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1.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 213: 109882, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307672

RESUMO

Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated oncogenic avian α-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of malignant transformation of T cells in domestic chickens. The latently infected CD4+CD8- T cells carry the virus through the blood stream and establish lymphomas in the skin, visceral organs and peripheral nerves. The feather follicle epithelium (FFE) is the only anatomical site where fully infectious enveloped virions are produced and eventually disseminated into the environment to infect contact birds. Therefore, skin and FFE play a critical role as being the common source of re-infection of birds sharing the same habitat. The molecular mechanism involved in the replication and assembly of MDV in the FFE leading to the production and release of cell-free infectious virus particles is unknown and to date no viral or host gene has been implicated in the process. To examine alterations in the expression pattern of viral genes, we performed RNA-seq on the skin samples of Marek's disease virus-infected susceptible chickens at 10, 20, and 30 days post infection. For comparative analysis of the expression patterns of viral genes between the skin and spleen of the MD-susceptible and resistant lines, Real-Time RT-PCR was employed. In total, RNA-seq based analysis identified 42 viral genes that were differentially expressed in the skin of infected birds. Majority of the identified genes are involved in DNA replication, capsid, tegument, and envelop formation. Comparative analysis between the skin and spleen of MD-susceptible and resistant chicken lines, revealed significantly higher expression of the genes in the skin of either lines than the spleen. Furthermore, much higher expression of the genes was observed in the skin of the susceptible line than the resistant line.


Assuntos
Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Genes Virais , Herpesvirus Galináceo 2/genética , Doença de Marek/imunologia , Pele/virologia , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , Genoma Viral , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Pele/patologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Baço/patologia , Baço/virologia
2.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 6361, 2019 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015528

RESUMO

The genetics of coat color variation remains a classic area. Earlier studies have focused on a limited number of genes involved in color determination; however, the complete set of trait determinants are still not well known. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing technology to identify and characterize intricate interactions between genes that cause complex coat color variation in Changthangi Pashmina goats, producer of finest and costly commercial animal fiber. We systematically identified differentially expressed mRNAs and lncRNAs from black, brown and white Pashmina goat skin samples by using RNA-sequencing technique. A pairwise comparison of black, white and brown skin samples yielded 2479 significantly dysregulated genes (2422 mRNA and 57 lncRNAs). Differentially expressed genes were enriched in melanin biosynthesis, melanocyte differentiation, developmental pigmentation, melanosome transport activities GO terms. Our analysis suggested the potential role of lncRNAs on color coding mRNAs in cis and trans configuration. We have also developed online data repository as a component of the study to provide a central location for data access, visualization and interpretation accessible through http://pcd.skuastk.org/ .

3.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211773, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721247

RESUMO

Jersey and Kashmiri cattle are important dairy breeds that contribute significantly to the total milk production of the Indian northern state of Jammu and Kashmir. The Kashmiri cattle germplasm has been extensively diluted through crossbreeding with Jersey cattle with the goal of enhancing its milk production ability. However, crossbred animals are prone to diseases resulting to unsustainable milk production. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive transcriptome profile of mammary gland epithelial cells at different stages of lactation and to find key differences in genes and pathways regulating milk traits between Jersey and Kashmiri cattle. Mammary epithelial cells (MEC) isolated from milk obtained from six lactating cows (three Jersey and three Kashmiri cattle) on day 15 (D15), D90 and D250 in milk, representing early, mid and late lactation, respectively were used. RNA isolated from MEC was subjected to next-generation RNA sequencing and bioinformatics processing. Casein and whey protein genes were found to be highly expressed throughout the lactation stages in both breeds. Largest differences in differentially expressed genes (DEG) were between D15 vs D90 (1,805 genes) in Kashmiri cattle and, D15 vs D250 (3,392 genes) in Jersey cattle. A total of 1,103, 1,356 and 1,397 genes were differentially expressed between Kashmiri and Jersey cattle on D15, D90 and D250, respectively. Antioxidant genes like RPLPO and RPS28 were highly expressed in Kashmiri cattle. Differentially expressed genes in both Kashmiri and Jersey were enriched for multicellular organismal process, receptor activity, catalytic activity, signal transducer activity, macromolecular complex and developmental process gene ontology terms. Whereas, biological regulation, endopeptidase activity and response to stimulus were enriched in Kashmiri cattle and, reproduction and immune system process were enriched in Jersey cattle. Most of the pathways responsible for regulation of milk production like JAK-STAT, p38 MAPK pathway, PI3 kinase pathway were enriched by DEG in Jersey cattle only. Although Kashmiri has poor milk production efficiency, the present study suggests possible physicochemical and antioxidant properties of Kashmiri cattle milk that needs to be further explored.

