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1.
Pharm Biol ; 62(1): 563-576, 2024 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-39021070

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Virtually all parts of Salvadora persica L. (Salvadoraceae) are used in traditional medicine. The twigs and leaves are used for oral health, but leaves are far less investigated. OBJECTIVE: This study assesses the oral health-promoting potential of S. persica leaves with emphasis on anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects and provides an in depth-characterization of their metabolite profile. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hot-water and methanolic S. persica leaf extracts (1, 10, and 100 µg/mL) and their major constituents (5, 10, and 50 µM), were subjected to cellular assays on IL-8 and TNFα release in LPS-stimulated human neutrophils, NO-release in LPS/IFNγ stimulated mouse macrophages, and proliferation of HNO97 human tongue carcinoma cells. Metabolite profiling was performed by UHPLC-HRMS analysis. Major constituents were isolated and structurally elucidated. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Both extracts showed pronounced anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated neutrophils. Major identified compound classes were flavonoid glycosides, the glucosinolate glucotropaeolin, phenyl- and benzylglycoside sulfates, and megastigmane glycosylsulfates, the latter ones identified for the first time in S. persica. Glucotropaeolin strongly inhibited the release of IL-8 and TNF-α (13.3 ± 2.0 and 22.7 ± 2.6% of the release of stimulated control cells at 50 µM), while some flavonoids and 3-(3'-O-sulfo-ß-d-glucopyranosyloxy)-7,8-dihydro-ß-ionone, a newly isolated megastigmane glycosylsulfate, were moderately active. Benzylisothiocyanate, which is likely formed from glucotropaeolin during traditional application of S. persica, showed considerable antiproliferative activity (IC50 in HNO97 cells: 10.19 ± 0.72 µM) besides strongly inhibiting IL-8 and TNFα release. CONCLUSIONS: Glucotropaeolin and benzylisothiocyanate are likely implicated in the oral health-promoting effects of S. persica leaves. The chemistry and pharmacology of the newly identified megastigmane glycosylsulfates should be further evaluated.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios , Mediadores da Inflamação , Neutrófilos , Doenças Periodontais , Extratos Vegetais , Folhas de Planta , Salvadoraceae , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Camundongos , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Salvadoraceae/química , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/antagonistas & inibidores , Doenças Periodontais/tratamento farmacológico , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Células RAW 264.7 , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38856818

RESUMO

Diarrheal disease remains a significant cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the pediatric population, particularly among children below five years of age. Although the occurrence of diarrheal episodes is on the decline, its impact continues to escalate at a concerning rate among children under the age of five, especially in developing countries. The objective of this paper is to investigate the factors associated with diarrhea in Yemeni children younger than five years, drawing on data from the latest edition of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) Yemen conducted in 2022-2023. To identify factors associated with the prevalence of childhood diarrhea, bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were utilized. The findings of this study suggest that age group 6-23, unimproved sanitation, and low-income households are associated with high risk of diarrhea in children under five years of age in Yemen. The study contributes additional evidence regarding factors that should be prioritized in public health strategies geared towards reducing diarrheal prevalence among Yemeni children.

4.
J Prosthodont ; 33(6): 533-540, 2024 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38689452

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate how prosthetic management affects the otological and audiological state of infants with cleft lip and palate by preventing or treating otitis media (OM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty infants with cleft lip and palate (L/P) were assigned to three equal groups according to the age of prosthetic intervention; Group I: immediately after birth, Group II: 2 months old, Group III: 5 months old. Assessment of middle ear function by tympanometry and hearing quality by auditory brainstem response (ABR) under natural sleep was conducted before and after prosthetic treatment every month till 10 months of age. Data from the study groups were compared. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found between Gp I and Gp II in the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th months for right and left ears (p > 0.05). In the 5th month, statistically significant differences between the three groups were found in tympanometry for right (p = 0.011) and left (p = 0.024) ears also, in ABR for right (p = 0.007) and left (p = 0.011) ears. Tympanometric readings starting from the 6th till the 10th month showed no statistically significant differences between the three groups (p >0.05). The final ABR outcomes of the 10th month indicated statistically significant differences between the three groups for both ears (p = 0.027). CONCLUSIONS: Early prosthetic care could delay the development of OM, so it could potentially improve the otological and audiological state in infants with cleft L/P. However, prosthetic treatment may not be able to completely prevent or eliminate middle ear disorders.


