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1.
Toxicol Lett ; 349: 12-29, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089816

RESUMO

The cholestatic liver injury could occur in response to a variety of diseases or xenobiotics. Although cholestasis primarily affects liver function, it has been well-known that other organs such as the kidney could be influenced in cholestatic patients. Severe cholestasis could lead to tissue fibrosis and organ failure. Unfortunately, there is no specific therapeutic option against cholestasis-induced organ injury. Hence, finding the mechanism of organ injury during cholestasis could lead to therapeutic options against this complication. The accumulation of potentially cytotoxic compounds such as hydrophobic bile acids is the most suspected mechanism involved in the pathogenesis of cholestasis-induced organ injury. A plethora of evidence indicates a role for the inflammatory response in the pathogenesis of several human diseases. Here, the role of nuclear factor-kB (NFkB)-mediated inflammatory response is investigated in an animal model of cholestasis. Bile duct ligated (BDL) animals were treated with sulfasalazine (SSLZ, 10 and 100 mg/kg, i.p) as a potent inhibitor of NFkB signaling. The NFkB proteins family activity in the liver and kidney, serum and tissue levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, tissue biomarkers of oxidative stress, serum markers of organ injury, and the liver and kidney histopathological alterations and fibrotic changes. The oxidative stress-mediated inflammatory-related indices were monitored in the kidney and liver at scheduled time intervals (3, 7, and 14 days after BDL operation). Significant increase in serum and urine markers of organ injury, besides changes in biomarkers of oxidative stress and tissue histopathology, were evident in the liver and kidney of BDL animals. The activity of NFkB proteins (p65, p50, p52, c-Rel, and RelB) was significantly increased in the liver and kidney of cholestatic animals. Serum and tissue levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-6, IL-7, IL-12, IL-17, IL-18, IL-23, TNF-α, and INF-γ) were also higher than sham-operated animals. Moreover, TGF- ß, α-SMA, and tissue fibrosis (Trichrome stain) were evident in cholestatic animals' liver and kidneys. It was found that SSLZ (10 and 100 mg/kg/day, i.p) alleviated cholestasis-induced hepatic and renal injury. The effect of SSLZ on NFkB signaling and suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines could play a significant role in its protective role in cholestasis. Based on these data, NFkB signaling could receive special attention to develop therapeutic options to blunt cholestasis-induced organ injury.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Colestase/tratamento farmacológico , Citocinas/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Nefropatias/prevenção & controle , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/antagonistas & inibidores , Sulfassalazina/farmacologia , Animais , Colestase/metabolismo , Colestase/patologia , Ducto Colédoco/cirurgia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação para Baixo , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Nefropatias/metabolismo , Nefropatias/patologia , Ligadura , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais
2.
Adv Pharm Bull ; 9(2): 294-301, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31380256

RESUMO

Purpose: Manganese (Mn) is a neurotoxic chemical which induces a wide range of complications in the brain tissue. Impaired locomotor activity and cognitive dysfunction are associated with high brain Mn content. At the cellular level, mitochondria are potential targets for Mn toxicity. Carnosine is a dipeptide abundantly found in human brain. Several pharmacological properties including mitochondrial protecting and antioxidative effects have been attributed to carnosine. The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of carnosine treatment on Mn-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in isolated brain mitochondria. Methods: Mice brain mitochondria were isolated based on the differential centrifugation method and exposed to increasing concentrations of Mn (10 µM-10 mM). Carnosine (1 mM) was added as the protective agent. Mitochondrial indices including mitochondrial depolarization, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial dehydrogenases activity, ATP content, and mitochondrial swelling and permeabilization were assessed. Results: Significant deterioration in mitochondrial indices were evident in Mn-exposed brain mitochondria. On the other hand, it was found that carnosine (1 mM) treatment efficiently prevented Mn-induced mitochondrial impairment. Conclusion: These data propose mitochondrial protection as a fundamental mechanism for the effects of carnosine against Mn toxicity. Hence, this peptide might be applicable against Mn neurotoxicity with different etiologies (e.g., in cirrhotic patients).

