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Cureus ; 12(8): e10126, 2020 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33005540


Background Obesity is a major public health concern and is associated with incident cardiovascular diseases. A very few studies around the globe have assessed how type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients comprehend obesity. Our study aims to evaluate the concerns and behaviors of T2D patients regarding obesity in a developing country like Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Karachi during the period of December to February 2020 in which T2D patients were assessed for their comprehension of how obesity affects their disease and concerns, as well as their practices such as weight loss activities and dietary habits. Data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 24 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). Results Of 417 T2D patients inducted in our study, 265 (63.5%) knew their ideal body weight, whereas only 221 (52.9%) knew how to measure it. Among those who were willing to lose weight, this was mostly due to a wish to avoid further complications of obesity (N=155 [73.1%]) and also peer/family pressures (N=124 [58.5%]) among other reasons. More obese (N=68 [43.6%]) than non-obese participants (N=87 [33.3%]) were willing to consult a doctor to help them reduce weight. Participants had adopted various strategies to reduce weight, of which increasing exercise (N=242 [85.8%]) and healthy eating (N=162 [57.4%]) were most popular. Conclusions There is a need to address barriers to weight loss among T2D patients in Pakistan and to provide patients with pragmatic guidelines on how to make sustainable lifestyle changes to help reduce and maintain their body weight.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(3): 411-421, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725326


Phytoremediation is an ecologically and economically feasible technique to remove heavy metal from soil. The aim of the study was to examine cadmium (Cd) toxicity and phytoremediation aptitude of Brassica juncea. In the present study, plants survived when exposed to different levels of Cd (0, 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg soil) and accumulated a large amount of Cd in its root and shoot. Translocation factor (TF) of Cd from root to shoot was > 1 at both 45 and 60-day stage of growth suggesting that B. juncea is a hyperaccumulator and strong candidate for phytoextraction of Cd. Alongside, Cd impaired photolysis of water, PSII activity, nutrient uptake, photosynthesis and sugar accumulation in the plant. Cd-generated oxidative stress restricts the growth of B. juncea. The toxic effect of Cd was more pronounced at 45-day stage of growth signifying the drifting of plant towards acquirement of exclusion strategy.

Biodegradação Ambiental , Cádmio/metabolismo , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Cádmio/análise , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Gases , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Mostardeira/efeitos dos fármacos , Mostardeira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oxirredução , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
Cureus ; 12(3): e7354, 2020 Mar 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328366


Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is chronic inflammation of hepatocytes due to immune cells attacking the patient's own hepatocytes, histologically characterized by interface hepatitis. The disease can be serious, and if left untreated, it can lead to cirrhosis of the liver and eventual liver failure. It occurs more frequently in females. The standard treatment for AIH includes corticosteroids. There are two main treatment regimens, which include either prednisolone alone or prednisone and azathioprine. Although, liver transplantation is certainly the treatment of choice, it has not yet been established on a large scale worldwide. We present here the case of a 22-year-old male, with autoimmune hepatitis and unspecified vasculitis.

Int J Biol Macromol ; 145: 372-389, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31862372


Oligomers derived through irradiation of marine polysaccharides have generated a lot of interest of plant biologists as the application of these molecules has yielded positive results regarding various plant processes. To comprehend the previously established growth-promoting activity of irradiated chitosan (ICH) and to gain insight of the structure-property relationship, gamma rays induced structural changes were analyzed using techniques such as Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, 13C-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Moreover, to study the bioactivity of ICH samples a pot experiment was conducted on citronella grass (Cymbopogon winterianus) to access its response to foliar application of various levels (40, 60, 80 and 100 mg L-1) of ICH in terms of growth, physiological attributes and essential oil (EO) production. The application of ICH at 80 mg L-1(ICH-80) resulted in the maximum values of most of the attributes studied. Due to this treatment, the maximum improvement in the content (29.58%) and yield (90.81%) of EO in Cymbopogon winterianus were achieved. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed that ICH-80 also increased the content of citronellal (14.81%) and geraniol (18.15%) of the EO as compared to the control.

Quitosana/efeitos da radiação , Clorofila/agonistas , Cymbopogon/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/efeitos da radiação , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/isolamento & purificação , Monoterpenos Acíclicos/metabolismo , Aldeídos/isolamento & purificação , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Carotenoides/agonistas , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Quitosana/farmacologia , Clorofila/biossíntese , Cymbopogon/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cymbopogon/metabolismo , Raios gama , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
Carbohydr Polym ; 227: 115331, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590878


Chitosan in both native and degraded form (oligosaccharides) acts as a growth promoter and generate responses associated with both primary and secondary metabolism in plants. Chitosan and its oligosaccharides enhance photosynthesis by amplifying the activities of various enzymes of carbon and nitrogen metabolism as well as light and dark reaction of photosynthesis. They play a vital role in stimulating photosynthetic machinery by regulating primary photochemistry. They also overcome the limitations of stomata and amplify the carbon fixation efficiency in dark reactions and promote carbohydrate synthesis. Chitosan and its oligosaccharides stimulate the enzymes and content of secondary metabolites. A plausible explanation is that chitosan and its oligosaccharides acted as the suitable ligand for the induction of available receptors and thus elicit various signaling pathways viz, GPCR and PLC/PKC, MAPK, H2O2 burst, stimulation of transcription factors in the plant generating a maximum possible response. Chitosan and its oligosaccharides also exhibit antimicrobial activities and act as biopestiside, preventing proliferation of pathogens and preserve crop yield and quality.

Quitosana/metabolismo , Produção Agrícola , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Metabolismo Secundário
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 129: 198-212, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29894860


BRs are polyhydroxylated sterol derivatives, classified as phytohormones. Plants of Brassica juncea var. Varuna were grown in pots and an aqueous solution (10-8 M) of two brassinosteroid isomers 28-homobrassinolide (HBL) and 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) of same concentration (10-8 M) was applied to their leaves. The treatment up-regulated the photosynthetic machinery directly by enhancing water splitting activity, photochemical quenching, non-photochemical quenching, maximum PSII efficiency, actual PSII efficiency, electron transport rate, stomatal movement, stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentration, transpiration rate, net photosynthetic rate and carbohydrate synthesis. Moreover, the level of biochemical enzymes (carbonic anhydrase and nitrate reductase), reactive oxygen species (superoxide and hydrogen peroxide) generation, antioxidant enzyme activity and mineral status (C, N, Mg, P, S, K), which indirectly influence the rate of photosynthesis, also improved in the treated plants. Out of the two BR analogues tested, EBL excelled in its effects over HBL.

Brassinosteroides/farmacologia , Colestanonas/farmacologia , Mostardeira/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroides Heterocíclicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Mostardeira/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/efeitos dos fármacos , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômatos de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estômatos de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Transpiração Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxidos/metabolismo