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1.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(7): 405, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34110509

RESUMO

The massive destruction and loss caused by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman tsunami were attributed to the lack of knowledge on tsunami and low regional detection and communication systems for early warning in that region. This study aimed to identify locations at risk of impending tsunami from Andaman Sea for the safety of community and proper development planning at the coastal areas by providing an updated and revised inundation maps. The last study on this area was conducted several years ago which open the possibility to new findings. Generated by tsunami simulation models, the maps illustrate the extent and level of inundation to which the coastal community and infrastructure would be subjected. As a result of coastal changes and availability of better topographic data, the existing inundation maps for the coastal areas of northwest Peninsular Malaysia at risk to impending tsunami from the Andaman Sea are revised. This paper documented the computational setup leading to the generation of the revised inundation maps. The tsunami simulation model TUNA was used to simulate the generation, propagation, and subsequent run-up and inundation of tsunamis triggered by earthquakes of moment magnitudes (Mw) 8.5, 9.0, and 9.25 along the Sunda Trench. From the simulations, it was found that at Mw 9.25, Balik Pulau, Pulau Pinang would be subjected to inundation of as far as 3.47 km with 5.40-m-deep inundation at the highest section.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Tsunamis , Monitoramento Ambiental , Indonésia , Malásia
2.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071781

RESUMO

Obese women were more susceptible to myalgia because of their significantly lower vitamin D concentrations; the present study investigated the efficacy of vitamin D in addition to an aerobic interval training in the management of obese women with myalgia. Forty-five obese women with vitamin D deficiency and myalgia (30 to 40 years old) were assigned randomly into three equal groups. Group A received an aerobic interval training with vitamin D supplementation, Group B received vitamin D supplementation only, and Group C received aerobic interval training only; participants in all groups were on calorie deficient diets. The study outcomes were the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for Pain Evaluation, serum vitamin D level, and Cooper 12-Minute Walk Test for Functional Capacity Evaluation, while the Short-Form Health Survey (SF) was used for assessment of quality of life. We detected a significant improvement in pain intensity level, serum vitamin D level, and quality of life in all groups with significant difference between Group A and groups B and C. We also detected a significant improvement in functional capacity in groups A and C, with no significant change in Group B. Aerobic interval training with vitamin D supplementation was more effective for the management of obese women with perceived myalgia.

3.
Cardiovasc J Afr ; 32: 1-6, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950069

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertension has long been recognised as a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke and kidney disease. Despite a multitude of new pharmacological agents, in the Sudan, a significant proportion of hypertensive patients' blood pressure remains uncontrolled. An important, often underutilised treatment approach is therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC). This study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of patients with regard to TLC in the management of hypertension in a Khartoum locality in 2016. METHODS: The study was cross sectional and descriptive. Data were collected via structured interviews using a questionnaire. Full coverage of patients attending Ahmed Gasim and Al-Shaab hospitals for follow up during August and September 2016 was carried out. Descriptive and inferential statistics were utilised for data analysis. RESULTS: We identified 112 patients for participation in this study. There was a slight preponderance of females (54.5%) and older age, with 58% in the 55- to 70-year age group. When assessed for knowledge on lifestyle and habits that affect blood pressure, respondents were most familiar with the fact that salt consumption affects blood pressure, 93.8% answering correctly. After knowledge scores were calculated, only 31.3% of participants had above-average knowledge on blood pressure and TLC. The lifestyle change the respondents were least adherent to was regular exercise, with 59.8% of participants struggling with this. Participants' most-cited obstacle was lack of motivation, the same answer being most frequent for each lifestyle change. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrated that although the hypertensive patients were generally aware of the importance of TLC in its management, they struggled to implement this. The researcher believes that novel approaches are needed to help motivate patients who are diagnosed with hypertension in a third-world country such as Sudan, and apply their knowledge regarding TLC.

