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1.
Br Dent J ; 230(3): 159-164, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574541

RESUMO

Aims This study aims to review ways in which UK and US practitioners manage post-operative dental pain following oral surgery procedures, focusing on the use of opioids in Boston, US and Birmingham, UK.Methods An anonymous online questionnaire was distributed to clinicians from either Birmingham Dental Hospital, UK and Harvard School of Dental Medicine or Boston University School of Dental Medicine, US. They were invited to fill this out via email link or in person using a tablet provided. Information was collected regarding age, years of experience, area of practice, area of undergraduate training, gender and levels of oral surgery activity. Participants were presented with six clinical scenarios and asked to indicate how they would achieve post-operative analgesia for each.Results A total of 44 responses were received, 22 from each city, including 27 males and 17 females. Fifty-five percent of respondents carried out at least ten weekly oral surgery procedures, with 52% having more than ten years' experience. Forty-one percent were aged greater than 40 years, with 32% less than 30. Boston dentists were 2.1 times (P = 0.016) more likely to opt for opioids than Birmingham dentists. Both cohorts were more likely to choose opioids for invasive surgeries involving flap procedures compared to simple extractions. Among the cases where UK respondents opted for opioids, codeine was chosen in 100% of cases compared to 9% for the US cohort, where the remainder chose more potent opioids (oxycodone, hydrocodone and tramadol).Conclusions Results of this preliminary study show that Boston practitioners were likely to opt for opioids in a higher proportion of cases (19.84%) than Birmingham practitioners (9.42%). Reasons for the discrepancies could be related to how practitioners are trained, patient expectations on pain relief and health policy in the two countries. Dental prescriptions have contributed to the US opioid epidemic and their decreased use will be important in combatting the crisis.

2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3369, 2021 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564007

RESUMO

Bryophytes are potent metal absorbers, thriving well on heavy metal (HM)-polluted soils. Mechanisms controlling uptake, compartmentalization and impacts of HMs on bryophytes life cycle are largely unknown. The current study is an effort to decipher mechanisms of nickel (Ni) excess-induced effects on the phenological events of two bryophytes, Asterella wallichiana and Plagiochasma apendiculatum growing in natural habitats. Observations revealed Ni-excess induced negative impacts on abundance, frequency of occurrence of reproductive organs, population viability and morphological traits, spore viability and physiological attributes of both the liverworts. Results led us conclude that P. appendiculatum survived better with the lowest impact on its life cycle events than A. wallichiana under Ni excess in natural habitats. Our findings collectively provide insights into the previously unknown mechanisms of Ni-induced responses in liverworts with respect to phenological attributes, as well as demonstrate the potential of P. appendiculatum to survive better in Ni excess habitats.

3.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 30(1): 97-102, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer has a high mortality rate worldwide; in Pakistan it kills more than 7000 women every year. Prevention is possible through vaccination against human papilloma virus, the causative agent of cervical cancer, or by screening for premalignant lesions through routine Pap smear tests. We have studied the knowledge and practices regarding cervical cancer, its risk factors, screening and prevention and the role of human papilloma virus vaccination and Pap smear testing, among young women of Karachi. METHODS: Information was gathered using a modified version of Cervical Cancer Awareness Measure Toolkit version 2.1 from 384 women aged 15 to 50 with no medical background attending outpatient clinics of AKUH, Karachi. Data entry was done through EpiData and analysis was done using SPSS version 22.0. RESULTS: Our respondents' mean age was 30 (±7.6) years. Out of the 61.2% of women who had heard about cervical cancer, 47.0% had heard about Pap smear test and among them, 73% had gotten a Pap test. A total of 25.5% of women out of the 61.2%, knew that a vaccine existed for prevention and out of them only 9.8% had vaccinated against human papilloma virus. CONCLUSION: Majority of women in our study belonged to a higher socioeconomic class and were mostly educated but their knowledge and practices regarding prevention and screening of cervical cancer were poor. This reflects that the knowledge levels as a whole would be considerably lower in the city's general population.