Assuntos
Testes de Impedância Acústica , Fenda Labial , Fissura Palatina , Otite Média , Humanos , Fissura Palatina/complicações , Fissura Palatina/fisiopatologia , Fissura Palatina/cirurgia , Fenda Labial/complicações , Fenda Labial/fisiopatologia , Fenda Labial/cirurgia , Lactente , Masculino , Feminino , Otite Média/complicações , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Commun Biol ; 7(1): 572, 2024 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38750133

RESUMO

Long-chain fatty acids with antimicrobial properties are abundant on the skin and mucosal surfaces, where they are essential to restrict the proliferation of opportunistic pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus. These antimicrobial fatty acids (AFAs) elicit bacterial adaptation strategies, which have yet to be fully elucidated. Characterizing the pervasive mechanisms used by S. aureus to resist AFAs could open new avenues to prevent pathogen colonization. Here, we identify the S. aureus lipase Lip2 as a novel resistance factor against AFAs. Lip2 detoxifies AFAs via esterification with cholesterol. This is reminiscent of the activity of the fatty acid-modifying enzyme (FAME), whose identity has remained elusive for over three decades. In vitro, Lip2-dependent AFA-detoxification was apparent during planktonic growth and biofilm formation. Our genomic analysis revealed that prophage-mediated inactivation of Lip2 was rare in blood, nose, and skin strains, suggesting a particularly important role of Lip2 for host - microbe interactions. In a mouse model of S. aureus skin colonization, bacteria were protected from sapienic acid (a human-specific AFA) in a cholesterol- and lipase-dependent manner. These results suggest Lip2 is the long-sought FAME that exquisitely manipulates environmental lipids to promote bacterial growth in otherwise inhospitable niches.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Lipase , Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcus aureus/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Animais , Camundongos , Lipase/metabolismo , Lipase/genética , Humanos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/microbiologia
6.
Heliyon ; 10(10): e31221, 2024 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38813157

RESUMO

In this novel research, S-scheme Ag2CrO4/g-C3N4 heterojunctions were generated by sonochemical hybridization of different compositions of Ag2CrO4 nanoparticles [EVB = +2.21 eV] and g-C3N4 sheets [ECB = -1.3 eV] for destructing RhB dye under artificial solar radiation. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were subjected to X-ray diffraction [XRD], diffuse reflectance spectrum [DRS], X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy [XPS], N2-adsorption-desorption isotherm, photoluminescence [PL] and high resolution transmission electron microscope [HRTEM] analysis to explore the interfacial interactions between g-C3N4 sheets and Ag2CrO4 nanoparticles. Spherical Ag2CrO4 nanoparticles deposited homogeneously on the wrinkles points of g-C3N4 sheets at nearly equidistant from each other facilitating the uniform absorption of solar radiations. The absorbability of solar radiations was enhanced by introducing 20 wt % Ag2CrO4 on g-C3N4 sheets. The surface area of g-C3N4 sheets was reduced from 37.5 to 16.4 m2/g and PL signal intensity diminished by 80 % implying the successful interfacial interaction between Ag2CrO4 nanoparticles and g-C3N4 sheets. The photocatalytic performance of heterojunctions containing 20 % Ag2CrO4 and 80 % g-C3N4 destructed 96 % of RhB dye compared with 60 and 33 % removal on the surface of pristine g-C3N4 sheets and Ag2CrO4, respectively. Benzoquinone and ammonium oxalate are strongly scavenged the dye decomposition revealing the strong influence of valence band holes of Ag2CrO4 and superoxide radicals in destructing RhB dye under solar radiations. S-scheme charge transportation mechanism was suggested rather than type II heterojunction on the light of scavenger trapping experiments results and PL spectrum of terephthalic acid. Overall, this research work illustrated the manipulation of novel S-scheme heterojunction with efficient redox power for destructing various organic pollutants persisted in water resources.

