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1.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 32(8): 1060-1063, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932134

RESUMO

Recipient hepatectomy is a challenging surgical procedure. Coagulopathy, multiple collaterals, and dense adhesions secondary to previous spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotics are the major contributing factors. However, the appropriate recipient hepatectomy technique can limit the massive blood loss and minimize the operative time. The hepatoduodenal dissection has a key role in recipient hepatectomy. The hilar structures of partial graft in live donor liver transplantation (LDLT) usually have a short length and a small caliber. The concerning task in LDLT recipient hepatectomy is to preserve the integrity, quality, and adequacy of hilar structures for successful implantation. The high hilar dissection technique is usually practiced for getting the adequate length of hilar structures. However, the problems with high hilar dissection inducted the authors to tailor the technique over time. In this report, a modified technique of recipient hepatectomy characterised by the artery-first approach is described. This technique is good in terms of preventing arterial dissection and minimising the anhepatic phase. Key Words: Recipient hepatectomy, Hepatoduodenal dissection, Liver transplantation, Technique.

3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(26): e29832, 2022 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35777050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PHTN) may occur in thyroid disorders, especially in hypothyroidism. However, there is increasing evidence of PHTN in hyperthyroidism (HTH). The etiology, clinical course, management, and factors associated with outcomes of PHTN in the setting of HTH are unascertained. This systematic review consolidates available evidence on patients with HTH who developed PHTN. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review on English articles from PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar reporting PHTN in patients with hyperthyroidism. Data were analyzed and reported in Microsoft Excel 2020, SPSS version 26, and Jamovi version 1.2. RESULTS: We identified 589 patients with PHTN in the setting of HTH. Etiologies included Grave disease 66.7%), toxic multinodular goiter (TMNG) (16.8%), drug-induced HTH (0.3%), thyroiditis(0.8%), and toxic adenoma(0.1%). Most patients did not receive any specific management for PHTN and were managed by antithyroid treatment (97.4%). Outcomes of PHTN were reported in 181 patients, with a 94% recovery rate. Pulmonary artery pressures (PAP) before and after HTH management ranged from 22.5 to 75 mm Hg and from 24 to 50 mm Hg, respectively. Outcome analysis performed on data from case reports and series with individually identifiable data revealed a 67.6% female preponderance. An estimated 73.5% of the patients had PHTN at the initial presentation of HTH, which was associated with a better resolution rate of PHTN(OR: 12, P-value: 0.048). TRAB was positive in 47% patients with no clinical difference in outcomes. antiTG AB was reported positive in 29.4%, all of whom had an improvement, compared to an 83.3% improvement rate in those with negative antiTG AB. Various etiologies and treatments did not have any significant differences in the outcome of PHTN. CONCLUSIONS: PHTN can be present at the initial diagnosis of HTH, which is associated with better outcomes of PHTN. There is a clear female preponderance in the development of PHTN. However, resolution rates seem to be better in males. Although TRAB is associated with the development of PHTN, it does not seem to affect the outcomes. PHTN in patients with HTH does not need any specific management, with >90% resolution with antithyroid therapy. Whether any specific antithyroid therapy has a better outcome in PHTN needs to be explored prospectively.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Pulmonar , Hipertireoidismo , Hipotireoidismo , Clorexidina , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Pulmonar/etiologia , Hipertensão Pulmonar/terapia , Hipertireoidismo/complicações , Hipertireoidismo/terapia , Masculino , PubMed
4.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(13)2022 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35806632

RESUMO

Distortion and residual stress are two unwelcome byproducts of welding. The former diminishes the dimensional accuracy while the latter unfavorably affects the fatigue resistance of the components being joined. The present study is a multi-objective optimization aimed at minimizing both the welding-induced residual stress as well as distortion. Current, voltage, and welding speed were the welding parameters selected. It was observed that the parameters that minimize distortion were substantially different from those that minimized the residual stress. That is, enhancing dimensional accuracy by minimizing distortion results in an intensification of residual stresses. A compromise between the two objectives was therefore necessary. The contour plots produced from the response surfaces of the two objectives were overlaid to find a region with feasible parameters for both. This feasible region was used as the domain wherein to apply the novel butterfly optimization algorithm (BOA). This is the first instance of the application of the BOA to a multi-objective welding problem. Weld simulation and a confirmatory experiment based on the optimum weld parameters thus obtained corroborate the efficacy of the framework.

