) = 3.06, p = 0.06, partial η2 = 0.095, respectively. For theoretical knowledge score, pairwise comparisons showed that the mean 2 months post-training scores (20.28 +/- 0.70, 95% CI 18.87-21.69) and mean post-test scores (20.27 +/- 0.65, 95% CI 18.94-21.60) were better than the pre-test scores (12.99 +/- 0.50, 95% CI 11.97-14.00) with p-values < 0.001 for both comparisons respectively. Similarly, for practical skill score, pairwise comparisons showed that the mean 2 months post-training scores (20.28 +/- 0.70, 95% CI 18.87-21.69) and mean post-test scores (20.27 +/- 0.65, 95% CI 18.94-21.60) were also better than the pre-test scores (12.99 +/- 0.50, 95% CI 11.97-14.00) with p-values < 0.001 for both comparisons respectively. Participants in the gamification arm generally perceived the various game elements and game mechanics as useful in contributing and motivating them to learn ultrasonography. CONCLUSIONS: Gamification approach could be an effective alternative to conventional approach in point-of-care ultrasonographic training.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Competência Clínica , Humanos , Corpo Clínico Hospitalar , Ultrassonografia
3.
Int Emerg Nurs ; 51: 100889, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622225

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients who visit emergency departments need to undergo a precise assessment to determine their priority and accurate triage category to ensure they receive the right treatment. AIM: To identify the effect of triage training on the skills and accuracy of triage decisions for adult trauma patients. METHOD: A randomized controlled trial design was conducted in ten emergency department of public hospitals. A total of 143 registered nurses and medical officer assistants who performed triage roles were recruited for the control group (n = 74) and the intervention group (n = 69). The skill and accuracy of triage decisions were measured two weeks and four weeks after the intervention group were exposed to the intervention. RESULTS: There was a significant effect on the skill of triage decision-making between the control and the intervention group p < 0.001, η2partial = 0.31. Concerning the accuracy of triage decisions, the effect was significantly different between the control group and the intervention group p < 0.001, η2partial = 0.66 across time. CONCLUSION: The triage training improved the skills of the participants and the accuracy of triage decision-making across time.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Tomada de Decisões , Medicina de Emergência/educação , Enfermagem em Emergência/educação , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Triagem/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino
4.
Basic Clin Neurosci ; 11(4): 381-388, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33613876

RESUMO

N-Methyl-3, 4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDMA), or ecstasy is a recreational drug of abuse. It is a synthetic substance that affects the body's systems, which its mechanism of action and treatment should be more investigated. MDMA provides an immediate enjoyable feeling by stimulating the release of neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and serotonin in the brain. Unfortunately, abnormal regulation of the brain neurotransmitters, as well as the increased oxidative stress causes damage to the brain neurons after the MDMA exposure. Only a few studies have been done regarding its treatment. Thus, the treatment of MDMA complications should be further explored mainly by targeting its mechanism of action in the neurotransmitter systems. Hence, this study presents a short review regarding the recent findings on the role of neurotransmitters to cause MDMA neurotoxicity. The results will be useful for future research in elucidating the potential treatment based on the targeted mechanisms to treat the neurotoxic effects of MDMA.

