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1.
J Adv Res ; 39: 119-133, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35777902

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: There has been limited research conducted on the identifications/methodological approaches of using plant species as indicators of the presence of economically, important mineral resources. OBJECTIVES: This study set out to answer the following questions (1) Do specific plant species and species assemblages indicate the presence of mineral deposits? and (2) if yes, then what sort of ecological, experimental, and statistical procedures could be employed to identify such indicators? METHODS: Keeping in mind these questions, the vegetation of subtropical mineral mines sites in northern Pakistan were evaluated using Indicator Species Analysis (ISA), Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). RESULTS: A total of 105 plant species belonging to 95 genera and 43 families were recorded from the three mining regions. CA and TWCA classified all the stations and plants into three major mining zones, corresponding to the presence of marble, coal, and chromite, based on Jaccard distance and Ward's linkage methods. This comprehended the following indicator species: Ficuscarica, Isodonrugosus and Ajugaparviflora (marble indicators); Oleaferruginea, Gymnosporiaroyleana and Diclipterabupleuroides (coal indicators); and Acacianilotica, Rhazyastricta and Aristidaadscensionis (chromite indicators) based on calculated Indicator Values (IV). These indicators were reconfirmed by CCA and SEM analysis. CONCLUSION: It was concluded that ISA is one of the best techniques for the identification/selection of plant indicator species, followed by reconfirmation via CCA and SEM analysis. In addition to establishing a robust approach to identifying plant indicator species, our results could have application in mineral prospecting and detection.


Assuntos
Carbonato de Cálcio , Minerais , Movimento Celular , Carvão Mineral , Ligação Genética , Humanos
2.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 12(12)2022 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35745355

RESUMO

Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles (MSNs) have received increasing attention in biomedical applications due to their tuneable pore size, surface area, size, surface chemistry, and thermal stability. The biocompatibility of MSNs, although generally believed to be satisfactory, is unclear. Physicochemical properties of MSNs, such as diameter size, morphology, and surface charge, control their biological interactions and toxicity. Experimental conditions also play an essential role in influencing toxicological results. Therefore, the present study includes studies from the last five years to statistically analyse the effect of various physicochemical features on MSN-induced in-vitro cytotoxicity profiles. Due to non-normally distributed data and the presence of outliers, a Kruskal-Wallis H test was conducted on different physicochemical characteristics, including diameter sizes, zeta-potential measurements, and functionalisation of MSNs, based on the viability results, and statistical differences were obtained. Subsequently, pairwise comparisons were performed using Dunn's procedure with a Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. Other experimental parameters, such as type of cell line used, cell viability measurement assay, and incubation time, were also explored and analysed for statistically significant results.

3.
J Clin Sleep Med ; 18(8): 1909-1919, 2022 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499151

RESUMO

STUDY OBJECTIVES: Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have a disproportionate increase in postoperative complications and medical emergency team activation (META). We previously introduced DOISNORE50 (Diseases, Observed apnea, Insomnia, Snoring, Neck circumference > 18 inches, Obesity with BMI > 32, R = are you male, Excessive daytime sleepiness, 50 = age ≥ 50) from sleep questionnaire ISNORED using features associated with increased odds of META in perioperative patients. Performance of DOISNORE50 (DOISNORE) had yet to be tested. METHODS: The performance of DOISNORE was tested along with questionnaire ISNORED and STOP-BANG questionnaires among 300 out of 392 participants without known OSA referred to the sleep lab. In study 2, the performance of DOISNORE was tested among 64,949 lives screened in perioperative assessment clinic from 2016 to 2020. RESULTS: Receiver operating characteristic curve demonstrated that best performance was achieved with responses, with area under curve of 0.801. DOISNORE's predictability of OSA risk remained stable from 2018 to 2020 with area under curve of 0.78 and a Cronbach alpha of 0.65. Patients at high risk for OSA (DOISNORE ≥ 6) were associated with an increase of META (odds ratio 1.30, 95% confidence interval 1.12-1.45). Higher relative risk was noted among patients with congestive heart failure and hypercapnia. CONCLUSIONS: DOISNORE is predictive of OSA and postoperative META. Perioperative strategies against META should consider DOISNORE questionnaire and focused screening among patients with heart failure and hypercapnia. CITATION: Namen AM, Forest D, Saha AK, et al. DOISNORE50: a perioperative sleep questionnaire predictive of obstructive sleep apnea and postoperative medical emergency team activation. A learning health system approach to sleep questionnaire development and screening. J Clin Sleep Med. 2022;18(8):1909-1919.


