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1.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(11)2020 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33212978

RESUMO

Ifosfamide is used to treat soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) and bone sarcoma (BS), with improved efficacy at doses above 9 g/m2/cycle. To mitigate treatment-associated toxicity with higher doses, continuous infusional ifosfamide is increasingly used. However, clinical outcome data remain limited. Single-centre retrospective analysis of patients treated with four-weekly infusional ifosfamide (14 g/m2/14d) between August 2012 and February 2019 was conducted. Radiological response, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and toxicity were evaluated. Eighty patients were treated-46 with STS and 34 with BS. Patients received a median of three cycles of infusional ifosfamide (1-24). Overall disease control rate (DCR) in STS was 50% (23 of 46 patients), with a median PFS of 3.8 months, and median OS of 13.0 months. In synovial sarcoma (SS), DCR was 80% (12/15), median PFS 8.1 months and median OS 20.9 months. Overall DCR in BS (34 patients) was 30%, with a median PFS of 2.5 months and median OS of 6.2 months. Five patients (6%) stopped treatment due to toxicity alone within the first two cycles. A further 10 patients stopped treatment due to toxicity during later treatment cycles (12%) and 18 patients (23%) required dose modification. Forty-five patients (56%) experienced grade (G) 3/4 haematological toxicity, with 12 episodes of febrile neutropenia and one treatment-related death. Twenty-seven patients (34%) experienced G3/4 non-haematological toxicity, most commonly nausea and vomiting (10, 13%). In summary, infusional ifosfamide has efficacy in STS, most notable in SS. Benefit appears limited in BS. Treatment is associated with toxicity that requires specialist supportive care.

2.
Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis ; 23(2): 333-342, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31776447

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The development of prostate cancer can be influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Numerous germline SNPs influence prostate cancer susceptibility. The functional pathways in which these SNPs increase prostate cancer susceptibility are unknown. Finasteride is currently not being used routinely as a chemoprevention agent but the long term outcomes of the PCPT trial are awaited. The outcomes of the SELECT trial have not recommended the use of chemoprevention in preventing prostate cancer. This study investigated whether germline risk SNPs could be used to predict outcomes in the PCPT and SELECT trial. METHODS: Genotyping was performed in European men entered into the PCPT trial (n = 2434) and SELECT (n = 4885). Next generation genotyping was performed using Affymetrix® Eureka™ Genotyping protocols. Logistic regression models were used to test the association of risk scores and the outcomes in the PCPT and SELECT trials. RESULTS: Of the 100 SNPs, 98 designed successfully and genotyping was validated for samples genotyped on other platforms. A number of SNPs predicted for aggressive disease in both trials. Men with a higher polygenic score are more likely to develop prostate cancer in both trials, but the score did not predict for other outcomes in the trial. CONCLUSION: Men with a higher polygenic risk score are more likely to develop prostate cancer. There were no interactions of these germline risk SNPs and the chemoprevention agents in the SELECT and PCPT trials.

4.
Nat Genet ; 50(7): 928-936, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892016

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and fine-mapping efforts to date have identified more than 100 prostate cancer (PrCa)-susceptibility loci. We meta-analyzed genotype data from a custom high-density array of 46,939 PrCa cases and 27,910 controls of European ancestry with previously genotyped data of 32,255 PrCa cases and 33,202 controls of European ancestry. Our analysis identified 62 novel loci associated (P < 5.0 × 10-8) with PrCa and one locus significantly associated with early-onset PrCa (≤55 years). Our findings include missense variants rs1800057 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16; P = 8.2 × 10-9; G>C, p.Pro1054Arg) in ATM and rs2066827 (OR = 1.06; P = 2.3 × 10-9; T>G, p.Val109Gly) in CDKN1B. The combination of all loci captured 28.4% of the PrCa familial relative risk, and a polygenic risk score conferred an elevated PrCa risk for men in the ninetieth to ninety-ninth percentiles (relative risk = 2.69; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.55-2.82) and first percentile (relative risk = 5.71; 95% CI: 5.04-6.48) risk stratum compared with the population average. These findings improve risk prediction, enhance fine-mapping, and provide insight into the underlying biology of PrCa1.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
5.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2256, 2018 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892050

