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1.
Eur Urol ; 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations have been associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk but a wide range of risk estimates have been reported that are based on retrospective studies. OBJECTIVE: To estimate relative and absolute PCa risks associated with BRCA1/2 mutations and to assess risk modification by age, family history, and mutation location. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a prospective cohort study of male BRCA1 (n = 376) and BRCA2 carriers (n = 447) identified in clinical genetics centres in the UK and Ireland (median follow-up 5.9 and 5.3 yr, respectively). OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Standardised incidence/mortality ratios (SIRs/SMRs) relative to population incidences or mortality rates, absolute risks, and hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using cohort and survival analysis methods. RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Sixteen BRCA1 and 26 BRCA2 carriers were diagnosed with PCa during follow-up. BRCA2 carriers had an SIR of 4.45 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.99-6.61) and absolute PCa risk of 27% (95% CI 17-41%) and 60% (95% CI 43-78%) by ages 75 and 85 yr, respectively. For BRCA1 carriers, the overall SIR was 2.35 (95% CI 1.43-3.88); the corresponding SIR at age <65 yr was 3.57 (95% CI 1.68-7.58). However, the BRCA1 SIR varied between 0.74 and 2.83 in sensitivity analyses to assess potential screening effects. PCa risk for BRCA2 carriers increased with family history (HR per affected relative 1.68, 95% CI 0.99-2.85). BRCA2 mutations in the region bounded by positions c.2831 and c.6401 were associated with an SIR of 2.46 (95% CI 1.07-5.64) compared to population incidences, corresponding to lower PCa risk (HR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14-0.96) than for mutations outside the region. BRCA2 carriers had a stronger association with Gleason score ≥7 (SIR 5.07, 95% CI 3.20-8.02) than Gleason score ≤6 PCa (SIR 3.03, 95% CI 1.24-7.44), and a higher risk of death from PCa (SMR 3.85, 95% CI 1.44-10.3). Limitations include potential screening effects for these known mutation carriers; however, the BRCA2 results were robust to multiple sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS: The results substantiate PCa risk patterns indicated by retrospective analyses for BRCA2 carriers, including further evidence of association with aggressive PCa, and give some support for a weaker association in BRCA1 carriers. PATIENT SUMMARY: In this study we followed unaffected men known to carry mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes to investigate whether they are at higher risk of developing prostate cancer compared to the general population. We found that carriers of BRCA2 mutations have a high risk of developing prostate cancer, particularly more aggressive prostate cancer, and that this risk varies by family history of prostate cancer and the location of the mutation within the gene.

2.
Br J Cancer ; 121(2): 180-192, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m2 increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.

3.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(1): 3-18, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29909963

RESUMO

Multiple primary tumors (MPTs) affect a substantial proportion of cancer survivors and can result from various causes, including inherited predisposition. Currently, germline genetic testing of MPT-affected individuals for variants in cancer-predisposition genes (CPGs) is mostly targeted by tumor type. We ascertained pre-assessed MPT individuals (with at least two primary tumors by age 60 years or at least three by 70 years) from genetics centers and performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) on 460 individuals from 440 families. Despite previous negative genetic assessment and molecular investigations, pathogenic variants in moderate- and high-risk CPGs were detected in 67/440 (15.2%) probands. WGS detected variants that would not be (or were not) detected by targeted resequencing strategies, including low-frequency structural variants (6/440 [1.4%] probands). In most individuals with a germline variant assessed as pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP), at least one of their tumor types was characteristic of variants in the relevant CPG. However, in 29 probands (42.2% of those with a P/LP variant), the tumor phenotype appeared discordant. The frequency of individuals with truncating or splice-site CPG variants and at least one discordant tumor type was significantly higher than in a control population (χ2 = 43.642; p ≤ 0.0001). 2/67 (3%) probands with P/LP variants had evidence of multiple inherited neoplasia allele syndrome (MINAS) with deleterious variants in two CPGs. Together with variant detection rates from a previous series of similarly ascertained MPT-affected individuals, the present results suggest that first-line comprehensive CPG analysis in an MPT cohort referred to clinical genetics services would detect a deleterious variant in about a third of individuals.

