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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250575, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350309

RESUMO

Abstract Cancer is a fatal malignancy and its increasing worldwide prevalence demands the discovery of more sensitive and reliable molecular biomarkers. To investigate the GINS1 expression level and its prognostic value in distinct human cancers using a series of multi-layered in silico approach may help to establish it as a potential shared diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of different cancer subtypes. The GINS1 mRNA, protein expression, and promoter methylation were analyzed using UALCAN and Human Protein Atlas (HPA), while mRNA expression was further validated via GENT2. The potential prognostic values of GINS1 were evaluated through KM plotter. Then, cBioPortal was utilized to examine the GINS1-related genetic mutations and copy number variations (CNVs), while pathway enrichment analysis was performed using DAVID. Moreover, a correlational analysis between GINS1 expression and CD8+ T immune cells and a the construction of gene-drug interaction network was performed using TIMER, CDT, and Cytoscape. The GINS1 was found down-regulated in a single subtypes of human cancer while commonly up-regulated in 23 different other subtypes. The up-regulation of GINS1 was significantly correlated with the poor overall survival (OS) of Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma (LIHC), Lung Adenocarcinoma (LUAD), and Kidney renal clear cell carcinoma (KIRC). The GINS1 was also found up-regulated in LIHC, LUAD, and KIRC patients of different clinicopathological features. Pathways enrichment analysis revealed the involvement of GINS1 in two diverse pathways, while few interesting correlations were also documented between GINS1 expression and its promoter methylation level, CD8+ T immune cells level, and CNVs. Moreover, we also predicted few drugs that could be used in the treatment of LIHC, LUAD, and KIRC by regulating the GINS1 expression. The expression profiling of GINS1 in the current study has suggested it a novel shared diagnostic and prognostic biomarker of LIHC, LUAD, and KIRC.


Resumo O câncer é uma doença maligna fatal e sua crescente prevalência mundial exige a descoberta de biomarcadores moleculares mais sensíveis e confiáveis. Investigar o nível de expressão de GINS1 e seu valor prognóstico em cânceres humanos distintos, usando uma série de abordagens in silico em várias camadas, pode ajudar a estabelecê-lo como um potencial biomarcador de diagnóstico e prognóstico compartilhado de diferentes subtipos de câncer. O mRNA de GINS1, a expressão da proteína e a metilação do promotor foram analisados ​​usando UALCAN e Human Protein Atlas (HPA), enquanto a expressão de mRNA foi posteriormente validada via GENT2. Os valores prognósticos potenciais de GINS1 foram avaliados por meio do plotter KM. Em seguida, o cBioPortal foi utilizado para examinar as mutações genéticas relacionadas ao GINS1 e as variações do número de cópias (CNVs), enquanto a análise de enriquecimento da via foi realizada usando DAVID. Além disso, uma análise correlacional entre a expressão de GINS1 e células imunes T CD8 + e a construção de uma rede de interação gene-droga foi realizada usando TIMER, CDT e Cytoscape. O GINS1 foi encontrado regulado negativamente em um único subtipo de câncer humano, enquanto comumente regulado positivamente em 23 outros subtipos diferentes. A regulação positiva de GINS1 foi significativamente correlacionada com a sobrevida global pobre (OS) de Carcinoma Hepatocelular de Fígado (LIHC), Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão (LUAD) e Carcinoma de Células Claras Renais de Rim (KIRC). O GINS1 também foi encontrado regulado positivamente em pacientes LIHC, LUAD e KIRC de diferentes características clínico-patológicas. A análise de enriquecimento de vias revelou o envolvimento de GINS1 em duas vias diversas, enquanto poucas correlações interessantes também foram documentadas entre a expressão de GINS1 e seu nível de metilação do promotor, nível de células imunes T CD8 + e CNVs. Além disso, também previmos poucos medicamentos que poderiam ser usados ​​no tratamento de LIHC, LUAD e KIRC, regulando a expressão de GINS1. O perfil de expressão de GINS1 no estudo atual sugeriu que é um novo biomarcador de diagnóstico e prognóstico compartilhado de LIHC, LUAD e KIRC.