5.
Biomedicines ; 10(7)2022 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35884920

RESUMO

Agrobacterium tumefaciens underlies the pathogenesis of crown gall disease and is characterized by tumor-like gall formation on the stems and roots of a wide variety of economically important plant species. The bacterium initiates infection by colonizing and forming biofilms on plant surfaces, and thus, novel compounds are required to prevent its growth and biofilm formation. In this study, we investigated the ability of tannic acid, which is ubiquitously present in woody plants, to specifically inhibit the growth and biofilm formation of A. tumefaciens. Tannic acid showed antibacterial activity and significantly reduced the biofilm formation on polystyrene and on the roots of Raphanus sativus as determined by 3D bright-field and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. Furthermore, tannic acid dose-dependently reduced the virulence features of A. tumefaciens, which are swimming motility, exopolysaccharide production, protease production, and cell surface hydrophobicity. Transcriptional analysis of cells (Abs600 nm = 1.0) incubated with tannic acid for 24 h at 30 °C showed tannic acid most significantly downregulated the exoR gene, which is required for adhesion to surfaces. Tannic acid at 100 or 200 µg/mL limited the iron supply to A. tumefaciens and similarly reduced the biofilm formation to that performed by 0.1 mM EDTA. Notably, tannic acid did not significantly affect R. sativus germination even at 400 µg/mL. The findings of this study suggest that tannic acid has the potential to prevent growth and biofilm formation by A. tumefaciens and thus infections resulting from A. tumefaciens colonization.

6.
Molecules ; 27(15)2022 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897928

RESUMO

Exploration of nanoparticles (NPs) for various biological and environmental applications has become one of the most important attributes of nanotechnology. Due to remarkable physicochemical properties, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most explored and used NPs in wide-ranging applications. Also, they have proven to be of high commercial use since they possess great chemical stability, conductivity, catalytic activity, and antimicrobial potential. Though several methods including chemical and physical methods have been devised, biological approaches using organisms such as bacteria, fungi, and plants have emerged as economical, safe, and effective alternatives for the biosynthesis of AgNPs. Recent studies highlight the potential of AgNPs in modern agricultural practices to control the growth and spread of infectious pathogenic microorganisms since the introduction of AgNPs effectively reduces plant diseases caused by a spectrum of bacteria and fungi. In this review, we highlight the biosynthesis of AgNPs and discuss their applications in plant disease management with recent examples. It is proposed that AgNPs are prospective NPs for the successful inhibition of pathogen growth and plant disease management. This review gives a better understanding of new biological approaches for AgNP synthesis and modes of their optimized applications that could contribute to sustainable agriculture.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Prata , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias , Gerenciamento Clínico , Fungos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/química , Plantas , Estudos Prospectivos , Prata/química
8.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(6): 1892-1904, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35647954

RESUMO

There is conflicting evidence for the association between smoking and dry eye disease (DED). We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the true relationship between smoking and DED. A systematic literature search was performed using electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library, till August 2021 to identify observational studies with data on smoking as risk factor of DED. Quality assessment of the included studies was conducted using Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) critical appraisal checklists. The random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled odds ratio (OR). Heterogeneity was evaluated by Cochrane Q and I2 index; in addition, subgroup, sensitivity, and meta-regression analyses were performed. Publication bias was assessed using funnel plot and Egger's regression test. A total of 22 studies (4 cohort and 18 cross-sectional studies) with 160,217 subjects met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. There is no statistically significant relationship between current smokers (ORadjusted = 1.14; 95% CI: 0.95-1.36; P = 0.15; I2 = 84%) and former smokers (ORadjusted = 1.06; 95% CI: 0.93-1.20; P = 0.38; I2 = 26.7%) for the risk of DED. The results remained consistent across various subgroups. No risk of publication bias was detected by funnel plot and Eggers's test (P > 0.05). No source of heterogeneity was observed in the meta-regression analysis. Our meta-analysis suggest current or former smoking may not be involved in the risk of dry eye disease. Further studies to understand the mechanism of interaction between current smokers and formers smokers with DED are recommended.