7.
Open Vet J ; 14(1): 154-163, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38633180

RESUMO

Background: Camel meat tainted with heavy metals or trace elements may pose a health risk to consumers. Heavy metal contamination poses a severe danger due to both their toxicity and bioaccumulation in the food chain. Aim: To estimate the residual levels of heavy metals (Co, Cr, Mn, Se, and As) in muscle, liver, kidney, hair, and serum of three camel breeds (Magaheem, Maghateer, and Wadha) collected from Al-Omran abattoir, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 225 tissue samples (muscles, liver, kidney, serum, and hair) were taken and analyzed using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Health risk assessment was assessed using the guidelines set by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Results: Camel breed significantly (p < 0.05) influences Co, Cr, Mn, and Se accumulation and distribution in organs and muscle; however, arsenic accumulation was not significantly affected (p < 0.05) by camel breeds. The highest values of Co, Cr, Se, and Mn in all examined samples were detected in the liver samples of Maghateer and Magaheem breeds. Furthermore, significant strong positive correlation between serum and liver cobalt, chromium, manganese, and arsenic. The estimated daily intake owing to camel meat consumption was less than the tolerated daily intake. Conclusion: Heavy metals were distributed among different breeds of camel. Trace elements (Pb and Cd) in meat and offal were below the international maximum permissible limit. The correlation between samples reflects the role of hair as a good tool for the identification of heavy metal pollution.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Metais Pesados , Oligoelementos , Estados Unidos , Animais , Camelus , Metais Pesados/análise , Carne , Músculos/química , Medição de Risco , Cabelo/química
8.
J Prosthet Dent ; 2024 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38565440

RESUMO

STATEMENT OF PROBLEM: Infants with a cleft palate often experience middle ear disease, a condition of great significance, and early prosthetic management of these infants is essential. However, any correlation between prosthetic palatal obturation and middle ear function is unclear. PURPOSE: The purpose of this clinical trial was to assess whether prosthetic palatal obturation with a feeding appliance prevented or improved middle ear problems in infants with a cleft lip and palate. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten infants with congenital cleft lip and palate (20 ears) were referred to the Prosthodontics department immediately after birth. Assessment of the middle ear function by tympanometry as well as hearing quality by auditory brainstem response (ABR) was conducted before the prosthetic treatment (control readings). The middle ear function and hearing quality was followed up after the prosthetic treatment every month until surgical palatal closure (tenth month). The Friedman test was applied to compare data from the various study periods. When the results were significant, the Dunn post hoc test was conducted to compare the control first week readings with those of the later periods (α=.05 for all tests). RESULTS: The preprosthetic readings of tympanometry in the first week were 90% Type A and 10% Type B for both right and left ears. Readings starting from the first to the fifth month revealed no statistically significant differences compared with the first week readings (P>.05). However, tympanometry readings starting from the sixth month (20% Type A and 80% Type B) until the tenth month (90% Type B and 10% Type C) for both ears represented a statistically significant difference compared with the first week readings (P≤.05). The preprosthetic readings of ABR in the first week showed that 90% of ears had normal hearing status and 10% had mild hearing loss. Readings starting from the first until the fifth month revealed no statistically significant differences compared with the first week readings (P>.05). However, ABR readings starting from the sixth month (20% normal hearing, 70% mild hearing loss, and 10% moderate hearing loss) until the tenth month (0% normal hearing, 80% mild hearing loss, and 20% moderate hearing loss) for both ears revealed a statistically significant difference compared with the first week readings (P≤.05). CONCLUSIONS: Prosthetic palatal obturation with a feeding appliance plays a role in delaying rather than preventing the occurrence of otitis media with effusion in infants with a cleft lip and palate and could reduce the need for ventilation tubes.