Assuntos
Sistema de Aprendizagem em Saúde , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Humanos , Hipercapnia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Polissonografia , Sono , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/diagnóstico , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 13(4)2022 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457946

RESUMO

Three dimensional printing (3DP), or additive manufacturing, is an exponentially growing process in the fabrication of various technologies with applications in sectors such as electronics, biomedical, pharmaceutical and tissue engineering. Micro and nano scale printing is encouraging the innovation of the aforementioned sectors, due to the ability to control design, material and chemical properties at a highly precise level, which is advantageous in creating a high surface area to volume ratio and altering the overall products' mechanical and physical properties. In this review, micro/-nano printing technology, mainly related to lithography, inkjet and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) printing and their biomedical and electronic applications will be discussed. The current limitations to micro/-nano printing methods will be examined, covering the difficulty in achieving controlled structures at the miniscule micro and nano scale required for specific applications.

6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(30): 46118-46126, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35165842

RESUMO

The uncontrolled industrialization and unrestricted textile production combined with inappropriate effluent treatment services in developing countries like Pakistan have multiplied the number of harmful effluent discharge. These effluents are enriched with dyes, heavy metal ions, and other hazardous materials that are poisonous and carcinogenic to living organisms. For that reason, the utilization of economic and efficient control techniques against such pollutants is imperative to protect natural resources. The triple algal role for phycoremediation of textile effluent was utilized in this study to make it suitable for irrigation and higher biofuel production. Locally isolated two strains, CKW1 (Spirogyra sp.) and PKS33 (Cladophora sp.), were used to treat the effluent collected from the direct outlets of the textile industries. The treated effluent was then tested for its toxicity and applied to wheat at initial stage grown under axenic conditions to check its effect on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) vegetative growth and development. Finally, the algal biomass obtained after treatment was subjected to trans-esterification for predicting the amount of biodiesel production. Study outcomes revealed that the algal strains were able to decolorize the effluent entirely within 96-120 h. Compared to un-treated textile effluent, the phycoremediated wastewater application to wheat plants enhanced the plant biomass by 80%. Lastly, the production of biodiesel from algal biomass attained after phycoremediation was 35% less to algal biomass obtained under normal growth conditions. It can be concluded that the algal use helps to treat the contaminated effluent and marks them re-usable for irrigating plants and producing biomass which could be utilized for biodiesel production.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Metais Pesados , Biomassa , Têxteis , Triticum , Águas Residuárias
7.
Int J Pharm ; 616: 121512, 2022 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35085730

RESUMO

The study aimed to fabricate naproxen sodium loaded in-situ gels of sodium alginate. Different in-situ gel forming solutions of naproxen sodium and sodium alginate were prepared and gel formation was studied in different physiological ions i.e., CaCl2 and Ca-gluconate. The prepared gel formulations were evaluated for different physical attributes such as gelation time, sol-gel fraction, ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and in silico molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Drug release studies were carried out in a dialysis membrane using USP dissolution basket apparatus-I. In vivo anti-inflammatory studies were performed in Sprague-Dawley rats having carrageenan-induced hind paw inflammation. Higher polymer concentration in formulations resulted in decreased gelation time and an increased gel fraction. The ATR-FTIR and MD simulation revealed H-bonding between the alginate and naproxen sodium at 3500-3200 cm-1 with a RMSD of ∼2.8 Å and binding free energy ΔGpred (GB) = -10.93 kcal/mol. In vitro drug release studies from F8CAG suggested a sustained release of naproxen sodium. In vivo studies revealed a continuous decrease in swelling degree (≈-5.28 ± 0.210 mm) in inflamed hind paw of Sprague-Dawley rats over 96 h. The in-situ gel forming injectable preparation (F8CAG) offers a sustained release of naproxen sodium in the articular cavity which promises the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions such as arthritis.