4.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128388, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182095

RESUMO

Arbitrary use of insecticides in agricultural practices cause severe environmental hazard that adversely affects the growth and productivity of edible crops. Considering theses, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the toxicological potential of two neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid (IMID) and thiamethoxam (THIA) using chickpea as a test crop. Application of insecticides at three varying doses revealed a gradual decrease in biological performance of chickpea plants which however, varied noticeably among insecticides and their doses. Significant (P ≤ 0.05) decline in germination efficiency, length of plant organs under in vitro condition was observed in a dose related manner. Among insecticides, 300 µgIMIDkg-1 (3X dose) maximally and significantly (P ≤ 0.05) inhibited germination efficiency, vigor index, length, dry matter accumulation, photosynthetic pigment formation, nodule volume and mass, nutrient uptake, grain yield and protein over untreated control. In contrast, 75 µgTHIAkg-1 (3X dose) considerably declined the leghaemoglobin content, shoot phosphorus and root nitrogen. Enhanced expression of stress biomarkers including proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), and antioxidant defence enzymes was noticed in the presence of insecticides. For instance, at 3X IMID, shoot proline, MDA, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), guaiacol peroxidase (GPX) and peroxidase (POD) were increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) by 66%, 81%, 36% and 35%, respectively. Additionally, electrolyte leakage was maximally (77%) increased at 3X dose of IMID, whereas, H2O2 in foliage was maximally accumulated (0.0156 µ moles min-1 g-1 fw) at 3X dose of THIA which was 58% greater than untreated foliage. A clear distortion/damage in tip and surface of roots and ultrastructural deformation in xylem and phloem of plant tissues as indication of insecticidal phytotoxicity was observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). For oxidative stress and cytotoxicity assessment, root tips were stained with a combination of acridine orange and propidium iodide, and Evan blue dyes and examined. Confocal laser scanning microscopic (CLSM) images of roots revealed a 10-fold and 13.5-fold increase in red and blue fluorescence when 3X IMID treated roots were assessed quantitatively. Conclusively, the present investigation recommends that a careful and protected approach should be adopted before the application of insecticides in agricultural ecosystems.


Assuntos
Cicer/fisiologia , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Neonicotinoides/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ascorbato Peroxidases/metabolismo , Cicer/enzimologia , Ecossistema , Germinação , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Inseticidas/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Nitrocompostos , Estresse Oxidativo , Peroxidase , Fotossíntese
5.
Environ Pollut ; 269: 116218, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33316490

RESUMO

The current study for the first time demonstrates the interference of a free-living, N2-fixing, and nanoparticle (NP) tolerant Azotobacter salinestris strain ASM recovered from metal-polluted soil with tomato plant-metal oxide NPs (ZnO, CuO, Al2O3, and TiO2) interactions in a sandy clay loam soil system with bulk materials as control. Tomato plants were grown till full maturity in soils amended with 20-2000 mg kg-1 of each metal-oxide NP with and without seed biopriming and root-inoculation of A. salinestris. A. salinestris was found metabolically active, producing considerably high amounts of bioactive indole-3-acetic-acid, morphologically unaffected, and with low alteration of cell membrane permeability under 125-1500 µgml-1 of NPs. However, ZnO-NPs slightly alter bacterial membrane permeability. Besides, A. salinestris secreted significantly higher amounts of extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) even under NP exposure, which could entrap the NPs and form metal-EPS complex as revealed and quantified by SEM-EDX. NPs were also found adsorbed on bacterial biomass. EPS stabilized the NPs and provided negative zeta potential to NPs. Following soil application, A. salinestris improved the plant performance and augmented the yield of tomato fruits and lycopene content even in NPs stressed soils. Interestingly, A. salinestris inoculation enhanced photosynthetic pigment formation, flower attributes, plant and fruit biomass, and reduced proline level. Bacterial inoculation also reduced the NP's uptake and accumulation significantly in vegetative organs and fruits. The organ wise order of NP's internalization was roots > shoots > fruits. Conclusively, A. salinestris inoculation could be an alternative to increase the production of tomato in metal-oxide NPs contaminated soils.