Assuntos
Síndromes do Olho Seco , Fumar , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Síndromes do Olho Seco/epidemiologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/etiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia
9.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 881242, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35646026

RESUMO

Potentially toxic elements (PTEs) such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), and arsenic (As), polluting the environment, pose a significant risk and cause a wide array of adverse changes in plant physiology. Above threshold accumulation of PTEs is alarming which makes them prone to ascend along the food chain, making their environmental prevention a critical intervention. On a global scale, current initiatives to remove the PTEs are costly and might lead to more pollution. An emerging technology that may help in the removal of PTEs is phytoremediation. Compared to traditional methods, phytoremediation is eco-friendly and less expensive. While many studies have reported several plants with high PTEs tolerance, uptake, and then storage capacity in their roots, stem, and leaves. However, the wide application of such a promising strategy still needs to be achieved, partly due to a poor understanding of the molecular mechanism at the proteome level controlling the phytoremediation process to optimize the plant's performance. The present study aims to discuss the detailed mechanism and proteomic response, which play pivotal roles in the uptake of PTEs from the environment into the plant's body, then scavenge/detoxify, and finally bioaccumulate the PTEs in different plant organs. In this review, the following aspects are highlighted as: (i) PTE's stress and phytoremediation strategies adopted by plants and (ii) PTEs induced expressional changes in the plant proteome more specifically with arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, mercury, and lead with models describing the metal uptake and plant proteome response. Recently, interest in the comparative proteomics study of plants exposed to PTEs toxicity results in appreciable progress in this area. This article overviews the proteomics approach to elucidate the mechanisms underlying plant's PTEs tolerance and bioaccumulation for optimized phytoremediation of polluted environments.

10.
SA J Radiol ; 26(1): 2386, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35747784

RESUMO

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be diagnosed non-invasively, provided certain imaging criteria are met. However, the recent Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS) version 2018 has not been widely validated. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and reader reliability of the LI-RADS version 2018 lexicon amongst fellowship trained radiologists compared with an expert consensus reference standard. Method: This retrospective study was conducted between 2018 and 2020. A total of 50 contrast enhanced liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies evaluating focal liver observations in patients with cirrhosis, hepatitis B virus (HBV) or prior HCC were acquired. The standard of reference was a consensus review by three fellowship-trained radiologists. Diagnostic accuracy including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive values (NPV) and area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated per LI-RADS category for each reader. Kappa statistics were used to measure reader agreement. Results: Readers demonstrated excellent specificities (88% - 100%) and NPVs (85% - 100%) across all LI-RADS categories. Sensitivities were variable, ranging from 67% to 83% for LI-RADS 1, 29% to 43% for LI-RADS 2, 100% for LI-RADS 3, 70% to 80% for LI-RADS 4 and 80% to 84% for LI-RADS 5. Readers showed excellent accuracy for differentiating benign and malignant liver lesions with AUC values > 0.90. Overall inter-reader agreement was 'good' (kappa = 0.76, p < 0.001). Pairwise inter-reader agreement was 'very good' (kappa ≥ 0.90, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The LI-RADS version 2018 demonstrates excellent specificity, NPV and AUC values for risk stratification of liver observations by radiologists. Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System can reliably differentiate benign from malignant lesions when used in conjunction with corresponding LI-RADS management recommendations.

11.
Front Psychol ; 13: 864841, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35712215

RESUMO

The study aims to analyze behavioral intentions influenced by customer engagement, experience, and identification moderated by competitive choices in the granite sector of Pakistan. The study has been carried out through primary data analysis of cross-sectional approach in the transition to a sustainable economy. In total, 400 questionnaires were distributed, for which only 216 were filled and usable with a response rate of 54%-collected data from the production managers and units. In contrast, missed mine holders and labor analyzed the data in SPSS and AMOS to run various tests, i.e., reliability, correlation analysis, regression, moderation regression, and confirmatory factor analysis. The study findings indicate a positive and significant relationship and effect among the variables. The reviews might contain some biases. Therefore, this study recommended adopting a probability sampling technique for future studies. The study results in a positive manner indicating customer service involvement as a significant factor in behavioral intention despite competitive options.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499715