4.
Poult Sci ; 98(5): 2008-2013, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30597054

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is a primary avian pathogen responsible for severe intestinal pathology in younger chickens and economic losses to poultry industry. Furthermore, S. Typhimurium is also able to cause infection in humans, characterized by acute gastrointestinal disease. A study was conducted to investigate antibody response and expression kinetics of interferon gamma (IFNγ), interleukin (IL-12, and IL-18) genes in broiler chicken at 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, and 15 D post infection following experimental infection of S. Typhimurium. Immunological studies showed higher titres of IgG and IgM in the infected group as compared to the age-matched un-infected control group. The Real-Time PCR-based gene expression analysis revealed significant increase of IFNγ, IL-12, and IL-18 mRNA levels in the infected group as compared to their respective controls (P < 0.05). The present study shall help in understanding the immune responses in birds, thus allowing development of more effective vaccines and vaccination strategies.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Salmonelose Animal/genética , Salmonelose Animal/imunologia , Salmonella typhimurium/fisiologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Formação de Anticorpos , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-12/metabolismo , Interleucina-18/genética , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia
5.
BMC Vet Res ; 14(1): 180, 2018 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29884179

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (Salmonella Typhimurium) is a zoonotic pathogen responsible for severe intestinal pathology in young chickens. Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP) family has been shown to be associated with resistance to intracellular pathogens, including Salmonella Typhimurium. The role of NRAMP proteins in macrophage defence against microbial infection has been ascribed to changes in the metal-ion concentrations inside the bacteria-containing phagosomes. The present study was conducted to investigate tissue-specific (liver, spleen and caecum) expression kinetics of NRAMP gene family (NRAMP1 and NRAMP2) in broilers from day 0 to day 15 after Salmonella Typhimurium challenge concomitant to clinical, blood biochemical and immunological parameters survey. RESULTS: Clinical symptoms appeared 4 days post-infection (dpi) in infected birds. Symptoms like progressive weakness, anorexia, diarrhoea and lowering of the head were seen in infected birds one-week post-infection. On postmortem examination, liver showed congestion, haemorrhage and necrotic foci on the surface, while as the spleen, lungs and intestines revealed congestion and haemorrhages. Histopathological alterations were principally found in liver comprising of necrosis, reticular endothelial hyperplasia along with mononuclear cell and heterophilic infiltration. Red Blood Cell (RBC) count, Haemoglobin (Hb) and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in blood while heterophil counts increased up to 7 days post-infection. Serum glucose, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) enzymes concentrations increased significantly throughout the study. A gradual increase of specific humoral IgG response confirmed Salmonella infection. Meanwhile, expression of NRAMP1 and NRAMP2 genes was differentially regulated after infection in tissues such as liver, spleen and caecum known to be the target of Salmonella Typhimurium replication in the chicken. CONCLUSION: Thus the specific roles of NRAMP1 and NRAMP2 genes in Salmonella Typhimurium induced disease may be supposed from their differential expression according to tissues and timing after per os infection. However, these roles remain to be analyzed related to the severity of the disease which can be estimated by blood biochemistry and immunological parameters.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Salmonelose Animal/metabolismo , Salmonella typhimurium , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia
6.
Vet World ; 10(11): 1361-1366, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29263600