Assuntos
Lycopersicon esculentum , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Nanopartículas , Poluentes do Solo , Óxido de Zinco , Azotobacter , Matriz Extracelular de Substâncias Poliméricas/química , Óxidos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758517

RESUMO

The gut microbiota is composed of a large number of microbes, usually regarded as commensal bacteria. It has become gradually clear that gastrointestinal microbiota affects gut pathophysiology and the central nervous system (CNS) function by modulating the signaling pathways of the microbiota-gut-brain (MGB) axis. This bidirectional MGB axis communication primarily acts through neuroendocrine, neuroimmune, and autonomic nervous systems (ANS) mechanisms. Accumulating evidence reveals that gut microbiota interacts with the host brain, and its modulation may play a critical role in the pathology of neuropsychiatric disorders. Recently, neuroscience research has established the significance of gut microbiota in the development of brain systems that are essential to stress-related behaviors, including depression and anxiety. Application of modulators of the MGB, such as psychobiotics (e.g., probiotics), prebiotics, and specific diets, may be a promising therapeutic approach for neuropsychiatric disorders. The present review article primarily focuses on the relevant features of the disturbances of the MGB axis in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders and its potential mechanisms.

7.
Turk Kardiyol Dern Ars ; 48(8): 754-759, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257611

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Thrombosis of a hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is a serious complication that needs urgent treatment. Most cases are treated surgically, but recently, endovascular strategies have become a viable alternative. This study is an evaluation of the success and patency rate of percutaneous balloon angioplasty of thrombosed hemodialysis fistulas using a drug-coated balloon (DCB) contrasted with a standard balloon (SB). METHODS: The data of 33 patients with a thrombosed native hemodialysis AVF treated percutaneously in a tertiary care center were analyzed retrospectively. Success of the procedure was defined as restoration of flow with less than 30% residual stenosis and resumption of dialysis through the hemodialysis AVF. The success rate of the procedure and the patency rate at 1, 6, and 12 months were evaluated. The effect on patency of a DCB was compared to that of a SB. RESULTS: Twenty-five radiocephalic and 8 brachiocephalic thrombosed hemodialysis AVFs were treated during the study period. Flow was restored in 23 thrombosed fistulas, a success rate of 69.7%. The patency rate of successfully treated fistulas was 95.6% at 1 month, 76.1% at 6 months, and 57.9% at 12 months. Ten of the 23 re-established AVFs were treated with a DCB and the remainder were treated with a SB. The patency of the fistulas treated with a DCB was similar to that of a SB at 1 month (100% vs 92.3%, respectively; p=0.393). The patency rate of a DCB was greater than that of a SB at 6 months (88.9% vs 66.7%, respectively; p=0.258) and 12 months (75% vs 45.4%, respectively; p=0.219). CONCLUSION: Percutaneous intervention for thrombosed hemodialysis AVFs is a safe, minimally invasive, and effective procedure. There was a positive trend in the patency rate of patients treated with a DCB at 6 and 12 months compared with a SB.

8.
J Invasive Cardiol ; 2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33279879

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that the South Asian (SA) population has an increased rate of in-stent stenosis (ISR) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) when compared with other ethnicities. Drug-eluting balloons (DEBs) have emerged as a viable option for the treatment of ISR. However, data describing the outcomes of DEB-PCI in the SA population are limited. Since the magnitude of the problem is high in the SA population, it is essential to evaluate the outcomes of DEB-PCI for ISR. METHODS: In this cohort study, we investigated the incidence of target-lesion revascularization (TLR) and major adverse cardiac event (MACE) after PCI with DEB for ISR at 1 year and at long-term follow-up in Pakistani patients. From January 2010 to January 2019, a total of 147 ISR lesions in 112 patients were treated with DEB-PCI at our center. RESULTS: The incidence of clinically driven TLR and MACE after a 1-year follow-up was 15.2% and 16.1%, respectively. At mean long-term follow-up of 2.73 ± 2.14 years, the TLR and MACE rates were 26.8% and 35.7%, respectively. The major predictors for TLR were diffuse and occlusive ISR types, DEB for a recurrent restenosis lesion, and the presence of ≥3 traditional cardiovascular disease risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: The high rates of follow-up TLR and MACE reported in this study may suggest that the outcomes of DEB-PCI for ISR in the SA population may be unsatisfactory. With the increasing use of DEBs, it is imperative to further investigate DEB-PCI outcomes in the SA population with large, prospective studies.