9.
Life (Basel) ; 14(3)2024 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38541695

RESUMO

Aerobic rice cultivation represents an innovative approach to reduce water consumption and enhance water use efficiency compared to traditional transplanting methods. Simultaneously, cultivating drought-tolerant rice genotypes becomes crucial to ensure their sustainable production under abrupt climate fluctuations. Hence, this study aimed to explore the physiological, agronomic, and grain quality responses of ten diverse rice genotypes to various irrigation levels under aerobic cultivation conditions. A field experiment was performed for two summer seasons of 2019 and 2020 in an arid Mediterranean climate. The irrigation regimes were well watered (13,998 m3/ha), mild drought (10,446 m3/ha), moderate drought (7125 m3/ha), and severe drought (5657 m3/ha). The results revealed considerable variations among rice genotypes under tested irrigation regimes in all physiological, agronomic, and quality traits. According to drought response indices, rice genotypes were classified into three groups (A-C), varying from tolerant to sensitive genotypes. The identified drought-tolerant genotypes (Giza-179, Hybrid-1, Giza-178, and Line-9399) recorded higher yields and crop water productivity with reduced water usage compared to drought-sensitive genotypes. Thus, these genotypes are highly recommended for cultivation in water-scarce environments. Furthermore, their characteristics could be valuable in breeding programs to improve drought tolerance in rice, particularly under aerobic cultivation conditions. The PCA biplot, heatmap, and hierarchical clustering highlighted specific physiological parameters such as relative water content, chlorophyll content, proline content, peroxidase content, and catalase content exhibited robust associations with yield traits under water deficit conditions. These parameters offer valuable insights and could serve as rapid indicators for assessing drought tolerance in rice breeding programs in arid environments.

10.
Clin Lab ; 70(3)2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38469789

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a need for accurate and rapid biomarkers for the early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). We aimed to study the accuracy of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL), urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (uKIM-1), and blood NGAL (bNGAL) in type 2 diabetics as biomarkers for diagnosis of DN. METHODS: The study was a retrospective case-control study that included 30 control subjects, 40 diabetics with normo-albuminuria < 30 mg/g and eGFR > 60 mL/minute/1.73 m2, and 30 diabetics with albuminuria > 30mg/g and eGFR < 60mL/minute/1.73 m2. Blood and urine samples were obtained to determine levels of bNGAL, uNAGAL, and uKIM1. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in bNGAL, uNGAL, uKIM 1, uNGAL/creatinine and uKIM 1/creatinine among diabetics with albuminuria compared to diabetics with normoalbuminuria and normal control (p < 0.001 for all markers). For diagnosis of early DN, both bNGAL and uKIM 1 had sensitivity and specificity of 100% for each at cutoff values of 322.5 pg/mL and 74.25 ng/mL, respectively. uNGAL had a sensitivity of 97.5% and a spec-ificity of 100% at a cutoff point of 565 ng/mL. uKIM1/creatinine at a cutoff of 51.2 had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 100%. CONCLUSIONS: The present study highlights the accuracy of urinary KIM1 and NGAL and blood NGAL as biomarkers for the diagnosis of nephropathy in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy. There were positive correlations with kidney function tests creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, and the presence of albuminuria.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Nefropatias Diabéticas , Humanos , Lipocalina-2/urina , Nefropatias Diabéticas/diagnóstico , Nefropatias Diabéticas/urina , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/urina , Creatinina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Albuminúria/diagnóstico , Albuminúria/urina , Estudos Retrospectivos , Biomarcadores , Rim
11.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 25(1): 131, 2024 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38539073