RESUMO

Since centuries, the traits for production and disease resistance are being targeted while improving the genetic merit of domestic animals, using conventional breeding programs such as inbreeding, outbreeding, or introduction of marker-assisted selection. The arrival of new scientific concepts, such as cloning and genome engineering, has added a new and promising research dimension to the existing animal breeding programs. Development of genome editing technologies such as transcription activator-like effector nuclease, zinc finger nuclease, and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats systems begun a fresh era of genome editing, through which any change in the genome, including specific DNA sequence or indels, can be made with unprecedented precision and specificity. Furthermore, it offers an opportunity of intensification in the frequency of desirable alleles in an animal population through gene-edited individuals more rapidly than conventional breeding. The specific research is evolving swiftly with a focus on improvement of economically important animal species or their traits all of which form an important subject of this review. It also discusses the hurdles to commercialization of these techniques despite several patent applications owing to the ambiguous legal status of genome-editing methods on account of their disputed classification. Nonetheless, barring ethical concerns gene-editing entailing economically important genes offers a tremendous potential for breeding animals with desirable traits.

7.
Biol Proced Online ; 19: 3, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28465674

RESUMO

Immune responses combat various infectious agents by inducing inflammatory responses, antimicrobial pathways and adaptive immunity. The polygenic responses to these external stimuli are temporally and coordinately regulated. Specific lncRNAs are induced to modulate innate and adaptive immune responses which can function through various target interactions like RNA-DNA, RNA-RNA, and RNA-protein interaction and hence affect the immunogenic regulation at various stages of gene expression. LncRNA are found to be present in various immune cells like monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, neutrophils, T cells and B cells. They have been shown to be involved in many biological processes, including the regulation of the expression of genes, the dosage compensation and genomics imprinting, but the knowledge how lncRNAs are regulated and how they alter cell differentiation/function is still obscure. Further dysregulation of lncRNA has been seen in many diseases, but as yet very less research has been carried out to understand the role of lncRNAs in regulation during host-pathogens interactions. In this review, we summarize the functional developments and mechanism of action of lncRNAs, in immunity and defense of host against pathogens.

8.
J Proteomics ; 169: 239-248, 2017 Oct 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28347863

RESUMO

Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a legume of appreciable importance and usefulness worldwide to the human population providing food and feed. It is rich in high-quality protein, energy, fiber and micronutrients especially iron, zinc, and pro-vitamin A; and possesses potentially disease-preventing and health-promoting compounds. The recently published genome sequence of common bean is an important landmark in common bean research, opening new avenues for understanding its genetics in depth. This legume crop is affected by diverse biotic and abiotic stresses severely limiting its productivity. Looking at the trend of increasing world population and the need for food crops best suited to the health of humankind, the legumes will be in great demand, including the common bean mostly for its nutritive values. Hence the need for new research in understanding the biology of this crop brings us to utilize and apply high-throughput omics approaches. In this mini-review our focus will be on the need for proteomics studies in common bean, potential of proteomics for understanding genetic regulation under abiotic and biotic stresses and how proteogenomics will lead to nutritional improvement. We will also discuss future proteomics-based strategies that must be adopted to mine new genomic resources by identifying molecular switches regulating various biological processes. SIGNIFICANCE: Common bean is regarded as "grain of hope" for the poor, being rich in high-quality protein, energy, fiber and micronutrients (iron, zinc, pro-vitamin A); and possesses potentially disease-preventing and health-promoting compounds. Increasing world population and the need for food crops best suited to the health of humankind, puts legumes into great demand, which includes the common bean mostly. An important landmark in common bean research was the recent publication of its genome sequence, opening new avenues for understanding its genetics in depth. This legume crop is affected by diverse biotic and abiotic stresses severely limiting its productivity. Therefore, the need for new research in understanding the biology of this crop brings us to utilize and apply high-throughput omics approaches. Proteomics can be used to track all the candidate proteins/genes responsible for a biological process under specific conditions in a particular tissue. The potential of proteomics will not only help in determining the functions of a large number of genes in a single experiment but will also be a useful tool to mine new genes that can provide solution to various problems (abiotic stress, biotic stress, nutritional improvement, etc). We believe that a combined approach including breeding along with omics tools will lead towards attaining sustainability in legumes, including common bean.