RESUMO

Prostate cancer is a polygenic disease with a large heritable component. A number of common, low-penetrance prostate cancer risk loci have been identified through GWAS. Here we apply the Bayesian multivariate variable selection algorithm JAM to fine-map 84 prostate cancer susceptibility loci, using summary data from a large European ancestry meta-analysis. We observe evidence for multiple independent signals at 12 regions and 99 risk signals overall. Only 15 original GWAS tag SNPs remain among the catalogue of candidate variants identified; the remainder are replaced by more likely candidates. Biological annotation of our credible set of variants indicates significant enrichment within promoter and enhancer elements, and transcription factor-binding sites, including AR, ERG and FOXA1. In 40 regions at least one variant is colocalised with an eQTL in prostate cancer tissue. The refined set of candidate variants substantially increase the proportion of familial relative risk explained by these known susceptibility regions, which highlights the importance of fine-mapping studies and has implications for clinical risk profiling.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Algoritmos , Teorema de Bayes , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Análise Multivariada , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Risco
6.
Nat Genet ; 50(5): 682-692, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29662167

RESUMO

Prostate cancer represents a substantial clinical challenge because it is difficult to predict outcome and advanced disease is often fatal. We sequenced the whole genomes of 112 primary and metastatic prostate cancer samples. From joint analysis of these cancers with those from previous studies (930 cancers in total), we found evidence for 22 previously unidentified putative driver genes harboring coding mutations, as well as evidence for NEAT1 and FOXA1 acting as drivers through noncoding mutations. Through the temporal dissection of aberrations, we identified driver mutations specifically associated with steps in the progression of prostate cancer, establishing, for example, loss of CHD1 and BRCA2 as early events in cancer development of ETS fusion-negative cancers. Computational chemogenomic (canSAR) analysis of prostate cancer mutations identified 11 targets of approved drugs, 7 targets of investigational drugs, and 62 targets of compounds that may be active and should be considered candidates for future clinical trials.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Progressão da Doença , Fator 3-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Oncogenes , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia
7.
Future Sci OA ; 2(1): FSO87, 2016 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28031937

RESUMO

Familial and twin studies have demonstrated a significant inherited component to prostate cancer predisposition. Genome wide association studies have shown that there are 100 single nucleotide polymorphisms which have been associated with the development of prostate cancer. This review aims to discuss the scientific methods used to identify these susceptibility loci. It will also examine the current clinical utility of these loci, which include the development of risk models as well as predicting treatment efficacy and toxicity. In order to refine the clinical utility of the susceptibility loci, international consortia have been developed to combine statistical power as well as skills and knowledge to further develop models that could be used to predict risk and treatment outcomes.

8.
Br J Cancer ; 114(10): 1165-74, 2016 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27070714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Numerous germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms increase susceptibility to prostate cancer, some lying near genes involved in cellular radiation response. This study investigated whether prostate cancer patients with a high genetic risk have increased toxicity following radiotherapy. METHODS: The study included 1560 prostate cancer patients from four radiotherapy cohorts: RAPPER (n=533), RADIOGEN (n=597), GenePARE (n=290) and CCI (n=150). Data from genome-wide association studies were imputed with the 1000 Genomes reference panel. Individuals were genetically similar with a European ancestry based on principal component analysis. Genetic risks were quantified using polygenic risk scores. Regression models tested associations between risk scores and 2-year toxicity (overall, urinary frequency, decreased stream, rectal bleeding). Results were combined across studies using standard inverse-variance fixed effects meta-analysis methods. RESULTS: A total of 75 variants were genotyped/imputed successfully. Neither non-weighted nor weighted polygenic risk scores were associated with late radiation toxicity in individual studies (P>0.11) or after meta-analysis (P>0.24). No individual variant was associated with 2-year toxicity. CONCLUSION: Patients with a high polygenic susceptibility for prostate cancer have no increased risk for developing late radiotherapy toxicity. These findings suggest that patients with a genetic predisposition for prostate cancer, inferred by common variants, can be safely treated using current standard radiotherapy regimens.


Assuntos
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Lesões por Radiação/epidemiologia , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Componente Principal , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia
9.
Nat Genet ; 46(10): 1103-9, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25217961

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 76 variants associated with prostate cancer risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify additional susceptibility loci for this common cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of > 10 million SNPs in 43,303 prostate cancer cases and 43,737 controls from studies in populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry. Twenty-three new susceptibility loci were identified at association P < 5 × 10(-8); 15 variants were identified among men of European ancestry, 7 were identified in multi-ancestry analyses and 1 was associated with early-onset prostate cancer. These 23 variants, in combination with known prostate cancer risk variants, explain 33% of the familial risk for this disease in European-ancestry populations. These findings provide new regions for investigation into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and demonstrate the usefulness of combining ancestrally diverse populations to discover risk loci for disease.


Assuntos
Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
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