5.
J Acute Med ; 9(3): 128-144, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995241

RESUMO

Background: Balanced fluids are preferred in initial resuscitation of septic patients based on several recent studies. The Stewart's concept on acid-base balance predicts that high strong ion difference (SID) fluid thus will increase the pH level. To date, the impact of high SID fluid in septic patient with metabolic acidosis remains uncertain. We conducted single center, randomized, double-blind trial to compare the effect of high SID fluid vs. Hartmann's solution on acid-base status in selected sepsis patients in the Emergency Department. Methods: Septic patient with hyperlactatemia and metabolic acidosis were randomized to receive either high SID fl uid or Hartmann's solution during initial fl uid resuscitation. The primary outcome measures the pH and bicarbonate levels difference pre- and post- resuscitation. Results: One hundred and sixty-two patients underwent randomization, 81 were assigned each to receive high SID fluid or Hartmann's solution. Both groups had similar baseline characteristics. High SID group received 23.5 mL/kg and the Hartmann's group received 22.7 mL/kg (p = 0.360). High SID fluid increased the mean (± SD) pH by 0.107 (± 0.09) vs. Hartmann's solution by 0.014 (± 0.12), p ≤ 0.001. Mean bicarbonate level increased signifi cantly in high SID group compared to Hartmann's (4.30 ± 3.76 vs. 1.25 ± 3.33, p ≤ 0.001). High SID group had higher post resuscitation lactate clearance than Hartmann's group (25.4 ± 28.3% vs. 12.0 ± 34.1%, p = 0.009). Shorter hospital stay was observed in highSID group 8.04 ± 5.96 days vs. Hartmann's group 12.18 ± 12.41 days (p = 0.048). Both groups showed no difference in incidence of pulmonary oedema, acute kidney injury and mortality. Conclusions: Initial resuscitation using high SID fluid in selected septic patient improves pH and bicarbonate levels. The high SID group had better post resuscitation lactate clearance and shorter hospital stay.

6.
Int J Emerg Med ; 9(1): 8, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26894896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We designed this study to expand the usage of ultrasound to detect early occurrence of hypovolemia. We explore the potential use of inferior vena cava (IVC) and abdominal aorta (AA) diameter index (IVC:AA) measured ultrasonographically to detect class 1 hypovolemic shock with blood loss less than 15%.ᅟ METHODS: The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the diameter of inferior vena cava and abdominal aorta in blood donors by using ultrasound, pre and post blood donation. The result of the study would be further explorated to determine the inferior vena cava (IVC) abdominal aorta (Aorta) diameter index (IVC:Aorta). This was a prospective study done in the blood bank of a university hospital. Researcher was trained by a senior radiologist to assess inferior vena cava and abdominal aorta diameter. Fifty-two healthy blood donors were included in the study. Inclusion criteria were same with the blood bank criteria to donate blood. Demographic data and vital signs were taken before the ultrasound measurement done for inferior vena cava and abdominal aorta diameter. Once the volunteers donated their blood of approximately 450 mls; the measurements were repeated using the same methods. RESULTS: There were differences in IVC, abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava:aorta diameters index pre and post donation. With mathematical analysis, we suggested the number of IVC:Aorta index as 1.14±2SD with SD 0.18 as a cut off value for class 1 hypovolemic shock. CONCLUSION: The IVC:Aorta diameter index can be used as a parameter for detecting early phase (Class 1) of hypovolemic shock.

7.
Int J Emerg Med ; 7(1): 2, 2014 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24386899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parecoxib sodium is the first parenteral COX-2 inhibitor used for pain management licensed for postoperative pain. However, no study has assessed the usage of parecoxib for acute traumatic pain in the emergency department (ED). The objective of this study was to investigate a potential alternative analgesic agent in the ED by determining the mean reduction of pain score between acute traumatic pain patients who were administered with intravenous (IV) parecoxib sodium versus IV morphine sulfate. The onset of perceptible analgesic effect and side effects were also evaluated. METHODS: A randomized, double-blinded study comparing IV parecoxib 40 mg versus IV morphine at 0.10 mg/kg was conducted in adult patients presented with acute traumatic pain with numeric rating scale (NRS) of 6 or more within 6 hours of injury. Patients were randomized using a computer-generated randomization plan. Drug preparation and dispensing were performed by a pharmacist. Periodic assessment of blood pressure, pulse rate, oxygen saturation, and NRS were taken at 0, 5, 15, and 30 minute intervals after the administration of the study drug. The primary outcome was the reduction of NRS. Side effect and drug evaluation was conducted within 30 minutes of drug administration. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in the reduction of mean NRS between patients in the IV parecoxib group or IV morphine group (P = 0.095). The mean NRS for patients treated with IV morphine were 7.1 at 0 minutes, 4.5 at 5 minutes, 3.1 at 15 minutes, and 2.0 at 30 minutes. Whereas mean NRS for patients who received IV parecoxib were 7.8 at 0 minutes, 5.7 at 5 minutes, 4.7 at 15 minutes, and 3.9 at 30 minutes. The onset of perceptible analgesic effects could be seen as early as 5 minutes. Dizziness was experienced in 42.9% of patients who received IV morphine compared to none in the parecoxib group. CONCLUSIONS: There was non-significant trend toward superiority of IV morphine over IV parecoxib. Looking at its effectiveness and the lack of opioid-related side-effects, the usage of IV parecoxib sodium may be extended further to a variety of cases in the ED.