Assuntos
Humanos , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Prognóstico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Regulação para Cima , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254552, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360202

RESUMO

Anti-tuberculosis drugs are reported to cause hepatotoxicity, which varies from asymptomatic rise of the hepatic enzymes. Hepatoprotective plants plays important role to protect liver. This study investigated the hepatoprotective potential of the Solanum lycopersicum in rats intoxicated with Isoniazid and Rifampicin (INH+RIF) to induce hepatotoxicity. Thirty wistar albino rats were divided into five groups of six animals each. Group 1 rats were kept control while groups II, III, IV and V were administered with INH+RIF (75+150 mg/kg) orally, for seven consecutive days. For treatment, rats in group III received silymarin while animals in group IV and V were provided with 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg of Solanum lycopersicum extract, respectively. On day 0 and 8th blood samples were collected for the analysis of hepatic biomarkers. The data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni's post hoc test for statistical analysis. Hepatotoxicity induced by INH+RIF resulted in significant elevation of serum hepatic enzymes including Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin while decreased the albumin level. The Solanum lycopersicum at dose of 80 mg/kg significantly reduced the hepatic enzymes AST, ALT, ALP and bilirubin while the albumin level was significantly increased. The treatment had non-significant effect on body and liver weight. Drug induced hepatotoxicity can be effectively treated with Solanum lycopersicum at 80 mg/kg dose.


As drogas antituberculose são relatadas como causadoras de hepatotoxicidade, ocasionando o aumento assintomático das enzimas hepáticas. As plantas hepatoprotetoras desempenham um papel importante na proteção do fígado. Este estudo investigou o potencial hepatoprotetor de Solanum lycopersicum em ratos que foram intoxicados com isoniazida e rifampicina (INH + RIF) para induzir hepatotoxicidade. Trinta ratos wistar albinos foram divididos em cinco grupos de seis animais cada. Os ratos do grupo 1 representaram o grupo controle, enquanto os ratos dos grupos II, III, IV e V receberam INH + RIF (75 + 150 mg/kg) por via oral, por sete dias consecutivos. Para o tratamento, os ratos do grupo III receberam silimarina, enquanto os animais do grupo IV e V receberam 40 mg/kg e 80 mg/kg de extrato de S. lycopersicum, respectivamente. Nos dias 0 e 8, foram coletadas amostras de sangue para análise de biomarcadores hepáticos. Os dados foram submetidos a teste unilateral (ANOVA) e post hoc de Bonferroni para análise estatística. A hepatotoxicidade induzida por INH + RIF resultou em elevação significativa das enzimas hepáticas séricas, incluindo aspartato aminotransferase (AST), alanina aminotransferase (ALT), fosfatase alcalina (ALP) e bilirrubina total, enquanto houve a diminuição do nível de albumina. O S. lycopersicum, na dose de 80 mg / kg, reduziu significativamente as enzimas hepáticas AST, ALT, ALP e bilirrubina, enquanto o nível de albumina aumentou de forma significativa. O tratamento não teve efeito significativo no peso corporal e hepático. A hepatotoxicidade induzida por drogas pode ser tratada de forma eficaz com S. lycopersicum na dose de 80 mg/kg.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Lycopersicon esculentum , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Antituberculosos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248122, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355851

RESUMO

Abstract Being vector of West Nile Virus and falariasis the control of Culex quinquefasciatus is likely to be essential. Synthetic insecticide treatment is looking most effective for vectors mosquito control. However, these products are toxic to the environment and non-target organisms. Consequently, ecofriendly control of vectors mosquito is needed. In this regard botanical insecticide is looking more fruitful. Therefore, the present research aimed to investigate the effectiveness of methanolic extract and various fractions, including, n-hexane, ethyl-acetate, chloroform, and aqueous fraction, obtained from methanolic extract of Ailanthus altissima, Artemisia scoparia, and Justicia adhatoda using separating funnel against larval, pupal, and adult stages of Culex quinquefasciatus. The larvae and pupae of Culex quinquefasciatus were exposed to various concentrations (31.25-1000 ppm) of methanolic extract and its fractions for 24 hours of exposure period. For knock-down bioassay (filter paper impregnation bioassay) different concentration of the methanolic extract and its various fractions (i.e. 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1mg/mL) were applied for 1 hour exposure period. The results were statistically analysed using standard deviation, probit analysis, and linear regression. The R2 values of larvae, pupae, and adult range from 0.4 to 0.99. The values of LC50 (concentration causing 50% mortality) for late 3rd instar larvae after 24 hours exposure period range from 93-1856.7 ppm, while LC90 values range from 424 -7635.5ppm. The values of LC50for pupae range form 1326.7-6818.4ppm and and values of LC90 range from 3667.3-17427.9ppm, respectively. The KDT50 range from 0.30 to 2.8% and KDT90 values range from1.2 to 110.8%, respectively. In conclusion, Justicia adhatoda may be effective for controlling populations of vector mosquito.