RESUMO

Natural biodegradable polymers generally include polysaccharides (starch, alginate, chitin/chitosan, hyaluronic acid derivatives, etc.) and proteins (collagen, gelatin, fibrin, etc.). In transdermal drug delivery systems (TDDS), these polymers play a vital role in controlling the device's drug release. It is possible that natural polymers can be used for TDDS to attain predetermined drug delivery rates due to their physicochemical properties. These polymers can be employed to market products and scale production because they are readily available and inexpensive. As a result of these polymers, new pharmaceutical delivery systems can be developed that is both regulated and targeted. The focus of this article is the application of a biodegradable polymeric platform based on natural polymers for TDDS. Due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability, natural biodegradable polymers are frequently used in biomedical applications. Additionally, these natural biodegradable polymers are being studied for their characteristics and behaviors.

13.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(10)2022 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35629747

RESUMO

Erosive wear due to the fact of sand severely affects hydrocarbon production industries and, consequently, various sectors of the mineral processing industry. In this study, the effect of the elbow geometrical configuration on the erosive wear of carbon steel for silt-water-air flow conditions were investigated using material loss analysis, surface roughness analysis, and microscopic imaging technique. Experiments were performed under the plug flow conditions in a closed flow loop at standard atmospheric pressure. Water and air plug flow and the disperse phase was silt (silica sand) with a 2.5 wt % concentration, and a silt grain size of 70 µm was used for performing the tests. The experimental analysis showed that silt impact increases material disintegration up to 1.8 times with a change in the elbow configuration from 60° to 90° in plug flow conditions. The primary erosive wear mechanisms of the internal elbow surface were sliding, cutting, and pit propagation. The maximum silt particle impaction was located at the outer curvature in the 50° position in 60° elbows and the 80° position in 90° elbows in plug flow. The erosion rate decreased from 10.23 to 5.67 mm/year with a change in the elbow angle from 90° to 60°. Moreover, the microhardness on the Vickers scale increased from 168 to 199 in the 90° elbow and from 168 to 184 in the 60° elbow.

14.
Front Psychol ; 13: 857906, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35615176

RESUMO

The Islamic Republic of Pakistan has been a mere victim of climate change in recent years. The country needs emergency measures at every level to mitigate environmental dilapidation. The role of enterprises in the country's environmental efforts is critical. In this regard, the hotel sector is known for its outsized carbon footprint. Knowing this, the current study aims to improve a hotel enterprise's environmental performance (ENP) as an outcome of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The study also considers the mediating role of pro-environmental behavior (PEB) of employees and the moderating role of altruistic values (ALT). A hypothesized model was developed, which was validated by employing the structural equation modeling technique. The empirical results confirmed that CSR, directly and indirectly (through PEB), positively induces the ENP of a hotel enterprise. Whereas the conditional indirect role of ALT was also found significant. The study offers different implications for theory and practice, among which one important takeaway for the hotel sector is to realize the importance of employees to spur ENP of a hotel enterprise through their eco-friendly behavior. At the same time, the current work also advances the theory by highlighting the moderating role of ALT between the indirect relationship of CSR and ENP.

15.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 29(6): 103296, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574283

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles play a significant role in biomedical sciences due to their unique properties allowing for their use as an effective sensing and remediation platform Herein, the green synthesis of silver nanostructures (Ag NSs), prepared via aqueous extract of waste Brassica oleracea leaves in the presence of silver nitrate solution (10-4 M), is reported. The Ag NSs are fully characterized and their efficacy with respect to 4-nitrophenol reduction, glucose sensing, and microbes is determined. Visually, the color of silver nitrate containing solution altered from colorless to yellowish, then reddish grey, confirming the formation of Ag NSs. HRTEM and SEAD studies revealed the Ag NSs to have different morphologies (triangular, rod-shaped, hexagonal, etc., within a size range of 20-40 nm) with face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure. The Ag NSs possess high efficacy for nitrophenol reduction (<11 min and degradation efficiency of 98.2%), glucose sensing (LOD: 5.83 µM), and antimicrobial activity (E. coli and B. subtilis with clearance zones of 18.3 and 14 mm, respectively). Thus, the current study alludes towards the development of a cost-effective, sustainable, and efficient three-in-one platform for biomedical and environmental applications.