8.
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 44(4): 703-6, 2013 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24050106

RESUMO

Peripheral vascular injuries result from penetrating or blunt trauma to the extremities. We describe here an unusual cause of a radial artery injury by the spine from the pectoral fin of Pangasius sutchi in a 51 year-old man and we review the literature.


Assuntos
Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Peixes-Gato , Artéria Radial/lesões , Ferimentos Penetrantes/complicações , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
Int J Emerg Med ; 4: 41, 2011 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21752254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the majority of the snakebite cases in Malaysia are due to non-venomous snakes, venomous bites cause significant morbidity and mortality if treatment measures, especially ant-venom therapy, are delayed. METHODS: To determine the demographic characteristics, we conducted a retrospective study on all snakebite patients admitted to the Emergency Department of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) from January 2006 to December 2010. RESULTS: In the majority of the 260 cases that we found (138 cases or 52.9%), the snake species was unidentified. The most common venomous snakebites among the identified species were caused by cobras (52 cases or 20%). Cobra bites are significantly more likely to result in severe envenomation compared to non-cobra bites. Post hoc analysis also showed that cobra bite patients are significantly less likely to have complete recovery than non-cobra bite patients (48 cases, 75.0% vs. 53 cases, 94.6%; p = 0.003) and more likely to result in local gangrene (11 cases, 17.2% vs. 3 cases, 5.4%; p = 0.044). CONCLUSION: Cobra bites are significantly more likely to result in severe envenomation needing anti-venom administration and more likely to result in local gangrene, and the patients are significantly less likely to have complete recovery than those with non-cobra bites.

10.
J Emerg Med ; 41(6): 581-9, 2011 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19272745

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine if the slope of Phase II and Phase III, and the alpha angle of the expiratory capnographic waveform, as measured via computer-recognizable algorithms, can reflect changes in bronchospasm in acute asthmatic non-intubated patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). METHODS: In this prospective study carried out in a university hospital ED, 30 patients with acute asthma were monitored with clinical severity scoring and peak flow measurements, and then had a nasal cannula attached for sidestream sampling of expired carbon dioxide. The capnographic waveform was recorded onto a personal computer card for analysis. The patients were treated according to departmental protocols. After treatment, when they had improved enough for discharge, a second set of results was obtained for capnographic waveform recording. The pre-treatment and post-treatment results were then compared with paired-samples t-test analysis. RESULTS: On the capnographic waveform pre- and post-treatment, there was a significant difference in the slope of Phase III (p < 0.001) and alpha angle (p < 0.001), but not in the Phase II slope (p = 0.35). There was significant change in peak flow meter reading, but it was poorly correlated with all the capnographic indices. CONCLUSION: The study provides some preliminary data showing that capnographic waveform indices can indicate improvement in airway diameter in acute asthmatics in the ED. Capnographic waveform analysis presents several advantages in that it is effort-independent, and provides continuous monitoring of normal tidal respiration. With further refined studies, it may serve as a new method of monitoring non-intubated asthmatics in the ED.