Resumo Por ser o vetor do vírus do Nilo Ocidental e da falaríase, o controle de Culex quinquefasciatus Say é provavelmente essencial. O tratamento com inseticida sintético parece ser mais eficaz para o controle dos mosquitos vetores. No entanto, esses produtos são tóxicos para o meio ambiente e organismos não visados. Consequentemente, o controle ecológico dos mosquitos vetores é necessário. Nesse sentido, o inseticida botânico parece mais produtivo. Portanto, a presente pesquisa teve como objetivo investigar a eficácia do extrato metanólico e de várias frações, incluindo n-hexano, acetato de etila, clorofórmio e fração aquosa, obtidos do extrato metanólico de Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, Artemisia scoparia Waldst. & Kit. e Justicia adhatoda L. usando funil de separação contra os estágios larval, pupal e adulto de C. quinquefasciatus. As larvas e pupas de C. quinquefasciatus foram expostas a várias concentrações (31,25-1000 ppm) de extrato metanólico, e suas frações por 24 horas de período de exposição. Para o bioensaio knock-down (bioensaio de impregnação de papel de filtro), diferentes concentrações do extrato metanólico e suas várias frações (ou seja, 0,0625, 0,125, 0,25, 0,5 e 1 mg / mL) foram aplicadas por um período de exposição de 1 hora. Os resultados foram analisados ​​estatisticamente usando desvio padrão, análise Probit e regressão linear. Os valores de R2 de larvas, pupas e adultos variaram de 0,4 a 0,99. Os valores de LC50 (concentração que causa 50% de mortalidade) para larvas de terceiro estádio tardio após 24 horas de período de exposição variaram de 93-1856,7 ppm, enquanto os valores de LC90 variaram de 424-7635,5ppm. Os valores de LC50 para pupas variaram de 1326,7-6818,4 ppm e os valores de LC90 variaram de 3667,3-17427,9 ppm, respectivamente. O KDT50 variou de 0,30 a 2,8% e os valores de KDT90 variaram de 1,2 a 110,8%, respectivamente. Por fim, a espécie J. adhatoda pôde ser eficaz para controlar populações de mosquitos vetores.


Assuntos
Animais , Culex , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Anopheles , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta , Mosquitos Vetores , Larva
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249911, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339366

RESUMO

Abstract Hematological and hematopoietic cells malignancies of the genes and hematopoietic cells are associated with the genetic mutation, often at the chromosomal level. The standard cytogenetic study is widely accepted as one of the main diagnostics and prognostic determinants in patients. Therefore, the current descriptive and cross-sectional study sought to determine the cytogenetic analysis of frequent hematological malignancies in Pakistan. A total of 202 peripheral bone marrow or blood samples from patients with benign and malignant hematological malignancy were taken using a conventional G-banding technique. Among enrolled patients, the mean age was 21.5 years ± 23.4, and gender-wise distribution showed a marked predominance of the male 147 (73%) population compared to the female 55 (27%). Patients in the age group (2-10 years) had the highest frequency, 48 (24%), of hematological neoplasms, followed by age (11-20 years) with 40 (20%). Normal karyotypes (46, XX/46, XY) was found in 51% (n=103) patients. Furthermore, the frequency of complex karyotype was 30 (15%), while normal was seen in 171 (85%) patients. Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (Pre-B ALL) was the most prevalent malignancy of 66 (33%), followed by Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML) of 41 (20%) and Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia of 29 (14%). Translocation was the most prevalent 50 (25%), followed by hypotriploidy 14 (7%) and monosomy 8 (4%) on chromosome aberration analysis. In addition, t(9:22) translocation was found to be 20 (10%) in CML, with the majority in the age group (31-40 years). This study recommends that karyotyping should be tested frequently in hematological conditions because it may provide insight into the relative chromosomal changes associated with particular malignancies.