4.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33973403

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) may prolong the QT interval, a risk factor for torsade de pointes, a potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmia. We examined the cardiovascular safety of HCQ in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: We conducted an active comparator safety study of HCQ in a propensity score-matched cohort of 8852 Veterans newly diagnosed with RA between October 1, 2001, and December 31, 2017. Patients were initiated on HCQ (n=4426) or another non-biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD; n=4426) after RA diagnosis, up to December 31, 2018, and followed for 12 months after therapy initiation, up to December 31, 2019. RESULTS: Patients had a mean age of 64 (±12) years, 14% were women, 28% African American, and were balanced on 87 baseline characteristics. There were 3 (0.03%) long QT syndrome (LQTS) events, of which 2 belonged to the HCQ group. Of the 56 (0.63%) arrhythmia-related hospitalizations, 30 belonged to the HCQ group (hazard ratio associated with HCQ, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.68-1.95). All-cause mortality occurred in 144 (3.25%) and 136 (3.07%) patients in the HCQ and non-HCQ groups, respectively (hazard ratio associated with HCQ, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.84-1.34). During the first 30 days of follow-up, there was no LQTS event, 2 arrhythmia-related hospitalizations (none in the HCQ group), and 13 deaths (6 in the HCQ group). CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of LQTS and arrhythmia-related hospitalization was low in patients with RA during the first year after the initiation of HCQ or another non-biologic DMARD. We found no evidence that HCQ therapy is associated with a higher risk of adverse cardiovascular events or death.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014484

RESUMO

Concentrations of heavy metals in agricultural land near highways are a major concern for humans. This study was conducted to investigate the contamination level of heavy metals in soil, canola crop, and the potential health risk for honeybee and human. The average concentrations (mg/kg) of Co (15.94), Cr (169.66), Ni (55.39), Mn (765.34) Hg (2.99), and Cu (51.31) were elevated beyond their background reference values in world soil average, while Pb (9.45) was below to their respective background levels. This was confirmed by contamination factor (CF) and ecological risk factors (Er). Heavy metal concentrations in different parts of canola decreased in the following order: Fe> Mn > Cr > Pb > Co > Cu > Ni > Hg. Honey transfer factor (TFH) of heavy metals was less than unity except Ni and Hg. Human health (non-carcinogenic) risk assessment of heavy metals in the soil through potential exposure pathway (ingestion) recorded a dramatically increased risk for children (hazard index, HI=2.44). Hazard quotient via honey (HQH) consumption value of heavy metals were within the safe limits (HQ< 1). Probably, honeybees have a strong ability to transfer Co, Pb, Hg, and Mn (HQ> 1) from the canola to their hives during collecting pollen and nectar. HQ in honeybee workers from the consumption of honey can be used to derive HQ in humans using the hazard factor (HF). HF is 1481.482 (Pb), 2356.902 (Ni), and 3888.889 (Cr), respectively, for adult human (70kg) and 317.460 (Pb), 504.377(Ni), and 832.22 (Cr) for children (15kg).

6.
Transpl Int ; 2021 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993570

RESUMO

This prospective study reports the design and results obtained after the EMPODaT project implementation. This project was funded by the Tempus programme of the European Commission with the objective to implement a common postgraduate programme on organ donation and transplantation (ODT) in six selected universities from Middle East/North Africa (MENA) countries (Egypt, Lebanon and Morocco). The consortium, coordinated by the University of Barcelona, included universities from Spain, Germany, Sweden and France. The first phase of the project was to perform an analysis of the current situation in the beneficiary countries, including existing training programmes on ODT, Internet connection, digital facilities and competences, training needs, and ODT activity and accreditation requirements. A total of 90 healthcare postgraduate students participated in the 1-year training programme (30 ECTS academic credits). The methodology was based on e-learning modules and face-to-face courses in English and French. Training activities were evaluated through pre- and post-tests, self-assessment activities and evaluation charts. Quality was assessed through questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The project results on a reproducible and innovative international postgraduate programme, improvement of knowledge, satisfaction of the participants and confirms the need on professionalizing the activity as the cornerstone to ensure organ transplantation self-sufficiency in MENA countries.