Assuntos
Naproxeno , Diálise Renal , Animais , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Géis/química , Naproxeno/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
8.
Microsc Res Tech ; 85(2): 755-766, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570406

RESUMO

Rusts comprises the largest natural group of plant pathogens including approximately 8% of all described Fungi. Rust fungi are extremely plant pathogens responsible for great losses to agriculture productivity. Rust species belong to several genera among which more than half are Puccinia species. In Pakistan, rust causes severe damage to agriculture crops. Current study was carried out to identify and characterize different rust species common in the research area through microscopy and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Morpho-anatomical investigation of each collected rust species was carried out using different standard protocols. The dimensions of spores were measured and snapped under a stereomicroscope. SEM was used to examine the shape, size, and ornamentation of the spores of each rust fungus. Results revealed documentation of seven rust fungi, that is, Melampsora euphorbiae, Phragmidium barclayi, Puccinia nepalensis, P. exhausta, P. menthae, Uromyces capitatus, and Uromyces decorates belong to four different genera, were recorded. SEM revealed that spermogonia and Aecia were missing in most of the rust fungus studied. Uredinia was found in a scattered, irregular, lengthy, and epidermis-enclosed form. Urediniospores were found to be ovulating, elongated, echinulate, globose to sub-globose, ellipsoid to ovoid, and globose to sub-globose. Telia was found as sub-epidermal, amphigenous, dispersed, minute, and spherical cells. Teliospores ranged in form from cylindrical to oblong. The germ pores were detected in both apical (top cell) and basal (bottom cell) idiosyncratic and pedicel-attached cells. The techniques used in the current investigation will aid mycologists in rust identification and microscopic characterization.


Assuntos
Fungos , Doenças das Plantas , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Paquistão
9.
Biology (Basel) ; 10(12)2021 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34943263

RESUMO

The study aims to assess the efficacy of using collagen membrane in the treatment of distal periodontal defects of mandibular second molars following the removal of mesioangularly or horizontally impacted mandibular third molars surgically. Forty sites in twenty patients with bilaterally impacted mandibular third molars (mesioangular or horizontal) were considered for the study. In 20 test sites (Group A), after surgical removal of the mandibular third molar, a resorbable collagen membrane barrier was placed on the distal aspect of the mandibular second molar to cover the post-surgical bone defect. In the other control 20 sites (Group B), the same surgical procedure was repeated without placing any membrane barrier. The clinical parameters recorded were Oral Hygiene Index Simplified (OHI-S), Probing pocket depth (PPD), Clinical attachment level (CAL), and radiographic assessment of alveolar bone level (ABL). OHI-S score of most of the patients was observed to be satisfactory. Group A was observed to achieve a statistically significant reduction in PPD, CAL, and ABL gain compared to Group B. The improvements indicated that the use of collagen membrane facilitates early wound stabilization and promotes primary closure of the defect. This recovery is achieved through its unique property to assist fibrinogenesis over osteoconduction. Further longitudinal studies are needed to confirm the present findings.

10.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 469, 2021 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34952633

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The use of benchtop metabolic profiling technology based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was evaluated in a small cohort of cats with a view to applying this as a viable and rapid metabolic tool to support clinical decision making. RESULTS: Urinary metabolites were analysed from four subjects consisting of two healthy controls and two chronic kidney disease (CKD) IRIS stage 2 cases. The study identified 15 metabolites in cats with CKD that were different from the controls. Among them were acetate, creatinine, citrate, taurine, glycine, serine and threonine. Benchtop NMR technology is capable of distinguishing between chronic kidney disease case and control samples in a pilot feline cohort based on metabolic profile. We offer perspectives on the further development of this pilot work and the potential of the technology, when combined with sample databases and computational intelligence techniques to offer a clinical decision support tool not only for cases of renal disease but other metabolic conditions in the future.