Resumo As neoplasias hematológicas e de células hematopoiéticas dos genes e as células hematopoiéticas estão associadas à mutação genética, geralmente em nível cromossômico. O estudo citogenético padrão é amplamente aceito como um dos principais determinantes diagnósticos e prognósticos em pacientes. Portanto, o presente estudo descritivo e transversal buscou determinar a análise citogenética de neoplasias hematológicas frequentes no Paquistão. Um total de 202 amostras de medula óssea periférica ou sangue de pacientes com malignidade hematológica benigna e maligna foi coletado usando uma técnica convencional de banda G. Entre os pacientes inscritos, a média de idade foi de 21,5 anos ± 23,4, e a distribuição por gênero mostrou uma marcada predominância da população masculina de 147 (73%) em comparação com a feminina de 55 (27%). Pacientes na faixa etária (2-10 anos) tiveram a maior frequência, 48 (24%), de neoplasias hematológicas, seguida da idade (11-20 anos) com 40 (20%). Cariótipos normais (46, XX / 46, XY) foram encontrados em 51% (n = 103) dos pacientes. Além disso, a frequência de cariótipo complexo foi de 30 (15%), enquanto normal foi observada em 171 (85%) pacientes. Leucemia linfoblástica aguda pré-B (LLA Pré-B) foi a doença maligna mais prevalente de 66 (33%), seguida por leucemia mieloide crônica (LMC) de 41 (20%) e leucemia linfocítica aguda de 29 (14%). A translocação foi o 50 mais prevalente (25%), seguido por hipotriploidia 14 (7%) e monossomia 8 (4%) na análise de aberração cromossômica. Além disso, a translocação t (9:22) encontrada foi de 20 (10%) na LMC, com a maioria na faixa etária (31-40 anos). Este estudo recomenda que o cariótipo deve ser testado com frequência em condições hematológicas porque pode fornecer informações sobre as alterações cromossômicas relativas associadas a doenças malignas específicas.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto , Adulto Jovem , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Paquistão/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Cariotipagem
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e245807, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285613

RESUMO

Abstract Linum usitatissimum L is a widely used traditionally for multiple ailments. The present research was carried out to explore the antimicrobial, and anti-biofilm activity of crude extract of Linum usitatissimum L (Lu. Cr). Phytochemical and proximate analyses were performed. The bandages of diabetic foot patients were collected from the various hospitals. The bandages were cultured to isolate the bacterial strains present on it. The disc diffusion method was used to identify the antimicrobial potential whereas the minimum inhibitory concentration of the Lu.Cr were also determined. Proximate analysis confirms moisture content 8.33%, ash content 4.33%, crude protein 21.20%, crude fat 49.2% and crude fiber 5.63%. It was revealed that Gram-positive bacteria are most prevalent among all study groups. Lu.Cr possess significant bactericidal potential against S. aureus among all other microbes. Owing to this potential, linseed coated bandages can be used alternatively for the treatment of diabetic foot.


Resumo Linum usitatissimum L é amplamente utilizado tradicionalmente para doenças múltiplas. O presente trabalho foi realizado para explorar a atividade antimicrobiana e antibiofilme do extrato bruto de Linum usitatissimum L (Lu.Cr). Foram realizadas análises fitoquímicas e aproximadas. As ataduras de pacientes diabéticos com pé foram recolhidas nos vários hospitais. As bandagens foram cultivadas para isolar as cepas bacterianas presentes nas mesmas. O método de difusão em disco foi utilizado para identificar o potencial antimicrobiano e a concentração inibitória mínima do Lu.Cr também foi determinada. A análise aproximada confirma o teor de umidade 8,33%, teor de cinzas 4,33%, proteína bruta 21,20%, gordura bruta 49,2% e fibra bruta 5,63%. Foi revelado que as bactérias Gram-positivas são mais prevalentes entre todos os grupos de estudo. Lu.Cr possui potencial bactericida significativo contra S. aureus entre todos os outros micróbios. Devido a esse potencial, as ligaduras revestidas com linhaça podem ser utilizadas alternativamente para o tratamento do pé diabético.


Assuntos
Humanos , Pé Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Linho , Diabetes Mellitus , Staphylococcus aureus , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Biofilmes , Metanol
6.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 29(10): 103427, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091723

RESUMO

Environmental crises, land degradation, and frequent crop failure threaten the livelihoods of millions of the populace in the semi-arid agroecosystems. Therefore, different combinations of annual crops with perennial fruit trees were assessed to restore the soil carbon, and enhance farm productivity and profitability in a semi-arid climate. The study hypothesized that the integration of perennial fruit trees with seasonal crops may enhance farm productivity, economic returns, and environmental sustainability. Integration of phalsa (Grewia asiatica) with mung bean (Vigna radiata) - potato (Solanum tuberosum) system recorded the highest system productivity (25.9 Mg/ha) followed by phalsa with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) -mustard (Brassica juncea) systems (21.2 Mg/ha). However, Karonda (Carissa sp.) with mung bean - potato system recorded maximum net return (3529.1 US$/ha), and water use efficiency (33.0 kg/ha-mm). Concerning the benefit-cost (B:C) ratio, among the agroforestry systems, the karonda + cowpea - mustard system registered a maximum BC ratio (3.85). However, SOC density remained higher (9.10 Mg/ha) under the phalsa + cowpea - mustard and Moringa + mung bean - potato system (9.16 Mg/ha) over other systems. Similarly, phalsa + mung bean - potato system had the highest C sustainability index (27.6), carbon sequestration potential (0.6-0.67 Mg/ha/year), and water use efficiency (33.0 kg/ha-mm). Hence, the study suggested that the integration of short-duration leguminous and oilseeds with fruit trees offer a myriad of benefits and an efficient system for restoring the soil C without compromising the food and livelihood security of the rural populace in semiarid regions.