3.
J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol ; 30(1): 91-101, 2018 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30205645

RESUMO

Background Proline is a proteinogenic amino acid with multiple biological functions. Several investigations have been supposed that cellular proline accumulation is a stress response mechanism. This amino acid acts as an osmoregulator, scavenges free radical species, boosts cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms, protects mitochondria, and promotes energy production. The current study was designed to investigate the effect of proline treatment on the liver in bile duct ligated (BDL) rats as an animal model of cholestasis/cirrhosis. Methods BDL rats were supplemented with proline-containing drinking water (0.25% and 0.5% w:v), and samples were collected at scheduled time intervals (3, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days after BDL surgery). Results Drastic elevation in the serum level of liver injury biomarkers and significant tissue histopathological changes were evident in BDL rats. Markers of oxidative stress were also higher in the liver of BDL animals. It was found that proline supplementation attenuated BDL-induced alteration in serum biomarkers of liver injury, mitigated liver histopathological changes, and alleviated markers of oxidative stress at the early stage of BDL operation (3, 7, and 14 days after BDL surgery). Conclusions The hepatoprotection provided by proline in BDL animals might be associated with its ability to attenuate oxidative stress and its consequences.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/tratamento farmacológico , Falência Hepática Aguda/prevenção & controle , Prolina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Ductos Biliares/efeitos dos fármacos , Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Ductos Biliares/patologia , Ligadura/efeitos adversos , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática Biliar/patologia , Falência Hepática Aguda/metabolismo , Falência Hepática Aguda/patologia , Masculino , Prolina/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
4.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 107: 834-840, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30142545

RESUMO

Methotrexate is a folate analog used against a wide range of diseases including malignancies and autoimmune disorders. On the other hand, clinical use of the MTX is associated with kidney injury and renal failure. There is no clear mechanism for MTX-induced renal injury. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the role of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of MTX-induced renal injury. Rats received MTX (a single dose of 20 or 30 mg/kg, i.p). Five days after MTX administration, serum biomarkers of kidney injury and tissue markers of oxidative stress were assessed. Moreover, kidney mitochondria were isolated, and several mitochondrial indices were determined. MTX-treated animals developed biochemical evidence of renal injury as judged by elevated serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr) and along with hypokalemia, hypophosphatemia, hypocalcemia, and a decrease in serum glucose, and uric acid. Moreover, MTX caused an increase in kidney reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation. Renal glutathione reservoirs were also depleted, and tissue antioxidant capacity was decreased in MTX-treated animals. Kidney histopathological changes including interstitial inflammation, renal tubular degeneration, retraction glomeruli, and vascular congestion were also evident in MTX-treated rats. On the other hand, it was found that mitochondrial parameters including mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial dehydrogenases activity, and mitochondrial glutathione and ATP content were decreased, while lipid peroxidation and mitochondrial permeabilization were increased with MTX treatment. These data suggest a role for mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the mechanism of MTX nephrotoxicity.


Assuntos
Rim/lesões , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Metotrexato , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/sangue , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/metabolismo , Desequilíbrio Hidroeletrolítico/urina
5.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 103: 75-86, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29635131

RESUMO

Betaine is a derivative of the amino acid glycine widely investigated for its hepatoprotective properties against alcoholism. The protective properties of betaine in different other experimental models also have been documented. On the other hand, the exact cellular mechanism of cytoprotection provided by betaine is obscure. The current study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of betaine and its potential mechanisms of hepatoprotection in two animal models of acute and chronic liver injury. Bile duct ligation (BDL) was used as a model of chronic liver injury and thioacetamide (TAA)-induced hepatotoxicity was applied as the acute liver injury model. Severe increase in serum markers of liver tissue damage along with significant liver tissue histopathological changes were evident in both acute and chronic models of hepatic injury. It was also found that tissue markers of oxidative stress were significantly increased in BDL and TAA-treated animals. Moreover, liver mitochondrial indices of functionality were deteriorated in both investigated models. Betaine supplementation (10 and 50 mg/kg, i.p) ameliorated hepatic injury as judged by decreased liver tissue histopathological alterations, a significant decrease in tissue markers of oxidative stress, and mitigation of serum biomarkers of hepatotoxicity. On the other hand, betaine (10 and 50 mg/kg, i.p) protected hepatocytes mitochondria in both chronic and acute models of hepatotoxicity. These data indicate that the antioxidative and mitochondria regulating properties of betaine could play a primary role in its mechanisms of hepatoprotection.