Assuntos
Metabolômica , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Animais , Gatos , Creatinina , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metaboloma
11.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2021: 5514220, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34819990

RESUMO

A vast amount of data is generated every second for microblogs, content sharing via social media sites, and social networking. Twitter is an essential popular microblog where people voice their opinions about daily issues. Recently, analyzing these opinions is the primary concern of Sentiment analysis or opinion mining. Efficiently capturing, gathering, and analyzing sentiments have been challenging for researchers. To deal with these challenges, in this research work, we propose a highly accurate approach for SA of fake news on COVID-19. The fake news dataset contains fake news on COVID-19; we started by data preprocessing (replace the missing value, noise removal, tokenization, and stemming). We applied a semantic model with term frequency and inverse document frequency weighting for data representation. In the measuring and evaluation step, we applied eight machine-learning algorithms such as Naive Bayesian, Adaboost, K-nearest neighbors, random forest, logistic regression, decision tree, neural networks, and support vector machine and four deep learning CNN, LSTM, RNN, and GRU. Afterward, based on the results, we boiled a highly efficient prediction model with python, and we trained and evaluated the classification model according to the performance measures (confusion matrix, classification rate, true positives rate...), then tested the model on a set of unclassified fake news on COVID-19, to predict the sentiment class of each fake news on COVID-19. Obtained results demonstrate a high accuracy compared to the other models. Finally, a set of recommendations is provided with future directions for this research to help researchers select an efficient sentiment analysis model on Twitter data.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , COVID-19 , Aprendizado Profundo , Teorema de Bayes , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Factuais , Árvores de Decisões , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Modelos Estatísticos , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Redes Neurais de Computação , SARS-CoV-2 , Mídias Sociais , Rede Social , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
12.
Molecules ; 26(21)2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34770985

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is characterized by excessive osteoclastic activity, which is closely associated with inflammation. It is well established that MAPK/NF-kB axis is a key signaling pathway engaged in osteoclast differentiation. It is stated that that biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) and platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) have significant antiostoeclastogenic effects in chronic periodontitis. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to elucidate the synergetic effect of PRF/BCP involvement of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-kB) and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in osteoclast differentiation in chronic periodontitis. METHODS: We induced osteoclast differentiation in vitro using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from patients with chronic periodontitis. We assessed osteoclast generation by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, proinflammatory cytokines were investigated by ELISA and NF-κB, and IKB by immunoblot, respectively. MAPK proteins and osteoclast transcription factors were studied by Western blot analysis and osteoclast transcriptional genes were assessed by RT-PCR. RESULTS: The results showed that the potent inhibitory effect of PRF/BCP on osteoclastogenesis was evidenced by decreased TRAP activity and the expression of transcription factors, NFATc1, c-Fos, and the osteoclast marker genes, TRAP, MMP-9, and cathepsin-K were found to be reduced. Further, the protective effect of PRF/BCP on inflammation-mediated osteoclastogenesis in chronic periodontitis was shown by decreased levels of proinflammatory cytokines, NF-kB, IKB, and MAPK proteins. CONCLUSIONS: PRF/BCP may promote a synergetic combination that could be used as a strong inhibitor of inflammation-induced osteoclastogenesis in chronic periodontitis.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Hidroxiapatitas/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Fibrina Rica em Plaquetas/metabolismo , Adulto , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Periodontite Crônica/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Osteoclastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoclastos/metabolismo
13.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257493, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34614011