16.
Drug Saf ; 45(6): 623-638, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438459

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Regulatory advisories on hydroxyzine and risk of QT prolongation and Torsade de pointes (TdP) were issued in the UK in April 2015 and Canada in June 2016. We hypothesized patients with risk factors for QT prolongation and TdP, compared with those without risk factors, would be less likely to initiate hydroxyzine in the UK and in British Columbia (BC), Canada, following advisories. METHODS: We conducted a longitudinal study with repeated measures, and evaluated hydroxyzine initiation in a UK cohort and a concurrent BC control cohort (April 2013-March 2016) as well as in a BC advisory cohort (June 2014-May 2017). RESULTS: This study included 247,665 patients in the UK cohort, 297,147 patients in the BC control cohort, and 303,653 patients in the BC advisory cohort. Over a 12-month post-advisory period, hydroxyzine initiation decreased by 21% in the UK (rate ratio 0.79, 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.96) relative to the expected level of initiation based on the pre-advisory trend. Hydroxyzine initiation did not change in the BC control cohort or following the Canadian advisory in the BC advisory cohort. The decrease in hydroxyzine initiation in the UK in the 12 months after the advisories was not significantly different for patients with risk factors compared with those without risk factors. CONCLUSION: Hydroxyzine initiation decreased in the UK, but not in BC, in the 12 months following safety advisories. The decrease in hydroxyzine initiation in the UK was not significantly different for patients with versus without risk factors for QT prolongation and TdP.


Assuntos
Síndrome do QT Longo , Torsades de Pointes , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos , Hidroxizina , Estudos Longitudinais , Torsades de Pointes/induzido quimicamente , Torsades de Pointes/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
17.
Chemosphere ; 300: 134555, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35405193

RESUMO

The release and accumulation of metal-oxide nanoparticles in soils have threatened terrestrial plants. However, limited knowledge is available on the accumulation of nano-Al2O3 (22 nm), bulk-Al2O3 (167 nm), and Al3+ by maize plants and the subsequent impact on its physiology and growth in agar (0.7% w/v), hydroponic (1X), and soil. Maize plants were cultivated with 0.05-2 mg g-1 or ml-1 of three Al types and their biological attributes, oxidative status, Al bioaccumulation, and translocation were measured. The ICP-MS results revealed a dose-dependent increase (P ≤ 0.05 or ≤0.01) in Al content in maize tissues following nano-Al2O3 and Al3+ exposure, however, plants exposed to bulk-Al2O3 showed no significant uptake of Al. Atomic mapping by EDX during SEM analysis and TEM revealed varied distributions of nano-Al2O3 from roots to aerial parts and intracellular transportation. Al deposition in tissues followed the order: Al3+ > nano-Al2O3 > bulk-Al2O3 and therefore, a similar trend of toxicity was observed for seed germination, the emergence of plant organs, length, biomass accumulation, total chlorophyll, phosphorus content, and total soluble protein. Oxidative stress was profoundly induced dose-dependently and was highest at 2 mg ml-1 or g-1 of Al3+ and nano-Al2O3 when superoxide radical formation, proline induction, activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione reductase (GR) and membrane lipid peroxidation were measured. Aluminum toxicity was found higher in hydroponically grown maize compared to soil-grown maize. Forty days exposure in soil showed greater inhibition of maize growth compared to 20 days exposure. This study is significant in understanding the maize response to different Al types in soil and soil-free media.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas , Zea mays , Alumínio/metabolismo , Alumínio/toxicidade , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Óxidos/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Solo , Zea mays/metabolismo
18.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 691, 2022 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35395753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As of October 2021, 47 (80%) of the 59 countries, identified at highest risk for Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus (MNT), had been validated for elimination. We assessed sustainability of MNT elimination (MNTE) in 28 countries that were validated during 2011‒2020. METHODS: We assessed the attainment of the following MNTE sustainability indicators: 1) ≥ 90% coverage with three doses of Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis vaccine (DTP3) among infants < 1 year, 2) ≥ 80% coverage with at least two doses of tetanus toxoid-containing vaccine (TTCV2 +) among pregnant women, 3) ≥ 80% protection at birth (PAB), 4) ≥ 70% skilled birth attendance (SBA), and 4) ≥ 80% first (ANC1) and fourth antenatal care (ANC4) visits. We assessed the introduction of TTCV booster doses. Data sources included the 2020 WHO /UNICEF Joint Reporting Forms, and the latest Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) or Multi-Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) for each country, if available. We reviewed literature and used DHS/MICS data to identify barriers to sustaining MNTE. RESULTS: Of 28 assessed countries, 7 (25%) reported ≥ 90% DTP3 coverage, 4 of 26 (16%) reported ≥ 80% TTCV2 + coverage, and 23 of 27 (85%) reported ≥ 80% PAB coverage. Based on DHS/MICS in 15 of the 28 countries, 10 (67%) achieved ≥ 70% SBA delivery, 13 (87%) achieved ≥ 80% ANC1 visit coverage, and 3 (20%) ≥ 80% ANC4 visit coverage. We observed sub-optimal coverage in many countries at the subnational level. The first, second and third booster doses of TTCV respectively have been introduced in 6 (21%), 5 (18%), and 1 (4%) of 28 countries. Only three countries conducted post-MNTE validation assessments. Barriers to MNTE sustainability included: competing program priorities, limited resources to introduce TTCV booster doses and implement corrective immunization in high-risk districts and socio-economic factors. CONCLUSIONS: Despite good performance of MNTE indicators in several countries, MNTE sustainability appears threatened in some countries. Integration and coordination of MNTE activities with other immunization activities in the context of the Immunization Agenda 2030 lifecourse vaccination strategy such as providing tetanus booster doses in school-based vaccination platforms, during measles second dose and HPV vaccination, and integrating MNTE post-validation assessments with immunization program reviews will ensure MNTE is sustained.