9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(12): 801, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33263175

RESUMO

Heavy metals discharge at an unrestrained rate from various industries into the environment pose serious human health problems. Considering this, the present study aimed at exploring the metal biosorbing potentials of bacterial strains recovered from polluted soils. The bacterial strains (CPSB1, BM2 and CAZ3) belonging to genera Pseudomonas, Bacillus and Azotobacter expressing multi-metal tolerance ability were identified to species level as P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis and A. chroococcum, respectively, by 16S rRNA partial gene sequence analysis. The biosorption of cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc by three dead bacterial genera were studied as a function of metal concentration, variable pH of the medium and reaction (contact) time. The three bacterial strains exhibited a tremendous metal removal ability which continued even at the highest tested concentration of some metals. Later, a decline in the percentage of biosorbed metals was recorded as the metal concentration was increased with the simultaneous generation of a driving force to overcome mass transfer resistance for movement of metal ions between the solution and the surface of adsorbent. Among test bacteria, B. subtilis biosorbed a maximum of 96% chromium at 25 µg mL-1 while the maximum percentage (91%) of biosorbed metals recorded at 400 µg Cd mL-1 was observed for P. aeruginosa. The sorption of metal ions by dead biomass of three bacterial genera at optimum conditions followed the order-(i) B. subtilis BM2: Pb > Cu > Ni > Cd > Cr, (ii) A. chroococcum CAZ3: Cr > Cd > Cu > Ni > Pb and (iii) P. aeruginosa CPSB1: Cd > Cr > Ni > Cu > Pb > Zn. It was found that the optimum pH for metal adsorption ranged between pH 8 and 9 which, however, declined substantially at pH 5.0 for all three bacterial strains. In general, the biosorption of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb by B. subtilis and A. chroococcum and such metals along with Zn by P. aeruginosa occurred maximally up to 60 min of bacterial growth. The adsorption data with regard to five metals provide an outstanding fit to the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The biosorptive ability of three bacterial genera correlated strongly (r2 > 0.9) with each metal. The bacteria belonging to two Gram-negative genera Pseudomonas (P. aeruginosa) and Azotobacter (A. chroococcum) and one Gram-positive genus Bacillus (B. subtilis) demonstrated exceptional metal removal efficiency and, hence, provides a comprehensive understanding of metal-bacteria sorption process which in effect paves the way for detoxifying/removing metals from contaminated environment.

10.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 82(1)2020 12 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356022

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To explore the prevalence of recent (previous 2 weeks) suicide attempts and estimates of likelihood of future suicide attempts as well as demographic characteristics associated with such attempts among residents of the Arab region looking for depression information online. METHODS: Google Ads were used to recruit 1,003 Arabic-speaking adults mostly from February 2014 to June 2014 to take part in a depression and suicidality screening study using a self-report questionnaire based on DSM-IV diagnostic criteria. RESULTS: Of the eligible participants (N = 900), 10.6% reported a suicide attempt in the previous 2 weeks, and 16.1% indicated a likelihood of making a suicide attempt in the following month. Men, those declining to state their sexual orientation, those from lower subjective social status (SSS), and unemployed individuals had higher odds of reporting a past suicide attempt (P = .001, P = .002, P < .001, P = .023, respectively). Younger individuals, those less religious, those with past suicide attempt, and those with lower SSS had higher odds of a likelihood of a future suicide attempt (P = .03, P = .02, P < .001, P = .001, respectively). Comparing the 4 countries with highest number of participants (Algeria, n = 148, Egypt, n = 260, Morocco, n = 118, and Saudi Arabia, n = 99), lower SSS was associated with higher odds of an attempt for Algeria, Morocco, and Saudi Arabia, but not for Egypt (P = .002). Lower religiosity was related to higher odds of estimates of future suicide for Algeria, Egypt, and Saudi Arabia, but not for Morocco (P = .014). CONCLUSIONS: Suicidality among residents of Arab-speaking countries warrants further exploration. Common predictors of risk may be less relevant for some populations.​.