7.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 192, 2021 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: MG-63 cells that have osteoblastic and adipogenic differentiation potential were evaluated for internalization, and adipogenic differentiation in the presence and absence of the covalently functionalized aryl gold nanoparticles (AuNPs-C6H4-4-COOH). RESULTS: Inductively coupled plasma, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy analyses confirmed that gold nanoparticles were easily internalized by MG-63 cells. The MG-63 cells were differentiated into adipocytes without gold-aryl nanoparticles and with the gold-aryl nanoparticles at 5 µM concentration in both induction and maintenance media. The lipid content assay and the relative expressions of PPAR-γ, ADR1, GLUT1 and GLUT4 genes showed no significant variation with and without the gold nanoparticles treatment. Differential phosphorylation levels of 43 kinases phosphorylation sites were evaluated using the human phospho-kinase array to assess the effect of the gold nanoparticles on the signaling pathways during the differentiation. No kinase phosphorylation site was differentially phosphorylated with two or more folds after the nanoparticles treatment after the first day as well as at the end of MG-63 cells differentiation. The gold-aryl nanoparticles do not affect MG-63 cells differentiation into adipocytes neither do they affect any key signaling pathway. These properties make these gold nanoparticles suitable for future drug delivery and medical applications.


Assuntos
Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Adipogenia , Diferenciação Celular , Humanos , PPAR gama , Transdução de Sinais
8.
Front Public Health ; 9: 629015, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34026708

RESUMO

Objectives: Effective mitigation of coronavirus diseases (COVID-19) pandemic requires true adoption of precautionary measures by the masses, that primarily depends upon their knowledge and practices behaviors. The current study aimed to assess the knowledge; practices of Pakistani residents regarding COVID-19 and factors associated with adequate knowledge and positive practices. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional online survey was conducted from 15-April 2020 to 20 May 2020 among 689 Pakistanis by using a validated self-administered questionnaire (Cronbach's alpha 0.77). The questionnaire included questions on the assessment of demographics, the source of information, knowledge, and practice of COVID-19 on google forms and shared links with the WhatsApp groups, Facebook pages and other online platforms. Regression analysis was applied to find potential predictors of knowledge and practices. Results: Of 689 participants, 431 (62.6%) were male, 64.3% (n = 443) were aged <30 years, and\328 (47.6%) of participants were married. 48.19% (n = 332) had adequate knowledge; 81% (n = 555) had positive practices regarding COVID-19 and majority (66.62%, n = 459) seek knowledge from social media. Knowledge was significantly higher (OR > 1.00, p < 0.05) among educated and higher income participants. Positive practices were significantly (OR > 1.00, p < 0.05) related to the older age (≥50 years), higher education, higher income and good knowledge regarding COVID-19. Conclusion: The study concluded that Pakistani residents had average knowledge and good practices toward COVID-19 yet there are gaps in specific aspects of knowledge, and practice that should be focused in future awareness and educational campaigns. The study recommends the ministry of health authorities to promote all precautionary and preventive measures of COVID-19-consisting of a better-organized approach to all strata of society: less privileged people, older ones and less educated people, in order to have equilibrium of knowledge about COVID-19; hence effective implementation of precautionary measures.


Assuntos
Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Paquistão/epidemiologia
9.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 182: 1820-1831, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052272

RESUMO

Developing a multifunctional wound dressing that protects, cures and indicates the healing progress, is a new approach of investigation. Red cabbage extract (RCE), consisting of bioactive compounds that have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-carcinogenic, bactericidal, antifungal, and antiviral activities, was utilized as a natural pH-sensitive indicator. Chitosan-based hydrogel, encapsulating RCE, was developed to obtain a smart therapeutic pH-sensitive wound dressing as antimicrobial bio-matrix provides a comfortable cushion for wound bed and indicates its status. Methacrylated-chitosan was crosslinked by different concentrations of methylenebisacrylamide (MBAA) by which hydrogel mechanical and morphological properties were tuned. The proposed mechanism for hydrogel formation was confirmed by FT-IR. The coloristic properties of the RCE and the changes in color intensity as a function of pH were confirmed by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The effect of MBAA on the mechanical, swelling, release and morphological properties of hydrogel were investigated. MBAA (2.5% wt/v) in 2% wt/v chitosan showed preferable mechanical (20 KPa), swelling (1294% at pH 8 ± 0.2), and release (prolonged up to 5 days) properties. Hydrogel matrices, loaded on cotton gauze submerged in different pH buffer solutions, showed explicit color changes from green to red as pH changed from 9 to 4.