7.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 285: 121868, 2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36113304

RESUMO

Lesinurad and allopurinol have been formulated in a combined dosage form providing a new challenge for the treatment of gout attacks. Two mathematical based spectrophotometric methods, area under the curve, and artificial neural networks have been developed for simultaneous determination of lesinurad and allopurinol in pure form and in combined pharmaceutical dosage form. Area under the curve has been utilized to resolve the spectral overlap between lesinurad and allopurinol. Values of area under the curve and area absorptivity were measured at two selected wavelength ranges of 242-250 nm and 255-265 nm. Two mathematically constructed equations have been used to determine the concentrations of the drugs under the study. Advanced chemometry based model, artificial neural network, has been developed utilizing the UV spectral data of lesinurad and allopurinol through various defined steps. A five-level, two-factor experimental design was used to construct 25 mixtures. Thirteen mixtures were used to set up the calibration model and 12 mixtures were used to construct a validation set. The artificial neural network model was optimized to enable precise spectrophotometric determination of the drugs under the study. The described mathematically bases spectrophotometric methods have been successfully applied to the determination of lesinurad and allopurinol in the new combined, Duzallo® tablets. Furthermore, the greenness of the described methods was assessed using four different tools namely, the national environmental method index, the analytical eco-scale, the green analytical procedure index and the AGREE evaluation method. The proposed methods showed more adherence to the greenness characters in comparison to the previously reported HPLC method.

8.
Radiol Case Rep ; 17(11): 4264-4267, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36120519

RESUMO

We herein present a case of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) with secondary optic pathway denervation atrophy, which was initially labeled as normal tension glaucoma. However, given the discordant clinical and ophthalmologic findings, brain magnetic resonance imaging was requested which proved PVL to be the underlying process to the patient's decreased visual acuity. In addition to presenting the ophthalmologic findings, we are emphasizing the pivotal role of neuroimaging in ruling out central causes of optic atrophy/hypoplasia and making this clinical distinction by demonstrating optic pathway atrophy associated with PVL.

9.
Pak J Biol Sci ; 25(7): 627-636, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36098169

RESUMO

<b>Background and Objective:</b> The wheat crop is considered one of the most important crops globally, especially in Egypt. It has great nutritional importance, so it was necessary to increase productivity and any genetic improvement depends on the presence of many genetic differences so that breeders can achieve this. This study aimed to use chemical mutagenic (sodium azide) to obtain the desired genetic differences in two wheat cultivars. <b>Materials and Methods:</b> Two types of bread Sids 12 and Giza 164 were treated with different concentrations of sodium azide (NaN<sub>3</sub>) (1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 5000 and 6000 ppm). <b>Results:</b> The highest grain/plant 78.91 g was obtained from Sis12 and 62.96 g from Giza 164 compared to the control 42.57 and 40.24 g for Sids 12 and Giza 164, respectively. Also from the results obtained, the relationship of yield was positive and significant with both grain/spike, spikelet's no./spike spikes no./plant and height/plant. On the contrary, it was negative and significant with a 1000-grain weight (-0.433). <b>Conclusion:</b> The two treatments (1000 and 2000 ppm) were the best in the Sids 12, while (1000 and 5000 ppm) were the best treatments in the Giza 164.


Assuntos
Pão , Morte Súbita do Lactente , Grão Comestível , Azida Sódica/farmacologia , Triticum/genética
10.
Anal Methods ; 2022 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36106712

RESUMO

The presence of lactose as a stabilizer in Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccine is a challenge for chromatographic resolution of its total and free poly ribosyl ribitol phosphate (PRP) content. Sample pretreatment using ultrafiltration was performed and had removed ≥95% of lactose in shorter time compared to the conventional dialysis process. Separation of free unconjugated PRP was performed using solid-phase extraction C4 cartridges. Hib conjugate vaccine was then analyzed for determination of total and free PRP, using two validated techniques: high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometry (HPAEC-PAD) for ribitol determination and a colorimetric assay for phosphorus determination. Lactose removal had enabled a rapid chromatographic assay via fast depolymerization of PRP using high temperature treatment. Modifying the burning process in the colorimetric assay reduced the analysis time significantly compared to the pharmacopoeial method. Linearity was obtained over the range of 0.10-10.0 µg mL-1 for the HPAEC method and in the range of 1.0-8.0 µg mL-1 for the colorimetric one. Stability of Hib conjugate vaccine was investigated. The HPAEC results revealed about a 35% increase in free PRP content after storage under stressed conditions (moisture and temperature). The proposed methods offered a reliable and economic platform for assessing the immunogenicity, efficacy and stability of Hib conjugate vaccine containing lactose for the biopharmaceutical industry.