Assuntos
Phaseolus/fisiologia , Proteômica/métodos , Produtos Agrícolas/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas
9.
Noncoding RNA Res ; 1(1): 43-50, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30159410

RESUMO

Recent RNA sequencing studies have revealed that most of the human genome is transcribed, but very little of the total transcriptomes has the ability to encode proteins. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-coding transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides. Members of the non-coding genome include microRNA (miRNA), small regulatory RNAs and other short RNAs. Most of long non-coding RNA (lncRNAs) are poorly annotated. Recent recognition about lncRNAs highlights their effects in many biological and pathological processes. LncRNAs are dysfunctional in a variety of human diseases varying from cancerous to non-cancerous diseases. Characterization of these lncRNA genes and their modes of action may allow their use for diagnosis, monitoring of progression and targeted therapies in various diseases. In this review, we summarize the functional perspectives as well as the mechanism of action of lncRNAs.

10.
Genetica ; 142(6): 507-16, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25366848

RESUMO

Despite numerous studies on the taxonomy of a highly complex group of schizothoracine (snow trouts), with over five recognized species from Kashmir, India (Schizothorax niger, Schizothorax esocinus, Schizothorax plagiostomus, Schizothorax curvifrons and Schizothorax labiatus) based on traditional morphological data, the relationships between these species is poorly understood and the taxonomic validity is still under debate. To resolve the evolutionary relationships among these species, we sequenced mitochondrial fragments, including 16Sr RNA, Cytb and the D-loop. Separate analyses of 16S and Cytb showed intermixing of the species and 16S was found more conserved than Cytb. The D-loop was found highly variable and showed length variation between and within species. Length variation was observed in di-nucleotide (TA)n microsatellite repeats with a variable number of repeat units (n = 7-14) that did not show heteroplasmy. Central conserved sequence blocks (CSBs) in D-loop sequences were found comparable to other vertebrate species. All phylogenetic reconstructions recovered the focal taxa as a monophyletic clade within the schizothoracines. Analyses with combined mitochondrial data sets showed close genetic relationships of all the five species. In addition to a close relationship between S. niger and S. curvifrons, two distinct groupings of S. ecoscinus and S. plagiostomus were supported by all the analyses. This study gives an insight into molecular phylogeny of the species and improves our understanding of historical and taxonomic relationships derived from morphological and ecological studies.


Assuntos
Evolução Biológica , Cyprinidae/classificação , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Cyprinidae/genética , Citocromos b/genética , Índia , Funções Verossimilhança , Repetições de Microssatélites , Modelos Genéticos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Análise de Sequência de DNA
11.
Afr J Paediatr Surg ; 7(2): 81-5, 2010 May-Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20431216

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Small bowel obstruction is the commonest surgical emergency encountered in childhood. We observed that intestinal obstruction caused by ascariasis is one of the leading causes of death in our children and consumes a major portion of our hospital resources. Other causes include intussusception, adhesions, volvulus, hernias, and worm obstruction. The aim of this study was to analyze the presentation, diagnosis, management of mechanical bowel and complication of obstruction in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study was conducted from Jan 2005 to Dec 2007 in the Department of Pediatric Surgery at Sheri-Kashmir Institute of Medical Sciences, Srinagar, Kashmir. All patients who presented in the emergency department with the diagnosis of intestinal obstruction were recruited. Patients with a dynamic obstruction were excluded from the study. Diagnosis was based on history and radiological findings. Data regarding the type of management, operative findings, operative procedure and post-operative complications were collected. RESULTS: There were 207 patients admitted for intestinal obstruction. Males and females were equally affected. Most of the children (55%) were aged 3-5 years. The causes of obstruction included ascariasis 131 (63.2%), adhesion 23 (11.1%), intussusception 21 (10.1%), obstructed hernia 17 (8.2%), and volvulus 11 (5.3%). One hundred twenty-six patients needed an operative intervention and 81 were treated conservatively. The operative procedures performed included enterotomy in 37 (29.3%), milking of worms in 18 (14.2%), resection anastomosis in 31 (24.6%) and adhesiolysis in 13 (10.3%). Appendicular perforation was seen in 4 (1.9%) and worm in gall bladder in 1 (0.5%) patients. Surgical complications were wound infection in 18 (14.2%), burst abdomen in 5 (3.9%) and fecal fistula in 3 (2.3%) patients. CONCLUSION: Intestinal obstruction is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality in children. Obstruction by ascariasis constituted the majority of intestinal obstruction in this study. Efforts should be made to eradicate ascariasis in endemic areas through proper sanitation, hygiene and use of antihelminthics.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/métodos , Obstrução Intestinal/diagnóstico , Obstrução Intestinal/etiologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Adolescente , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Ascaríase/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Obstrução Intestinal/epidemiologia , Obstrução Intestinal/cirurgia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Pediatr Surg Int ; 25(12): 1099-102, 2009 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19760197