RESUMO

Plant species represent the hierarchical expression of vegetation as it is affected by various environmental gradients. We explored the plant species composition, distribution pattern, communities formation and their respective indicators under the influence of various environmental factors in the Dhirkot region, Azad Jammu and Kashmir. It was hypothesized that different environmental factors were responsible for the formation of various plant communities each with a distinct indicator. Quantitative ecological techniques were used for the sampling of vegetation. A total of 114 quadrats were established in 13 selected sampling sites. Phytosociological attributes were calculated for each plant species at each quadrat. Soil samples were collected and analyzed using different standard protocols. All the collected data were analyzed using Cluster Analysis, Indicator Species Analysis and Canonical Correspondence Analysis of PCORD and CANOCO software, respectively. A total of 145 plant species were recorded belong to 62 different families. Asteraceae and Lamiaceae were the dominant families, represented by 12 species each (8.27%). Cluster Analysis classify all the stations and plants into four major plant communities as 1) Olea-Desmodium-Prunilla community. 2) Abies-Zanthoxylum-Pteracanthus community 3) Cedrus-Elaeagnus-Hypericum community 4) Alnus-Myrsine-Ranunculus community. Soil pH, electrical conductivity, soil saturation, organic matter and altitude were the significant environmental factors that play its essential role in the plant species distribution, composition, formation of major plant communities and their respective indicators in the region. It is recommended that the identified indicator and rare plant species of the investigated area can further be grown for conservation and management purposes in in-situ environment.


Assuntos
Plantas , Solo/química , Altitude , Asteraceae/fisiologia , Botânica , Lamiaceae/classificação , Lamiaceae/fisiologia , Paquistão , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais , Plantas/classificação
14.
Pak J Med Sci ; 37(5): 1440-1444, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475927

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare safety and number of post-operative visits of patients in convenient day versus conventional first day follow-up after phacoemulsification. METHODS: This observational cohort study was conducted in Department of ophthalmology, Sahiwal Medical College, Sahiwal from November 2019 to August 2020. There were 600 patients who underwent uncomplicated phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation. Patients were allocated into two groups. Group-I comprised of patients with convenient day follow-up during the first post-operative week. Group-II comprised of the patients with conventional first day follow-up. Rate of complications, number of visits during the first month and final visual acuity were recorded. RESULTS: In Group-I post-operative complications were noted in 12.67% cases on first follow up visit and in 2.67% cases on first month follow up visit. In Group-II post-operative complication were noted in 22 % cases on first follow up visit and in 4% cases on first month follow up visit. Common postoperative complications were corneal oedema, anterior segment intraocular inflammation, residual lens matter in anterior chamber and intraocular lens subluxation. There was no difference in presenting and postoperative visual acuity between the two groups. Mean follow-up visits were 2.23 ± 0.42 in Group-I and 3.55 ± 0.50 in Group-II. CONCLUSION: Convenient day follow-up is as safe as conventional first day follow-up. Convenient day follow-up significantly reduces the number of post-operative visits. This would translate into cost reduction both for the patients and the health care facility.

15.
Mol Cell Biochem ; 476(11): 4133-4137, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312783

RESUMO

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a renal dysfunction that can lead to high rates of mortality and morbidity, particularly when coupled with late diagnosis. CKD has become a major health problem due to its challenging detection at early stages when clear symptoms are yet to be presented. Thus, CKD is likely to be identified when the substantive conditions of the disease are manifest. In order to address the development of the disease and provide necessary treatments at the initial stage, the investigation of new biomarkers and metabolites associated with early detection of CKD are needed. Identified metabolites could be used to confirm the presence of the disease, obtain information on its mechanism and facilitate the development of novel pharmaceutical treatments. Such metabolites may be detected from biofluids and tissues using a range of analytical techniques. There are a number of metabolites that have been identified by mass spectrometry at high sensitivities, whilst the detection of metabolites directly from biofluids using NMR could present a more rapid way to expand our understanding of this disease. This review is focused on NMR-based metabolomics associated with CKD in humans and animals.