11.
J Taibah Univ Med Sci ; 17(5): 794-804, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36050947

RESUMO

Objectives: This study aims to investigate the effects of radial extracorporeal shock wave therapy on selective motor control, spasticity, gross motor function, and balance in children with unilateral cerebral palsy. Methods: This randomised controlled study recruited 34 children aged 7-9 with spastic unilateral cerebral palsy. They were randomly allocated to either the control or study group. Both groups undertook traditional exercises for 12 weeks. The study group received shock waves (one session/week) on the calf muscle (1500 shocks, frequency of 4 Hz, energy of 0.030 mJ/mm2). All children were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks using the Modified Ashworth Scale, a Biodex System 4 isokinetic dynamometer, dimensions D (standing) and E (walking) of the Gross Motor Function Measure - 88, the Trost Selective Motor Control test, and the single leg standing test. Results: Mixed analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney results showed significant improvement in eccentric peak torque, torque threshold angles, gross motor function, selective motor control, and balance in the study group compared with the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Shock wave therapy may be a valuable instrument for reducing spasticity, improving the ability to isolate and control movement, and consequently, improving balance and gross motor function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy.

12.
Cureus ; 14(7): e27446, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36051733

RESUMO

Decompensated liver cirrhosis (DLC) is sometimes associated with the development of esophageal varices (EV) and gastric varices (GV). GV is less common than EV. One of the treatment methods for GV is the injection of glue into the varices, which can be complicated by the embolism of the glue into the pulmonary vessels called glue pulmonary embolism (GPE). Non-glue pulmonary embolism (NGPE) after treatment of gastric varices is not very commonly reported in the literature. Herein, we present a case of the development of non-GPE after the treatment of the GV with glue injection and coiling.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078253

RESUMO

(1) Background: Adolescents-and-young-adults (AYA) are prone to anxiety. This study assessed AYA's level of anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic; and determined if anxiety levels were associated with country-income and region, socio-demographic profile and medical history of individuals. (2) Methods: A survey collected data from participants in 25 countries. Dependent-variables included general-anxiety level, and independent-variables included medical problems, COVID-19 infection, age, sex, education, and country-income-level and region. A multilevel-multinomial-logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the association between dependent, and independent-variables. (3) Results: Of the 6989 respondents, 2964 (42.4%) had normal-anxiety, and 2621 (37.5%), 900 (12.9%) and 504 (7.2%) had mild, moderate and severe-anxiety, respectively. Participants from the African region (AFR) had lower odds of mild, moderate and severe than normal-anxiety compared to those from the Eastern-Mediterranean-region (EMR). Also, participants from lower-middle-income-countries (LMICs) had higher odds of mild and moderate than normal-anxiety compared to those from low-income-countries (LICs). Females, older-adolescents, with medical-problems, suspected-but-not-tested-for-COVID-19, and those with friends/family-infected with COVID-19 had significantly greater odds of different anxiety-levels. (4) Conclusions: One-in-five AYA had moderate to severe-anxiety during the COVID-19-pandemic. There were differences in anxiety-levels among AYAs by region and income-level, emphasizing the need for targeted public health interventions based on nationally-identified priorities.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adolescente , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Pandemias , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(36): e30125, 2022 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36086676