10.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 158, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33995765

RESUMO

Introduction: prevalence of smoking in school children is alarming in Saudi Arabia and little is well-known about the aspects stimulating such behaviours in secondary school children. The aim of this study was to assess the association between influence of parent/sibling/peer smoking and future intentions to initiate smoke among 13-15 years old school children in Al Ras town, Saudi Arabia. Methods: a cross sectional survey was conducted in Al Ras city during first quarter of 2019. Data was collected from 492 secondary school children who were selected through multistage stratified cluster sampling. Pretested, self-administered Arabic questionnaire was used to collect data about socio-demographic and prevalence of current smoking behaviours and associated factors. Descriptive statistics was done initially, following by binomial regression to assess the predictors of current smoking and future smoking intentions. Results: the overall prevalence of smoking in respondents was 22.7% and statistically significant difference in smoking prevalence's between boys and girls was observed (40% vs 5.6%). Among the predictors of current smoking, smoking habits in siblings and getting pocket money over 200 Saudi riyals are found to be significant. Siblings smoking (odds ratio: 6.4) and poor academic performance (odds ratio: 3.2) were the two most important factors influencing children's intentions of smoking. Conclusion: smoking prevalence in secondary school children of Al Ras was similar to national data. Since, influence of siblings, getting more pocket money and poor academic performance were found to important predictors of children smoking behaviours and attitudes, health education programs should address these factors to be effective.


Assuntos
Pais/psicologia , Irmãos/psicologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Prevalência , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Preprint | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21257164

RESUMO

The emergence of the novel coronavirus pneumonia (Covid-19) pandemic at the end of 2019 led to chaos worldwide. The world breathed a sigh of relief when some countries announced that they had obtained the appropriate vaccine and gradually began to distribute it. Nevertheless, the emergence of another wave of this disease has returned us to the starting point. At present, early detection of infected cases has been the paramount concern of both specialists and health researchers. This paper aims to detect infected patients through chest x-ray images. The large dataset available online for Covid-19 (COVIDx) was used in this research. The dataset consists of 2,128 x-ray images of Covid-19 cases, 8,066 normal cases, and 5,575 cases of pneumonia. A hybrid algorithm was applied to improve image quality before conducting the neural network training process. This algorithm consisted of combining two different noise reduction filters in the images, followed by a contrast enhancement algorithm. In this paper, for Covid-19 detection, a novel convolution neural network (CNN) architecture, KL-MOB (Covid-19 detection network based on MobileNet structure), was proposed. KL-MOB performance was boosted by adding the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence loss function at the end when trained from scratch. The Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence loss function was adopted as content-based image retrieval and fine-grained classification to improve the quality of image representation. This paper yielded impressive results, overall benchmark accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and precision of 98.7%, 98.32%, 98.82%, and 98.37%, respectively. The promising results in this research may enable other researchers to develop modern and innovative methods to aid specialists. The tremendous potential of the method proposed in this research can also be utilized to detect Covid-19 quickly and safely in patients throughout the world.