Assuntos
Tétano , Vacina contra Difteria, Tétano e Coqueluche , Feminino , Humanos , Imunização , Programas de Imunização , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Tétano/prevenção & controle , Vacinação
19.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-7, 2022 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35440249

RESUMO

Despite its widespread prevalence, bullying in educational institutions is not considered a serious social issue in Pakistan. Present study explores the understandings and experiences of college students about bullying and documents the status of anti-bullying interventions in educational institutions. This study is based on in-depth interviews with students and principals of private sector colleges in Pakistan. The study showcases the important aspects of bullying that hurt the educational, personal and social lives of students. The most frequent form of bullying experienced by the students constitutes verbal bullying. Bullying occurs at specific places on campuses which are less supervised by teachers and administration. Although the principals were of the view that they had zero tolerance towards bullying in their premises, they did not have any preventive measures. There is a dire need to develop a policy to address the issue of bullying in educational institutions.

20.
Clin Transplant ; 36(6): e14627, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35279872

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The literature lacks data on World Health Organization (WHO) class II and III deficient liver donors who underwent right hepatectomy during living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we compared the perioperative outcomes of 15 glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient living liver donors with a matched cohort of 39 nondeficient living liver donors undergoing right lobe donation. RESULTS: Out of 15 G6PD deficient donors, four (26.67%) donors had class II, and 11 (73.34%) had class III G6PD deficiency. The mean postoperative trough hemoglobin level was significantly lower in the deficient group than the nondeficient group (9.38 ± 1.59 g/dL vs. 10.27 ± .91 g/dL, p = .046). The mean peak indirect bilirubin level was significantly higher in the deficient group than the nondeficient group (2.22 ± 1.38 mg/dL vs. 1.40 ± .89 mg/dL, p = .047), and a similar trend was observed in total serum bilirubin (3.99 ± 2.57 mg/dL vs. 2.99 ± 1.46 mg/dL, p = .038). Biochemical evidence of hemolysis was found only in three (20%) deficient donors, but none of them needed a blood transfusion. No mortality was observed in either group. All other parameters, including demographics, operative parameters, graft characteristics, and hospital stay were comparable between both groups (p > .05). CONCLUSION: G6PD deficiency with WHO class II and above should not be considered a contraindication for right lobe donation.


Assuntos
Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase , Transplante de Fígado , Bilirrubina , Glucose , Deficiência de Glucosefosfato Desidrogenase/cirurgia , Hepatectomia , Humanos , Fígado/cirurgia , Doadores Vivos , Fosfatos , Estudos Prospectivos
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