11.
Turk J Med Sci ; 2020 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33315349

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study is to evaluate serum Pentraxin-3 (PTX-3) levels in Sars-CoV-2 virus infection (COVID-19) patients and to investigate whether PTX-3 predicts the disease prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was conducted on 88 confirmed COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized due to symptomatic pneumonia between April 15 2020 and August 15 2020. The patients were divided into two groups as survived patients and non-survived patients. Both groups were compared according to demographic features, comorbid conditions and measurement of the PTX-3 and other laboratory parameters of the patients. RESULTS: Of 88 patients with COVID-19, 59 (67%) were discharged with complete cure and 29 (33%) resulted in death. 46 (52.3%) of the patients were men. PTX-3 median value [IQR] was 3.66 ng/mL (0.9-27.9) in all patients, 3.3 ng/mL (0.9-27.9) in survivors and 3.91 ng/mL (1.9-23.2) in non-survivors which was significantly higher (p= 0.045). As a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis the cut-off value of PTX-3 for predicting mortality in patients was 3.73 with 65% sensitivity and 65% specificity (AUC: 0.646, 95% CI: 0.525-0.767, P= 0.045). Also, we found significant cut-off values with respect to D-Dimer, D-Dimer/ PTX-3, high-sensitivity troponin, high-sensitivity troponin/ PTX-3, lymphocyte, PTX-3/ lymphocyte, procalcitonin, procalcitonin/ PTX-3, CRP, and CRP/ PTX-3 (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: In this study, as far as we know, for the first time, we have shown PTX-3 as the new mortality biomarker for COVID-19 disease.

12.
Turk J Med Sci ; 2020 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33185367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We aimed to identified clinical settings of renal transplant patients with COVID-19 Material and methods: In this retrospective study, we included kidney transplant inpatients with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 who had been discharged or had died by October 1, 2020. Characteristics of the patients, basal and last outpatient biochemical parameters of the patients were recorded. Discontinuation or dosage reduction of immunosuppressives and other treatment information were documented. RESULTS: 20 patients were included in this study, of whom 18 were discharged and 2 died in hospital. The mean duration of hospitalization and follow-up were 9.7 ± 6.4 day and 4.5 ± 2.0 months, respectively.14 (70%) were male, mean age was 48.0±10.3 years. At admission, all had immunosuppression withdrawn and were started on methylprednisolone 16 mg/day (50%) or dexamethasone (50%). Tacrolimus/m-TOR inhibitors were reduced by 50% and all antimetabolites were discontinued. Hemodialysis was needed for 10% of patients. Acute kidney injury was detected in 25% of the patients. With respect to hospitalization time and complications, there was no significant difference between dexamethasone users and those who did not (p>0.05).The discontinued immunosupressives were resumed within 2-4 weeks after discharge according to severity of disease. No re-hospitalization or acute rejection was detected during the follow-up of the patients. CONCLUSION: Renal transplant patients are considered a high risk group for COVID-19. It can be said that discontinuation or reduction dosages of immunosuppressives may be an effective and safe in kidney transplant patients.

13.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 33(3): 1179-1182, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33191246

RESUMO

Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria syndrome (or Progeria) is an exceptionally rare genetic disorder in children. It is caused by a rare point mutation in the lamin gene. It encodes lamin A protein, resulting in the de-shaping of nuclear membrane. This altered structure of the nuclear membrane renders the nucleus unstable. The shortened lifespan of the nucleus makes the cell liable for rapid ageing. Children are healthy by appearance when they are born but the signs appear after 12-24 months of age. Cardiovascular system is greatly affected which became a reason for the death of most of the patients of progeria. Stiffened joints disturb the bone movements; and alopecia affects the appearance of the patient. Rate of occurrence of the disease is one per four hundred thousand of people, though both sexes are equally affected.

14.
Cureus ; 12(10): e11024, 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33214952

RESUMO

Introduction The incidence of acute pyelonephritis (APN) in the diabetic population is comparatively higher and tends to be more complicated, with serious outcomes. Although complicated pyelonephritis (PN) needs hospital admission and intravenous antibiotics, the magnitude of hospital stay due to comorbidities is limited. This study's aim was to assess the impact of diabetes mellitus on length of hospital stay among patients with PN. Methods We did a retrospective data review of 520 randomly selected hospitalized patients of PN from March 2015 to December 2019 from a tertiary care center. Electronic medical records were used for identifying medical conditions through ICD-10 coding. Length of stay (LOS) was categorized as < five days and ≥ five days. Chi-squared tests were used to compare categorical parameters. Logistic regression models were used for multivariate analyses. Results The study included 520 patients with PN; 194 (37.3 %) men and 326 (62.7%) women. Overall, there were 353 (67.8 %) and 167 (32.1 %) patients with LOS < five and ≥ five days respectively. Most of the patients had lower urinary tract symptoms (90%); among them, the majority (92%) were discharged within five days. Likewise, half of the patients had diabetes (51.2); among them, 53% were discharged after five days. Older age (OR:1.7, 95%CI: 1.1 - 2.6), upper urinary tract symptoms (OR:1.6, 95%CI: 1.1 - 2.4), lower urinary tract symptoms (OR:1.9, 95%CI: 1.1 - 3.5), creatinine greater than 1.5 mg/dl (OR:1.6, 95% CI: 1.1 - 2.4) was positively associated with LOS ≥ 5 days after adjusting for other covariates. Diabetes mellitus was not found to be associated with LOS ≥ 5 days (OR: 0.9, 95%CI: 0.8 - 1.5). Conclusion In patients with acute PN, diabetes mellitus is not independently associated with prolonged hospital stay beyond five days.