Assuntos
Betaína/farmacologia , Fígado/lesões , Fígado/patologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Doença Aguda , Animais , Ductos Biliares/patologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença Crônica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ligadura , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
6.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 99: 1022-1032, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29307496

RESUMO

Cholestasis is a disorder characterized by impaired bile flow and accumulation of cytotoxic bile acids in the liver. On the other hand, oxidative stress and its deleterious consequences seem to have a significant role in cholestasis-induced organ injury. Hence, antioxidants and thiol-reducing agents could have potential protective effect against this complication. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the effect of dithiothreitol (DTT) as a safe and clinically applicable thiol-reductant in cholestatic animals. DTT is a dithiol compound which effectively reduces disulfide bonds in glutathione molecule or different proteins and preserves cellular redox environment. Bile duct ligated (BDL) mice were supplemented with DTT-containing drinking water (0.25% and 1% w: v) for 14 days. Blood, liver, kidney, and spleen samples were collected at scheduled time intervals (3, 7, and 14 days after BDL operation). Significant elevation in plasma biomarkers of liver and kidney injury was detected in BDL animals. Liver and kidney injury was also histopathologically evident by necrosis, inflammation, and fibrosis. Furthermore, high levels of reactive oxygen species in addition to lipid peroxidation, depleted glutathione reservoirs, and impaired tissue antioxidant capacity was detected in the liver and kidney of cholestatic animals. It was found that DTT supplementation (0.25% and 1% w:v) alleviated markers of oxidative stress in the liver and kidney. Moreover, liver and kidney histopathological changes and collagen deposition were markedly attenuated by DTT treatment. The beneficial effects of DTT administration in cholestasis and its associated complications might be linked to its ability for preserving cellular redox environment and preventing oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Ductos Biliares/patologia , Colestase/complicações , Colestase/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ditiotreitol/uso terapêutico , Rim/patologia , Fígado/patologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Colestase/sangue , Colestase/patologia , Ditiotreitol/química , Ditiotreitol/farmacologia , Hidroxiprolina/metabolismo , Ligadura , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Tamanho do Órgão , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 97: 1086-1095, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29136945

RESUMO

Cholestasis is the stoppage of bile flow which could lead to serious clinical complications if not managed. Cytotoxic bile acids are involved in the pathogenesis of liver injury during cholestasis. There are no promising pharmacological interventions against cholestasis and its associated complications. This study examined the impact of glycine supplementation on liver mitochondria as a major target of bile acids-induced toxicity during cholestasis. Mice underwent BDL operation and received glycine (0.25% and 1% w:v in drinking water). Blood and liver samples were collected at scheduled time intervals (3, 7, and 14 days after BDL surgery). Plasma biomarkers of liver injury, along with markers of oxidative stress in the liver tissue were evaluated. Furthermore, liver mitochondria were isolated, and several mitochondrial indices were assessed. BDL-induced cholestasis was evident in mice as a significant elevation in plasma biomarkers of liver injury. Markers of oxidative stress were significantly increased in the liver of BDL animals. Liver injury was histopathologically evident by tissue necrosis, bile duct proliferation, hydropic changes, inflammation, and fibrosis. Furthermore, high level of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, depleted glutathione reservoirs, and impaired tissue antioxidant capacity were also detected in the liver of cholestatic mice. An assessment of liver mitochondrial function in BDL animals revealed an inhibition of mitochondrial dehydrogenases activity, collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial swelling, and increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Furthermore, a significant decrease in mitochondrial ATP was detected in the liver mitochondria isolated from cholestatic animals. Glycine supplementation (0.25% and 1%) decreased mitochondrial swelling, ROS, and LPO. Moreover, glycine treatment improved mitochondrial membrane potential and restored liver mitochondrial ATP. On the other hand, it was found that glycine supplementation attenuated oxidative stress markers in the liver of BDL animals. Moreover, liver histopathological changes and collagen deposition were markedly mitigated by glycine treatment. The mechanisms for the beneficial effects of glycine administration in cholestatic animals might be linked to its ability for preserving cellular redox environment, preventing oxidative stress, and maintaining mitochondrial functionality.


Assuntos
Colestase/tratamento farmacológico , Glicina/farmacologia , Fígado/patologia , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colestase/complicações , Colestase/fisiopatologia , Colágeno/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glicina/administração & dosagem , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/patologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Cirrose Hepática/etiologia , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Mitocôndrias Hepáticas/patologia , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
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