16.
Sci Prog ; 104(2): 368504211012162, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900865

RESUMO

The hypertension (HTN) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are a common multifactorial disease due to genetics and environmental factors. The alpha 2B adrenergic receptor (α2B-AR) has relationship with secretion of insulin and mediates the vasoconstriction that elevate blood pressure. This study aimed to determine the association between α2B-AR gene polymorphism with HTN and T2DM in Saudi cases. 200 cases and 100 healthy controls from Saudi population were recruited from the Internal Medicine clinic, Qassim University. The patients were grouped into: 72 HTN without T2DM; 62 HTN with T2DM and 66 T2DM only. Full medical history, examination and biochemical assays were performed for all participants. Genomic DNA was isolated from blood lymphocytes of all subjects for detection of α2B-AR gene polymorphism by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results found a significant association between D carriers genotype and HTN with T2DM cases (p < 0.05) as well as with T2DM-only cases, (p < 0.05) compared to control. Regardless of HTN status, only cases with HTN and T2DM as well as those with T2DM were significantly associated with the recessive model DD versus II+ID (p < 0.05). So, D carriers genotype was significantly associated with total cases of HTN and T2DM (p < 0.05) compared to controls. Our results suggested that there is a relationship between the α2B-AR I/D gene polymorphism and the risk for T2DM with or without HTN, but no such comparable relationship is evident with HTN-only cases among Saudi population in Qassim region.

18.
J Homosex ; : 1-10, 2021 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886440

RESUMO

We examined customer and worker discrimination against gay and lesbian business owners using a web-based experiment conducted at a Swedish university campus. Participants (N = 1,406) were presented with a prospective restaurant establishment on the campus. They then stated whether they would be positive to such an establishment, whether they would be interested in working at the restaurant, and what their reservation wage would be if they were interested in the job. Owners' sexual orientation was randomized across participants. Results showed that participants were less positive to a restaurant opening if the owners were lesbians, and they were less interested in an available job if the owners were gay. The participants had higher reservation wages if the owners were lesbians. In fact, the participants increased their wage demands when the number of women among the owners increased. Our study underlines that gay and lesbian people face various inequalities in society.

19.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 22(4): 1025-1034, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33906293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the significant progress in target therapy for the treatment of metastatic colorectal carcinoma (mCRC), the overall survival isn't satisfactory. METHODS: We assessed the expression of Amphiregulin, PTEN, and P21 in sections from 23 paraffin blocks prepared from 23 patients with left-sided mCRC using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The relationship between their level of expressions, clinicopathological parameters, response to anti-EGFR, and prognosis were analyzed. RESULTS: High Amphiregulin, PTEN and low P21 expression levels were associated with low tumor grade (p= 0.038 and 0.025 respectively), better response to anti-EGFR treatment (p <0.001), and favorable outcome {progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS)} (p <0.05). There was a direct relation between Amphiregulin and PTEN expressions (phi coefficient=+0.840), while there was an inverse relation between P21expression and both Amphiregulin (phi coefficient= -0.840) and PTEN expressions (phi coefficient = -1.000), which was statistically significant (P <0.001). CONCLUSION: High Amphiregulin and PTEN expression levels and low P21 expression levels were associated with better response to anti-EGFR therapy and improved survival outcome. They might be considered predictive markers of response to anti-EGFR therapy in mCRC.

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20.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 7826, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837236

RESUMO

Rivers carry suspended sediments along with their flow. These sediments deposit at different places depending on the discharge and course of the river. However, the deposition of these sediments impacts environmental health, agricultural activities, and portable water sources. Deposition of suspended sediments reduces the flow area, thus affecting the movement of aquatic lives and ultimately leading to the change of river course. Thus, the data of suspended sediments and their variation is crucial information for various authorities. Various authorities require the forecasted data of suspended sediments in the river to operate various hydraulic structures properly. Usually, the prediction of suspended sediment concentration (SSC) is challenging due to various factors, including site-related data, site-related modelling, lack of multiple observed factors used for prediction, and pattern complexity.Therefore, to address previous problems, this study proposes a Long Short Term Memory model to predict suspended sediments in Malaysia's Johor River utilizing only one observed factor, including discharge data. The data was collected for the period of 1988-1998. Four different models were tested, in this study, for the prediction of suspended sediments, which are: ElasticNet Linear Regression (L.R.), Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) neural network, Extreme Gradient Boosting, and Long Short-Term Memory. Predictions were analysed based on four different scenarios such as daily, weekly, 10-daily, and monthly. Performance evaluation stated that Long Short-Term Memory outperformed other models with the regression values of 92.01%, 96.56%, 96.71%, and 99.45% daily, weekly, 10-days, and monthly scenarios, respectively.

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