RESUMO

The global spread of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, originating in Wuhan, China, has had profound consequences on both health and the economy. Traditional alignment-based phylogenetic tree methods for tracking epidemic dynamics demand substantial computational power due to the growing number of sequenced strains. Consequently, there is a pressing need for an alignment-free approach to characterize these strains and monitor the dynamics of various variants. In this work, we introduce a swift and straightforward tool named GenoSig, implemented in C++. The tool exploits the Di and Tri nucleotide frequency signatures to delineate the taxonomic lineages of SARS-CoV-2 by employing diverse machine learning (ML) and deep learning (DL) models. Our approach achieved a tenfold cross-validation accuracy of 87.88% (± 0.013) for DL and 86.37% (± 0.0009) for Random Forest (RF) model, surpassing the performance of other ML models. Validation using an additional unexposed dataset yielded comparable results. Despite variations in architectures between DL and RF, it was observed that later clades, specifically GRA, GRY, and GK, exhibited superior performance compared to earlier clades G and GH. As for the continental origin of the virus, both DL and RF models exhibited lower performance than in predicting clades. However, both models demonstrated relatively higher accuracy for Europe, North America, and South America compared to other continents, with DL outperforming RF. Both models consistently demonstrated a preference for cytosine and guanine over adenine and thymine in both clade and continental analyses, in both Di and Tri nucleotide frequencies signatures. Our findings suggest that GenoSig provides a straightforward approach to address taxonomic, epidemiological, and biological inquiries, utilizing a reductive method applicable not only to SARS-CoV-2 but also to similar research questions in an alignment-free context.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Aprendizado Profundo , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/genética , Filogenia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Genômica , Nucleotídeos
13.
Vet World ; 17(1): 150-155, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38406371

RESUMO

Background and Aim: The isopods of the Crustacea are noteworthy. All marine, fresh, and brackish waterways at all depths are home to aquatic organisms. This order also includes species that live on land. This study aimed to report a new occurrence of the isopod Cirolana capricornica on the operculum, mouth, and body cavities of Epinephilus chlorostigma in the Suez Governorate, Egypt. Materials and Methods: With the help of fishermen, 50 live E. chlorostigma (Linnaeus, 1758) were randomly gathered along the Red Sea coast of the Suez Governorate during November and December 2019 for the current investigation. Isopods were isolated from the fish samples and captured using light and electron microscopy for morphological identification. Results: Some fish were emaciated, and minute white isopods were attached externally to the skin near the gills and mouth cavity, and internally to the mouth cavity. No correlation was observed between body cavity attachment and gross lesions. The prevalence of infestation was 16%. Conclusion: C. capricornica was identified using optical and electron microscopy to analyze the isopod specimens' morphology. This scavenging isopod species is newly discovered in Egypt.

14.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 2917, 2024 02 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38316992

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine the validity and reproducibility of strain elastography (SE) for detecting prostate cancer (PCa) in patients with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. The study included 107 patients with elevated PSA levels. All eligible patients underwent transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) with real-time elastography (RTE) to detect suspicious lesions. Two readers independently evaluated the lesions and assigned a strain ratio and elastography score to each lesion. Histopathology was used as a reference standard to estimate the validity of RTE in predicting malignant lesions. An intraclass correlation (ICC) was performed to detect reliability of the strain ratios and elastography scores. TRUS-guided biopsy detected malignancies in 64 (59.8%) patients. TRUS with RTE revealed 122 lesions. The strain ratio index (SRI) cut-off values to diagnose malignancy were 4.05 and 4.35, with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 94.7%, 91.3%, and 93.4%, respectively. An elastography score > 3 was the best cut-off value for detecting malignancy. According to readers, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 91.3-94.7%, 89.5-93.4%, and 91.3-90.9%, respectively. Excellent inter-reader agreement was recorded for SRI and elastography scores, with ICC of 0.937 and 0.800, respectively. SE proves to be an efficient tool for detecting PCa with high accuracy in patients with elevated PSA levels.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Imagem por Elasticidade , Neoplasias da Próstata , Masculino , Humanos , Antígeno Prostático Específico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Próstata/diagnóstico por imagem , Próstata/patologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
15.
Curr Opin Microbiol ; 78: 102434, 2024 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38364502

RESUMO

Staphylococcus epidermidis is a common member of the human skin and nose microbiomes and a frequent cause of invasive infections. Transducing phages accomplish the horizontal transfer of resistance and virulence genes by mispackaging of mobile-genetic elements, contributing to severe, therapy-refractory S. epidermidis infections. Lytic phages on the other hand can be interesting candidates for new anti-S. epidermidis phage therapies. Despite the importance of phages, we are only beginning to unravel S. epidermidis phage interactions. Recent studies shed new light on S. epidermidis phage diversity, host range, and receptor specificities. Modulation of cell wall teichoic acids, the major phage receptor structures, along with other phage defense mechanisms, are crucial determinants for S. epidermidis susceptibility to different phage groups.