15.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2020 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216319

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is a vital trace mineral involved in many physiological functions of the body. In the poultry industry, copper sulfate is being used as a major source of Cu. Copper in the bulk form is less available in the body, and much of its amount excreted out with feces causing environmental pollution and economic loss. The application of nanotechnology offers promise to address these issues by making nanoparticles. Copper nanoparticles (Cu-NP) are relatively more bioavailable due to their small size and high surface to volume ratio. Although, there is limited research on the use of Cu-NP in the poultry industry. Some researchers have pointed out the importance of Cu-NP as an effective alternative of chemical, anti-bacterial agents, and growth promoters. The effect of Cu-NP depends on their size, dose rate and the synthesis method. Apart from there, high bioavailability Cu-NP exhibited positive effects on the immunity of the birds. However, some toxic effects of Cu-NP have also been reported. Further investigations are essentially required to provide mechanistic insights into the role of Cu-NP in the avian physiology and their toxicological properties. This review aims to highlight the potential effects of Cu-NP on growth, immune system, antioxidant status, nutrient digestibility, and feed conversion ratio in poultry. Moreover, we have also discussed the future implications of Cu-NP as a growth promoter and alternative anti-bacterial agents in the poultry industry.

16.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053723

RESUMO

Deep learning models have potential to improve performance of automated computer-assisted diagnosis tools in digital histopathology and reduce subjectivity. The main objective of this study was to further improve diagnostic potential of convolutional neural networks (CNNs) in detection of lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients by integrative augmentation of input images with multiple segmentation channels. For this retrospective study, we used the PatchCamelyon dataset, consisting of 327,680 histopathology images of lymph node sections from breast cancer. Images had labels for the presence or absence of metastatic tissue. In addition, we used four separate histopathology datasets with annotations for nucleus, mitosis, tubule, and epithelium to train four instances of U-net. Then our baseline model was trained with and without additional segmentation channels and their performances were compared. Integrated gradient was used to visualize model attribution. The model trained with concatenation/integration of original input plus four additional segmentation channels, which we refer to as ConcatNet, was superior (AUC 0.924) compared to baseline with or without augmentations (AUC 0.854; 0.884). Baseline model trained with one additional segmentation channel showed intermediate performance (AUC 0.870-0.895). ConcatNet had sensitivity of 82.0% and specificity of 87.8%, which was an improvement in performance over the baseline (sensitivity of 74.6%; specificity of 80.4%). Integrated gradients showed that models trained with additional segmentation channels had improved focus on particular areas of the image containing aberrant cells. Augmenting images with additional segmentation channels improved baseline model performance as well as its ability to focus on discrete areas of the image.

17.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; : 1010539520965280, 2020 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33084371

RESUMO

Hypertension is highly prevalent, but its pharmacological management has not been well evaluated in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This review examined the prescribing patterns of antihypertensives in LMICs. Data were extracted from a total of 26 studies spanning the time period 2000 to 2018. In 10 studies, calcium channel blockers (CCBs) were the most frequently prescribed medication for managing hypertension (range = 33% to 72%); in 6 studies, renin angiotensin system (RAS) blockers (range = 25% to 83%); in 5 studies, diuretics (range = 39% to 99%); and in 5 studies, ß-blockers (BBs; range = 26% to 49%) were the most commonly prescribed antihypertensive medications. Prescribing sedatives and sublingual administration of captopril for controlling hypertension was also reported in 3 studies. Only 10 studies presented their findings in light of national or international guidelines. This review calls for further antihypertensive utilization and dispensation studies and a better understanding of clinician's perception and practice of hypertension management guidelines in LMICs.