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Cellular angiofibroma (CA) is a rare tumor of the soft tissue classified as a benign fibroblastic/myofibroblastic tumor. Considering this, the literature regarding CA mainly, but not exclusively, comprises single case reports and case series. Here, we report a case of giant CA of the vulva with comprehensive literature review. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of a massive vulvar CA arising in 53-year-old woman with no notable medical or surgical history. The mass has grown considerably over time, causing pain and difficult urination, defecation, and movement. The patient had normal regular menstrual cycle with no previous contraception use. Vaginal examination exposed a right-sided large tender vulvar mass with normal-looking vagina. DIAGNOSES: Pelvic magnetic resonance imaging with contrast revealed a large right vulvar heterogeneously enhancing soft tissue mass measuring 13.1 × 10.9 × 10.7 cm expending the left vulva, with internal and peripheral voids resembling feeding vessels. The mass was surgically removed, and subsequent histopathology showed skin-covered dermal-based lesion composed of fibroblast-like bland and spindle cell proliferation with thin-walled blood vessels of various sizes. Immunohistostaining of CD34 and smooth muscle antigen were both positive, while desmin was found to be negative. A diagnosis of vulvar angiofibroma was made based on the clinical scenario, imaging, and histopathology. INTERVENTIONS: Mass vulvectomy was performed starting with a circumferential incision at the base of the mass and structural dissection to separate the mass from the vulvar wall. The incision was successfully closed, and subcuticular stitches were applied to the skin. OUTCOMES: The patient's complaints were significantly relieved with no postoperative complications and the patient is being followed regularly in an outpatient setting. LESSONS: Due to its extremely benign nature of CA, and the implausible ability of its recurrence, it was decided to surgically excise it. Despite its rarity, it can be readily identified at its earlier stages preventing the vexing and exasperating symptoms accompanied with increased size as mentioned.


Assuntos
Angiofibroma , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Neoplasias Vulvares , Angiofibroma/patologia , Angiofibroma/cirurgia , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vulva/patologia , Vulva/cirurgia , Neoplasias Vulvares/patologia
15.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 26(16): 5755-5762, 2022 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36066149

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Obesity/overweight is a major preventable cause of morbidity responsible for various health disorders. Thus, the present investigation aimed to estimate the prevalence rates of obesity and its related risk factors among the Saudi community in the Hai'l Region. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this study, 2,438 participants were randomly recruited in the Hai'l region during a cross-sectional survey. Participants were included based on their body mass index (BMI). Only those with BMI >25 weight (kg)/height (m)2 were included. RESULTS: The overall prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were 61% and 39%. The prevalence rates of males' overweight, obesity, and morbid obesity were 69%, 19%, and 12%, respectively. The prevalence rates of overweight, obesity and morbid obesity among females were 50%, 28%, and 22%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight, obesity, and morbid obesity are prevalent in Hai'l region, Northern Saudi Arabia. Overweight/obesity is more prevalent among women, rural inhabitants, less educated people, and adults aged 26-40 years. Hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) are significantly obesity-associated risk factors in Saudi Arabia.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Obesidade Mórbida , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Mórbida/epidemiologia , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
16.
J Gen Virol ; 103(9)2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36125243

RESUMO

Rotaviruses can infect multiple animal species and have the potential for cross-recombination based on the segmented genome characteristics. To study the intra-host recombination and zoonotic potential of group A canine rotavirus (CRV), 438 samples were collected from domestic dogs in six animal hospitals and from stray dogs from October 2019 to May 2021 in Wuhan, China. Seven of the samples were positive (7/438) for group A CRV from which a CRV strain was successfully isolated in MA-104 cells. The genotype of the isolated strain was characterized by whole-genome sequencing showing that the genotype was group A CRV G3P[3]. According to the Rotavirus Classification Working Group (RCWG), the genomic constellation of the isolated CRV was G3-P[3]-I3-R3-C3-M3-A9-N2-T3-E3-H6, which belongs to the AU-1-like group with gene segments of AU-1-like and Cat 97-like strains. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of the 11 gene segments, we found that the different segments of the isolated group A CRV were closely related to several reassortment rotaviruses from different animal sources and bat strains. Based on the analysis of the molecular evolution and genetic characteristics, we concluded that the isolated strain might be a reassortment strain. These data further enrich our understanding of rotavirus molecular evolution and genetic characteristics in China.


Assuntos
Infecções por Rotavirus , Rotavirus , Ampicilina/análogos & derivados , Animais , China , Cães , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral , Filogenia , Infecções por Rotavirus/veterinária
17.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(9)2022 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145271

RESUMO

Death-associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) is a serine/threonine protein kinase involved in diverse fundamental cellular processes such as apoptosis and autophagy. DAPK1 isoform plays an essential role as a tumor suppressor and inhibitor of metastasis. Consequently, DAPK1 became a promising target protein for developing new anti-cancer agents. In this work, we present the rational design and complete synthetic routes of a novel series of eighteen aryl carboxamide derivatives as potential DAPK1 inhibitors. Using a custom panel of forty-five kinases, a single dose of 10 µM of the picolinamide derivative 4a was able to selectively inhibit DAPK1 kinase by 44.19%. Further investigations revealed the isonicotinamide derivative 4q as a promising DAPK1 inhibitory lead compound with an IC50 value of 1.09 µM. In an in vitro anticancer activity assay using a library of 60 cancer cell lines including blood, lung, colon, CNS, skin, ovary, renal, prostate, and breast cancers, four compounds (4d, 4e, 4o, and 4p) demonstrated high anti-proliferative activity with mean % GI ~70%. Furthermore, the most potent DAPK1 inhibitor (4q) exhibited remarkable activity against leukemia (K-562) and breast cancer (MDA-MB-468) with % GI of 72% and 75%, respectively.