Assuntos
Saúde Única , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Diagnóstico Precoce , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia
16.
Eur J Pharm Sci ; 165: 105955, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298141

RESUMO

In the present study, a multi-component system comprised of dipalmitylphospatidylcholine (DPPC), Chitosan, Lactose, and L-Leucine was developed for pulmonary delivery. Microparticles were engineered by the spray drying process and the selection of the critical parameters was performed by applying experimental design. The microcarriers with the appropriate size and yield were co-formulated with two active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), namely, Formoterol fumarate and Budesonide, and they were further investigated. All formulations exhibited spherical shape, appropriate aerodynamic performance, satisfying entrapment efficiency, and drug load. Their physicochemical properties were evaluated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The aerodynamic particle size characterization was determined using an eight-stage Andersen cascade impactor, whereas the release of the actives was monitored in vitro in simulated lung fluid. Additional evaluation of the microparticles' mucoadhesive properties was performed by ζ-potential measurements and ex vivo mucoadhesion study applying a falling liquid film method using porcine lung tissue. Cytotoxicity and cellular uptake studies in Calu-3 lung epithelial cell line were conducted to further investigate the safety and efficacy of the developed formulations.


Assuntos
Budesonida , Administração por Inalação , Animais , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Composição de Medicamentos , Fumarato de Formoterol , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Tamanho da Partícula , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Suínos
17.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 175: 113823, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089777

RESUMO

Advancements in technology and material development in recent years has led to significant breakthroughs in the remit of fiber engineering. Conventional methods such as wet spinning, melt spinning, phase separation and template synthesis have been reported to develop fibrous structures for an array of applications. However, these methods have limitations with respect to processing conditions (e.g. high processing temperatures, shear stresses) and production (e.g. non-continuous fibers). The materials that can be processed using these methods are also limited, deterring their use in practical applications. Producing fibrous structures on a nanometer scale, in sync with the advancements in nanotechnology is another challenge met by these conventional methods. In this review we aim to present a brief overview of conventional methods of fiber fabrication and focus on the emerging fiber engineering techniques namely electrospinning, centrifugal spinning and pressurised gyration. This review will discuss the fundamental principles and factors governing each fabrication method and converge on the applications of the resulting spun fibers; specifically, in the drug delivery remit and in regenerative medicine.


Assuntos
Engenharia Biomédica/métodos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Ciência dos Materiais/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Medicina Regenerativa/métodos , Centrifugação , Fenômenos Eletromagnéticos , Humanos , Pressão
18.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 178: 113840, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147533

RESUMO

Tablets are the most widely utilized solid oral dosage forms because of the advantages of self-administration, stability, ease of handling, transportation, and good patient compliance. Over time, extensive advances have been made in tableting technology. This review aims to provide an insight about the advances in tablet excipients, manufacturing, analytical techniques and deployment of Quality by Design (QbD). Various excipients offering novel functionalities such as solubility enhancement, super-disintegration, taste masking and drug release modifications have been developed. Furthermore, co-processed multifunctional ready-to-use excipients, particularly for tablet dosage forms, have benefitted manufacturing with shorter processing times. Advances in granulation methods, including moist, thermal adhesion, steam, melt, freeze, foam, reverse wet and pneumatic dry granulation, have been proposed to improve product and process performance. Furthermore, methods for particle engineering including hot melt extrusion, extrusion-spheronization, injection molding, spray drying / congealing, co-precipitation and nanotechnology-based approaches have been employed to produce robust tablet formulations. A wide range of tableting technologies including rapidly disintegrating, matrix, tablet-in-tablet, tablet-in-capsule, multilayer tablets and multiparticulate systems have been developed to achieve customized formulation performance. In addition to conventional invasive characterization methods, novel techniques based on laser, tomography, fluorescence, spectroscopy and acoustic approaches have been developed to assess the physical-mechanical attributes of tablet formulations in a non- or minimally invasive manner. Conventional UV-Visible spectroscopy method has been improved (e.g. fiber-optic probes and UV imaging-based approaches) to efficiently record the dissolution profile of tablet formulations. Numerous modifications in tableting presses have also been made to aid machine product changeover, cleaning, and enhance efficiency and productivity. Various process analytical technologies have been employed to track the formulation properties and critical process parameters. These advances will contribute to a strategy for robust tablet dosage forms with excellent performance attributes.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Tecnologia Farmacêutica , Administração Oral , Composição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem
19.
J Hazard Mater ; 414: 125451, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34030399