18.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(9): 1258-1263, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027455

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aims to determine the incidence of de novo nephritic syndrome (NS) in COVID-19 patients and identify its associated factors. METHODS: All ward patients with COVID-19 pneumonia were investigated. After determining the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the study population was identified. The urine dipstick test and urine protein creatinine ratio (UPCR) measurements were performed. Patients with de novo NS findings, nasopharyngeal swab, and urine RT-PCR tests were performed simultaneously. RESULTS: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted with 21 patients with COVID-19. The mean age of the patients was 42.2±8.8 years, and 71.4% of them were male. The mean duration of follow-up was 28.4±9.3 days. The urine RT-PCR test was positive in one patient (4.8%). Improvements were observed in hematuria by 71.4%, and proteinuria by 85.7% at the end of the follow-up. A significant decrease in the measured UPCR was found in comparison to the baseline(P=0.000). Also, improvements were recorded in the complete blood counts, inflammatory parameters, ferritin, and coagulation tests, compared to the baseline. There was a positive correlation between baseline UPCR and ferritin, and a negative correlation between baseline UPCR and sodium values. CONCLUSION: COVID-19-induced de novo nephritic syndrome may occur mainly due to tubulointerstitial involvement and often results in spontaneous remission. However, why these findings were not present in all patients who had no comorbidities is not clear.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Nefropatias/etiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Creatinina , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/complicações
19.
Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr ; 30(4): 291-297, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894659

RESUMO

Melanoma is a skin cancer caused by a malignancy of melanocytes. Incidence of melanoma is rapidly increasing worldwide, which results in public health problems. Primary extracutaneous melanomas can be ocular, gastrointestinal, mucosal, leptomeningeal, genitourinary, and lymphatic. The relationship between exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light and development of melanoma is intensively acute and complex, and intermittent sun exposure greatly increases the risk of melanoma. It is the fifth most common type of cancer in men number and the sixth most common in women. The diagnosis of melanoma is made through clinical assessment of the pigmented by health care professionals. Architectural features of malignant melanoma including asymmetry, confluence of growth, marked cellularity, and poor circumscription. The cytological feature of malignant melanoma include an irregular and thick nuclear membrane and prominent nucleoli. The preventive measures include reducing exposure to UV light and the sun. The early detection of skin cancer greatly reduces both short- and long-term morbidity and mortality. The treatment and follow-up with the doctor for melanoma patients may differ because of the stage of the tumor and the primary lesion. The typical therapy for malignant melanoma is surgical excision, immunotherapy such as interleukin 2 (IL-2), gene therapy, and biochemotherapy.

20.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66Suppl 2(Suppl 2): 65-70, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32965359

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study aims to evaluate changes in hematological parameters after the follow-up of patients who received treatment with favipiravir due to COVID-19 infections. METHODS: Sixty-two cases receiving favipiravir treatment for at least five days due to COVID-19 infection were evaluated retrospectively. Parameters including age, gender, nasopharyngeal swab positivity, and chronic diseases were analyzed. Hematologic parameters were analyzed before and after the treatment. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients receiving treatment with favipiravir was 63.7±12.3 years. Nasopharyngeal swab positivity was detected in 67.7%. The most common comorbid conditions detected in patients were hypertension in 25 cases (40.3%) and diabetes in 16 cases (25.8%). In the statistical analysis of the hematological parameters before and after treatment with favipiravir, WBC, PT-PTT-INR levels were found to be unaffected; the mean RBC was found to have decreased from 4.33 ± 0.58 M/uL to 4.16 ± 0.54 M/uL (p:0.003); the median hemoglobin level was found to have decreased from 12.3 g/dl to 11.9 g/dl (p:0.041); the hematocrit level decreased from 38.1% ± 4.8 to 36.9% ± 4.2 (p:0.026); the median neutrophil count decreased from 4.57 K/uL to 3.85 K/uL (p:0.001); the mean lymphocyte count increased from 1.22 ± 0.53 K/uL to 1.84 ± 1.19 K/uL (p:0.000); and the mean platelet count increased from 244.1 ± 85.1 K/uL to 281.9 ± 103.3 K/uL (p:0.005). CONCLUSION: We concluded that the pathological effect of treatment with favipiravir on the hematologic system was the suppression in the erythrocyte series, and there were no adverse effects in other hematologic parameters.


Assuntos
Amidas/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pirazinas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Plaquetas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
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