18.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(9)2022 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145279

RESUMO

Direct growth inhibition of infectious organisms coupled with immunomodulation to counteract the immunosuppressive environment might be a beneficial therapeutic approach. Herein, a library of sulfuretin analogs were developed with potential capabilities to inhibit production of the immunosuppressive PGE2 and elicit direct growth inhibition against Leishmania donovani; the major causative agent of the fatal visceral leishmaniasis. Amongst explored library members bearing diverse methoxy and/or hydroxy substitution patterns at rings B and A, analog 1i retaining the C6-hydroxy moiety at ring-A, but possessing methoxy moieties in place of the polar dihydroxy moieties of sulfuretin ring-B, as well as analog 1q retaining the sulfuretin's polar dihydroxy moieties at ring-B, but incorporating a C6-methoxy moiety instead of the C6-hydroxy moiety at ring-A, were the most promising hit compounds. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that analog 1i possesses a safety profile inducing the death of the parasite rather than host cells. In silico simulation provided insights into their possible binding with Leishmania donovani fumarate reductase. The current investigation presents sulfuretin analogs 1i and 1q as potential hit compounds for further development of multifunctional therapeutic agents against visceral leishmaniasis.

19.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(9)2022 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36145355

RESUMO

In this study new sulphamethoxazole derivatives (S1-S4, S6-S12, and S14-S22) were designed and synthesized and their structures were fully characterized and validated using NMR, mass, and IR spectroscopy, as well as elemental analyses. All new derivatives (S1-S22) were assayed against human carbonic anhydrase (hCAs IX and XII) for their inhibitory activities. hCAs IX and XII were chosen due to the fact that CAIX expression is recognized as a hypoxia marker with a poor prognosis in breast cancer. When compared to Dorzolamide HCl as a standard reference, derivatives S2, S3, S8, S9, and S15 had the most effective inhibition with low IC50 values. The active compounds were further evaluated against hCAs I and II inhibitory activity and compounds S8, S9 and S15 showed the least inhibitory effect compared to the reference standard, acetazolamide, indicating that their effect in normal cells is the lowest. Cell viability tests for the selected compounds were carried out on MCF7 (normoxia and hypoxia) and on the normal breast cell line (MCF10a) with Staurosporine as a standard. The results showed that compound S15 had a highly potent cytotoxic effect. Furthermore, cell cycle analysis results showed that compound S15 triggered cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in G1/S of MCF7 cancer cells. Finally, molecular docking was performed to point out the possible explanation for the vital structural features and key-interactions exerted by our ligands with hCAs IX and XII that might share additional designs and highlight possible leads for a hopeful anticancer agent. Consequently, sulphamethoxazole Derivative S15 could be the potential lead for emerging selective cytotoxic compounds directing h CAs IX and XII.

20.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(9)2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36146497

RESUMO

(1) Background: The monkeypox virus (MPV) is a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the Poxviridae family, Chordopoxvirinae subfamily, and Orthopoxvirus genus. It was called monkeypox because it was first discovered in monkeys, in a Danish laboratory, in 1958. However, the actual reservoir for MPV is still unknown. (2) Methods and Results: We have reviewed the existing literature on the options for Monkeypox virus. There are three available vaccines for orthopoxviruses-ACAM2000, JYNNEOS, and LC16-with the first being a replicating vaccine and the latter being non- or minimally replicating. (3) Conclusions: Smallpox vaccinations previously provided coincidental immunity to MPV. ACAM2000 (a live-attenuated replicating vaccine) and JYNNEOS (a live-attenuated, nonreplicating vaccine) are two US FDA-approved vaccines that can prevent monkeypox. However, ACAM2000 may cause serious side effects, including cardiac problems, whereas JYNNEOS is associated with fewer complications. The recent outbreaks across the globe have once again highlighted the need for constant monitoring and the development of novel prophylactic and therapeutic modalities. Based on available data, there is still a need to develop an effective and safe new generation of vaccines specific for monkeypox that are killed or developed into a mRNA vaccine before monkeypox is declared a pandemic.

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