RESUMO

The current paper evaluates the phytoremediation ability and physiological responses of selected resistant plant species to the hazardous levels of elements in the marble waste polluted ecosystem. Preliminary results demonstrate that all the indicator/resistant plant species i.e., Ailanthus altissima, Arundo donax, Cynodon dactylon, Erigeron canadensis, Cannabis sativa, Ficus carica, Lathyrus aphaca, Morus alba, Populus alba, Robinia pseudoacacia and Vitex negundo were the best Phyto-extractors and Phyto-stabilizers for most of the heavy metals in general and Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu and Na in particular (at p < 0.05). Structural Equation Modeling confirmed that marble waste pollution has a direct and significant (R2 =0.80) impact on proline synthesis and hence a role in combating the pollution. Chlorophyll content decreased by 4% in studied plant species when the concentration of pollutants increased. It is concluded that the studied bio-indicators - the abundant plant species of the Marble Waste Polluted Systems (MWPS) have a significant role in its remediation. Increasing proline accumulation and decreasing chlorophyll contents with an increase in pollution in the studied plants show resilience of the ecosystem in response to the external lithospheric toxicities. It is recommended that the recognized plant species could be planted abundantly to remediate the MWPS around the marble processing and other such industries and their catchments.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carbonato de Cálcio , Ecossistema , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Política , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade
20.
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 176: 113788, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33957180

RESUMO

Electrohydrodynamic atomisation (EHDA) technologies have evolved significantly over the past decade; branching into several established and emerging healthcare remits through timely advances in the engineering sciences and tailored conceptual process designs. More specifically for pharmaceutical and drug delivery spheres, electrospraying (ES) has presented itself as a high value technique enabling a plethora of different particulate structures. However, when coupled with novel formulations (e.g. co-flows) and innovative device aspects (e.g., materials and dimensions), core characteristics of particulates are manipulated and engineered specifically to deliver an application driven need, which is currently lacking, ranging from imaging and targeted delivery to controlled release and sensing. This demonstrates the holistic nature of these emerging technologies; which is often overlooked. Parametric driven control during particle engineering via the ES method yields opportunistic properties when compared to conventional methods, albeit at ambient conditions (e.g., temperature and pressure), making this extremely valuable for sensitive biologics and molecules of interest. Furthermore, several processing (e.g., flow rate, applied voltage and working distance) and solution (e.g., polymer concentration, electrical conductivity and surface tension) parameters impact ES modes and greatly influence the production of resulting particles. The formation of a steady cone-jet and subsequent atomisation during ES fabricates particles demonstrating monodispersity (or near monodispersed), narrow particle size distributions and smooth or textured morphologies; all of which are successfully incorporated in a one-step process. By following a controlled ES regime, tailored particles with various intricate structures (hollow microspheres, nanocups, Janus and cell-mimicking nanoparticles) can also be engineered through process head modifications central to the ES technique (single-needle spraying, coaxial, multi-needle and needleless approaches). Thus, intricate formulation design, set-up and combinatorial engineering of the EHDA process delivers particulate structures with a multitude of applications in tissue engineering, theranostics, bioresponsive systems as well as drug dosage forms for specific delivery to diseased or target tissues. This advanced technology has great potential to be implemented commercially, particularly on the industrial scale for several unmet pharmaceutical and medical challenges and needs. This review focuses on key seminal developments, ending with future perspectives addressing obstacles that need to be addressed for future advancement.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Desenho de Fármacos , Tecnologia Farmacêutica/métodos , Animais , Condutividade Elétrica , Eletroquímica , Humanos , Hidrodinâmica , Tamanho da Partícula , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Polímeros/química
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