Assuntos
Terapia por Fagos , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Humanos , Staphylococcus epidermidis/genética , Fagos de Staphylococcus/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Virulência , Infecções Estafilocócicas/terapia
16.
RSC Adv ; 14(9): 6324-6338, 2024 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38380235

RESUMO

In this research study, recovered carbon black (rCB) was obtained via pyrolysis of waste tires. The obtained rCB was then converted into activated carbon species through both chemical treatment and microwave coupled with chemical treatment as a two-step activation process. The activated carbon obtained from chemical activation was denoted as C-AC, while that obtained from exposure to microwave followed by chemical activation was labeled as MC-AC. These two structures were consequently introduced as sorbents for the removal of cadmium ions from an aqueous solution. The structural characteristics of the introduced adsorbents were confirmed using various techniques, namely X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. Additionally, textual features of these adsorbents were acquired via both scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and N2 adsorption-desorption BET surface area analyses. These two structures were then introduced for Cd ion adsorption under different operating conditions. Particularly, the effect of pH, contact time, adsorbent dose, and metal ion concentration on the efficiency of adsorption was investigated. The 1maximum adsorption capacity was detected at a pH value of 5.0, a contact time of 30 min, a sorbent dose of 0.4 g L-1, and an initial metal concentration of 50 mg L-1 using MC-AC, which exhibited nearly double the sorption capacity detected for C-AC. Kinetic studies indicated that the process of Cd(ii) adsorption is perfectly described and fitted by the pseudo-second-order model. However, adsorption isotherms for the two adsorbents were found to match the Langmuir model, referring to the occurrence of uniform monolayer adsorption for the metal ions. Thermodynamic analysis demonstrated that the adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic.

17.
Acad Radiol ; 31(4): 1480-1490, 2024 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37914624

RESUMO

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Recently, a new MRI-based classification for evaluating tibial spine fractures (TSFs) was developed to aid in treating these injuries. Our objective was to assess the detection efficacy, classification accuracy, and reliability of this classification in detecting and grading TSFs, as well as its impact on treatment strategy, compared to the Meyers and McKeever (MM) classification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study included 68 patients with arthroscopically confirmed TSFs. All patients had plain radiography and conventional MRI of the affected knee before arthroscopy. Three experienced radiologists independently reviewed all plain radiographs and MRI data and graded each patient according to MM and MRI-based classifications. The detection efficacy, classification accuracy, and inter-rater agreement of both classifications were evaluated and compared, using arthroscopic findings as the gold standard. RESULTS: The final analysis included 68 affected knees. Compared to the MM classification, the MRI-based classification produced 22.0% upgrade of TSFs and 11.8% downgrade of TSFs. According to the reviewers, the fracture classification accuracy of the MRI-based classification (91.2-95.6%) was significantly higher than that of the MM classification (73.5-76.5%, p = 0.002-0.01). The fracture detection rate of MRI-based classification (94.1-98.5%) was non-significantly higher than that of the MM classification (83.8-89.7%, p = 0.07-0.4). The soft tissue injury detection accuracy for MRI-based classification was 91.2-94.1%. The inter-rater reliability for grading TSFs was substantial for both the MM classification (κ = 0.69) and MRI-based classification (κ = 0.79). CONCLUSION: MRI-based classification demonstrates greater accuracy and reliability compared to MM classification for detecting and grading TSFs and associated soft tissue injuries.