Assuntos
Asma/diagnóstico , Capnografia/métodos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/fisiopatologia , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Malays J Med Sci ; 17(1): 17-22, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22135521

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pain management in the Emergency Department is challenging. Do we need to ask patients specifically about their pain scores, or does our observational scoring suffice? The objective of this study was to determine the inter-rater differences in pain scores between patients and emergency healthcare (EHC) providers. Pain scores upon discharge or prior to ward admission were also determined. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in which patients independently rated their pain scores at primary triage; EHC providers (triagers and doctors) separately rated the patients' pain scores, based on their observations. RESULTS: The mean patient pain score on arrival was 6.8 ± 1.6, whereas those estimated by doctors and triagers were 5.6±1.8 and 4.3±1.9, respectively. There were significant differences among patients, triagers and doctors (P< 0.001). There were five conditions (soft tissue injury, headache, abdominal pain, fracture and abscess/cellulites) that were significantly different in pain scores between patients and EHC providers (P<0.005). The mean pain score of patients upon discharge or admission to the ward was 3.3 ± 1.9. CONCLUSIONS: There were significant differences in mean patient pain scores on arrival, compared to those of doctors and triagers. Thus, asking for pain scores is a very important step towards comprehensive pain management in emergency medicine.

12.
Malays J Med Sci ; 17(1): 38-43, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22135524

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The observation ward (OW) allows patients to be reassessed and monitored before deciding either to admit or to discharge them. This is a six-month descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in the observation ward of the Emergency Department (ED) of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan. The objective of this study was to examine the demographic characteristics and clinical profiles of adult observed patients and to determine the effectiveness of OW management. METHODS: Patients were selected randomly by convenience sampling. One hundred and twenty-four patients were included in the study. The mean age was 40.3 ± 18.5 years (95% CI: 37.2 to 43.8). RESULTS: Among the common clinical problems were abdominal discomfort (23%), diarrhoea and vomiting (13%) and fever (13%). Reasons for OW admission included diagnostic uncertainty (63%) and short course of treatment (33%). The mean length of stay was 4.1 ± 1.8 hours (95% CI=3.8 to 4.4 hours). Most of the patients (85%) were discharged. CONCLUSIONS: The OW of HUSM is effective in managing adult patients as determined by the hospitalisation rate and the length of stay.

13.
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 40(6): 1322-30, 2009 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20578468

RESUMO

Early identification and rapid treatment of red tag patients may decrease morbidity and mortality. We examined the clinical characteristics, etiologies and one week mortality rate of red tag (life threatening and potentially life threatening illness) patients at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysai (HUSM). A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Emergency Department of the HUSM from 1 August 2006 to 31 January 2007; 440 eligible patients were analyzed. The group had a mean age of 47.2 +/- 22 years, with 67.3% of the patients being male. Twenty-three percent were trauma cases with motor vehicle accident being the major mechanism of injury. Fifty-four percent of the cases had cardiac related illnesses. The mean duration of stay in the Emergency Department (ED) was 3.9 +/- 1.5 hours. The survival rate at one week was 76.6%. The non-trauma group comprised 74.0% of death cases. Acute coronary syndrome and road traffic accidents comprised 22.0% of total death cases at one week. Red tag patients constitute a large proportion of ED cases and may remain in the ED for significant periods of time.


Assuntos
Estado Terminal , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Triagem/métodos , Acidentes de Trânsito/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Taxa de Sobrevida , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20578469

RESUMO

Traditional Malay herbal medicine is still used in Malaysia especially in rural areas, instead of using modern medicine. Datura or "kecubung" has been used to treat allergic rhinitis in certain places. Inaccurate doses can potentially cause severe or fatal neurologic anti-cholinergic toxidromes. A good knowledge of toxidromes with optimization of supportive care can prevent fatal complications and lead to a more speedy recovery. We present a case of kecubung poisoning.