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ascariasis is the commonest intestinal nematodal infestation in man. Ascariasis commonly inhabits small bowel although it can migrate to biliary tree and other orifices. The aim of this study is to analyze the presentation, diagnosis, management of bowel obstruction caused by Ascaris lumbricoides and to study various surgical complications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients, 3-14 years of age, who attended the emergency department with diagnosis of intestinal obstruction were screened. Out of these patients with diagnosis of ascariasis based on history of passage of worms per mouth or rectum, X-ray or ultrasonography were followed for a minimum of 6 months. Data regarding the type of management, operative findings, operative procedure and post-operative complications were noted. RESULT: Out of 207 patients who were admitted with the diagnosis of intestinal obstruction, 131 were diagnosed as having obstruction due to ascariasis. Most of the patients were 3-5 years of age. Males and females were equally affected. 64 patients needed an operative intervention. Enterotomy was the commonest procedure followed by milking of worms and resection anastomosis. Appendicular perforation was seen in four and worm in gall bladder in one patient. Surgical complications were wound infection in 17, burst abdomen in four and fecal fistula in three patients. CONCLUSION: Round worm obstruction should be considered as the first differential diagnosis in any patient of intestinal obstruction in an endemic area like ours. Although most cases are managed conservatively, many patients still need surgical intervention. Efforts should be made toward eradication of this disease by proper sanitation, hygiene and the use of antihelminthics.


Assuntos
Ascaríase/complicações , Hospitais de Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Obstrução Intestinal/etiologia , Adolescente , Animais , Ascaríase/diagnóstico , Ascaríase/epidemiologia , Ascaris/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Índia/epidemiologia , Obstrução Intestinal/diagnóstico , Obstrução Intestinal/epidemiologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Phytochemistry ; 67(2): 171-7, 2006 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16324730

RESUMO

The secondary metabolite contents and genetic profiles of six Hypericum species (H. barbatum Jacq., H. hirsutum L., H. linarioides Bosse, H. maculatum Crantz, H. rumeliacum Boiss. and H. tetrapterum Fries), collected from different locations in Serbia, have been analyzed. Methanol extracts of the aerial parts of the plants were obtained by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) at 40 degrees C and 100 bar, and analyzed for five pharmacologically important standard constituents (hyperoside, quercitrin, pseudohypericin, hyperforin and hypericin) by LC-MS/MS. The highest content of hypericin and pseudohypericin was observed in the H. barbatum extract, while the highest content of hyperforin and quercitrin was found in the H. tetrapterum extract and the highest content of hyperoside in the H. maculatum extract. A literature survey shows that the above six Hypericum species, with the exception of H. maculatum, have not been previously genetically profiled. In order to correlate the chemical constituents of the species under investigation with their genetic factors, genetic profiling of these species was undertaken using the random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and single sequence repeat (SSR) profiles of the above selected plants. Among the 52 random primers used for the initial screening, only 10 yielded polymorphic RAPD profiles. A total of 111 polymorphic markers were generated using these primers. The SSR analysis shows that 8 out of the 10 primers used were polymorphic. The correlation among the species under investigation using the two genetic markers was performed using Jaccuard's coefficients of similarity and a high correlation (r=0.99) was obtained. The main conclusion from the above data is that there exists a stronger correlation for secondary metabolite contents with RAPD data than with SSR data among the six Hypericum species from Serbia.


Assuntos
Hypericum/química , Hypericum/genética , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , DNA/química , DNA/genética , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/genética , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico , Especificidade da Espécie , Iugoslávia
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