Assuntos
Fraturas do Joelho , Fraturas da Tíbia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Fraturas da Tíbia/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas da Tíbia/cirurgia
18.
Nat Microbiol ; 9(1): 200-213, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38110697

RESUMO

Antagonistic bacterial interactions often rely on antimicrobial bacteriocins, which attack only a narrow range of target bacteria. However, antimicrobials with broader activity may be advantageous. Here we identify an antimicrobial called epifadin, which is produced by nasal Staphylococcus epidermidis IVK83. It has an unprecedented architecture consisting of a non-ribosomally synthesized peptide, a polyketide component and a terminal modified amino acid moiety. Epifadin combines a wide antimicrobial target spectrum with a short life span of only a few hours. It is highly unstable under in vivo-like conditions, potentially as a means to limit collateral damage of bacterial mutualists. However, Staphylococcus aureus is eliminated by epifadin-producing S. epidermidis during co-cultivation in vitro and in vivo, indicating that epifadin-producing commensals could help prevent nasal S. aureus carriage. These insights into a microbiome-derived, previously unknown antimicrobial compound class suggest that limiting the half-life of an antimicrobial may help to balance its beneficial and detrimental activities.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Humanos , Staphylococcus aureus , Peptídeos Antimicrobianos , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus epidermidis/metabolismo
19.
Heliyon ; 9(11): e22342, 2023 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38074885

RESUMO

The investigation of a proficient photocatalytic system for the degradation of organic pollutants holds significant importance in the field of environmental management. This study presents a binary type II heterojunction photocatalyst, Bi2MoO6/g-C3N4 which is synthesized using an eco-friendly ultrasonic-assisted method. Various characterization methods (XRD, FTIR, XPS, BET, TEM, UV-vis, and PL) are used to investigate the crystalline structures, composition, surface analysis, morphology, and optical properties of the photocatalyst. All the Bi2MoO6/g-C3N4 nanocomposites show better photocatalytic activity for Rhodamine B dye (Rh-B) degradation under Ultraviolet light irradiation than the pure g-C3N4. The photocatalytic activity of the 10 % Bi2MoO6/g-C3N4 nanocomposite is found to be the greatest among the tested samples. the 10 % Bi2MoO6/g-C3N4 nanocomposite demonstrates the ability to degrade 94.6 % of Rh-B (1 × 10-5 M) within 3 h, with a rate constant of 0.015 min-1. Notably, this rate constant is 7 times greater than that observed for pure g-C3N4, which has a rate constant of 0.00218 min-1. The effect of several reaction factors on the Rhodamine B (Rh-B) removal is studied. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of 10 % Bi2MoO6/g-C3N4 nanocomposite is mainly due to the formation of 2D/2D type II structures, increasing the active sites and the separation rate of photogenerated carriers. A possible photocatalytic reaction mechanism of Rhodamine B (Rh-B) degradation over Bi2MoO6/g-C3N4 is suggested based on active species trapping experiment. Moreover, the high stability and recyclability exhibited by the 10 % Bi2MoO6/g-C3N4 nanocomposite provide strong evidence supporting its suitability as a viable photocatalyst for wastewater treatment purposes.

20.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 13(24)2023 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38133006

RESUMO

Hafnia-based nanostructures and other high-k dielectrics are promising wide-gap materials for developing new opto- and nanoelectronic devices. They possess a unique combination of physical and chemical properties, such as insensitivity to electrical and optical degradation, radiation damage stability, a high specific surface area, and an increased concentration of the appropriate active electron-hole centers. The present paper aims to investigate the structural, optical, and luminescent properties of anodized non-stoichiometric HfO2 nanotubes. As-grown amorphous hafnia nanotubes and nanotubes annealed at 700 °C with a monoclinic crystal lattice served as samples. It has been shown that the bandgap Eg for direct allowed transitions amounts to 5.65 ± 0.05 eV for amorphous and 5.51 ± 0.05 eV for monoclinic nanotubes. For the first time, we have studied the features of intrinsic cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence in the obtained nanotubular HfO2 structures with an atomic deficiency in the anion sublattice at temperatures of 10 and 300 K. A broad emission band with a maximum of 2.3-2.4 eV has been revealed. We have also conducted an analysis of the kinetic dependencies of the observed photoluminescence for synthesized HfO2 samples in the millisecond range at room temperature. It showed that there are several types of optically active capture and emission centers based on vacancy states in the O3f and O4f positions with different coordination numbers and a varied number of localized charge carriers (V0, V-, and V2-). The uncovered regularities can be used to optimize the functional characteristics of developed-surface luminescent media based on nanotubular and nanoporous modifications of hafnia.

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