Assuntos
Datura/envenenamento , Medicina Herbária , Medicina Tradicional do Leste Asiático , Humanos , Malásia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
15.
Malays J Med Sci ; 16(2): 33-7, 2009 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22589656

RESUMO

Theophylline toxicity is a life-threatening toxidrome that can present to an emergency department. To ascertain an immediate provisional diagnosis in toxicology at the emergency department is very challenging, especially when the patient presents with altered mental status, because the clinical features of several toxidromes overlap. We report a case of survival of undiagnosed theophylline toxicity that required intubation for two days in the intensive care unit. This was the first case to have been reported from our department. Accurate diagnosis of a toxidrome by gaining adequate history and conducting a thorough physical examination and early serum toxicology screening, coupled with good knowledge of toxicology, will lead to better patient outcomes.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18564720

RESUMO

Bleeding as the result of a leech in the male urethra is very rare. We describe a 13-year-old boy who had a leech in his urethra. In the emergency department he persistently squeezed his penis in an attempt to prevent the leech from going deeper into his urethra. Manual removal by forcep failed and cystoscopic removal was recommended. Penile block with lidocaine 1% relieved the pain and enabled him to squeeze his penis harder until the leech was pushed out making forcep removal easier. Post-removal he had hematuria and penile pain for 2 days. A description of his presentation and management, along with a review of the literature is presented.


Assuntos
Sanguessugas , Doenças Uretrais/parasitologia , Adolescente , Animais , Hematúria/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino
17.
Malays J Med Sci ; 15(2): 47-51, 2008 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22589626

RESUMO

Disaster is a sudden event that associated with ecological changes, disruption of normal daily activities, destruction of infrastructures, loss of properties, and medical disabilities. In disaster, there is a mismatch between available resources and patients need for healthcare service. During flood disaster, the victims were predisposed to different type of illnesses for various reasons such as inadequate supply of clean water, poor sanitation or drainage system, unhealthy foods, and over-crowded relief centers. Mobile clinic is an option for delivering medical care for the disaster victims who often have a difficulty to access to the medical facilities. In this article we would like to share our experiences during the provision of humanitarian services for flood victims at District of Muar Johor. Common illnesses among the flood victims at visited relief centers and advantages of Mobile Medical Relief Team were also highlighted and discussed.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18613550

RESUMO

We describe a 5-year-old girl who had sudden onset difficulty in walking after 3 days of febrile illness. In the emergency department her creatine kinase level was elevated but urine myoglobin was normal. She was diagnosed as having benign acute childhood myositis. Because of poor oral intake and dehydration, she was admitted to the pediatric ward. The next day she had a petechial rash over the antecubital fossa, and dengue IgM back was positive. She was treated conservatively and recovered uneventfully. Despite dengue fever being endemic in Malaysia, this is the first case report of myositis following dengue infection in Malaysia.


Assuntos
Dengue/complicações , Pleurodinia Epidêmica/fisiopatologia , Pré-Escolar , Dengue/diagnóstico , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Miosite/diagnóstico , Pleurodinia Epidêmica/diagnóstico , Pleurodinia Epidêmica/etiologia
19.
Malays J Med Sci ; 14(1): 79-83, 2007 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22593659

RESUMO

Emergency Medicine and Disaster Medicine are two specialties which are similar in the multidisciplinary involvement during the acute phase of the disaster. Recently, there was an increase in the number of disasters in the world but not many physicians are familiar with the principles for dealing with such situations, the unique organizational demands, coordination and the urgent need for medical assistance and relief. This case report delineates our experiences at a tsunami disaster area and the approach to setting up a medical relief team in the affected area. A medical reconnaissance team comprising of an emergency doctor from Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (H.U.S.M) and two MERCY Malaysia members was assembled. The team flew to Colombo on day 5 after the tsunami with medical supplies and related materials. The mission started from December 31(st) 2004 until January 8(th) 2005. Our surveillance area covered the Southern and Eastern Province with a total distance of 1700 km along the coast. The strategies employed during this medical reconnaissance included risk analysis, devising a resources matrix, developing lines of communication and rapport with other relief teams, Sri Lankan government agencies, and local and international non-government organizations. As a result, our team was able to set up a medical relief camp and distribute the relief items to the tsunami victims. In conclusion, the Disaster Emergency Medical Assistant Team (DEMAT) from H.U.S.M and MERCY Malaysia were able to set up and provide medical relief with our limited resources to a large scale disaster situation.

20.
Malays J Med Sci ; 14(2): 1-3, 2007 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22993485
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