4.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 4(3): 359-66, 2016 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27247962

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poikiloderma is defined as a chronic skin condition presenting with a combination of punctate atrophy, areas of depigmentation, hyperpigmentation and telangiectasia. In a variety of hereditary syndromes such as Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS), Clericuzio-type poikiloderma with neutropenia (PN) and Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC), poikiloderma occurs as one of the main symptoms. Here, we report on genotype and phenotype data of a cohort of 44 index patients with RTS or related genodermatoses. METHODS: DNA samples from 43 patients were screened for variants in the 21 exons of the RECQL4 gene using PCR, SSCP-PAGE analysis and/or Sanger sequencing. Patients with only one or no detectable mutation in the RECQL4 gene were additionally tested for variants in the 8 exons of the USB1 (C16orf57) gene by Sanger sequencing. The effect of novel variants was evaluated by phylogenic studies, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) databases and in silico analyses. RESULTS: We identified 23 different RECQL4 mutations including 10 novel and one homozygous novel USB1 (C16orf57) mutation in a patient with PN. Moreover, we describe 31 RECQL4 and 8 USB1 sequence variants, four of them being novel intronic RECQL4 sequence changes that may have some deleterious effects on splicing mechanisms and need further evaluation by transcript analyses. CONCLUSION: The current study contributes to the improvement of genetic diagnostic strategies and interpretation in RTS and PN that is relevant in order to assess the patients' cancer risk, to avoid continuous and inconclusive clinical evaluations and to clarify the recurrence risk in the families. Additionally, it shows that the phenotype of more than 50% of the patients with suspected Rothmund-Thomson disease may be due to mutations in other genes raising the need for further extended genetic analyses.

5.
Hum Mol Genet ; 21(4): 958-62, 2012 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22072393

RESUMO

There have been few definitive examples of gene-gene interactions in humans. Through mutational analyses in 7325 individuals, we report four interactions (defined as departures from a multiplicative model) between mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility genes ATM and CHEK2 with BRCA1 and BRCA2 (case-only interaction between ATM and BRCA1/BRCA2 combined, P = 5.9 × 10(-4); ATM and BRCA1, P= 0.01; ATM and BRCA2, P= 0.02; CHEK2 and BRCA1/BRCA2 combined, P = 2.1 × 10(-4); CHEK2 and BRCA1, P= 0.01; CHEK2 and BRCA2, P= 0.01). The interactions are such that the resultant risk of breast cancer is lower than the multiplicative product of the constituent risks, and plausibly reflect the functional relationships of the encoded proteins in DNA repair. These findings have important implications for models of disease predisposition and clinical translation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2 , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Genéticos , Linhagem , Reino Unido
6.
J Med Genet ; 47(8): 561-6, 2010 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20472656

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous publications and utilisation of risk models for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation identification suggests that multiple primary disease in an individual is a strong predictor of a BRCA1/2 mutation and that this is more predictive than the same cancers occurring in close relatives. METHODS: This study assessed the pathological mutation detection rates for BRCA1, BRCA2 and the CHEK2c.1100 delC mutation in 2022 women with breast cancer, including 100 with breast/ovary double primary and 255 with bilateral breast cancer. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Although detection rates for mutations in BRCA1/2 are high at 49% for breast/ovarian double primary and 34% for bilateral breast cancer, the differential effect of multiple primaries in an individual appears to have been overestimated, particularly in those families with only a few malignancies. Nonetheless, bilateral breast cancer does differentially enhance detection rates in strong familial aggregations. CHEK2 1100 DelC mutation rates were lower in bilateral than for unilateral cases at 0.8% compared to 2%. The detected mutation rates for isolated double primary breast and ovarian cancer was 14% (3/22) compared to 17% (17/99) for the same two primaries in two close relatives in families with no other cases of breast/ovarian cancer. Risk models may need to be adjusted if further studies corroborate these findings.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/enzimologia , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2 , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Genéticos , Neoplasias Primárias Múltiplas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/enzimologia , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther ; 9(8): 1103-13, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19671030

RESUMO

It has been evident for some time that individuals from some families exhibit a genetic predisposition to breast cancer. Since the discovery of the first breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA1 in the 1990s, much work has been carried out to identify further breast cancer susceptibility genes. This has led to the identification of another high-penetrance gene, BRCA2, a number of moderate-penetrance genes and, more recently, common low-penetrance genes and loci. The clinical benefit of the identification of such susceptibility genes and loci is in allowing an estimate of the risk of developing breast cancer in carriers. Ultimately, it is hoped that knowledge of an individual's genetic profile in relation to these genes may allow the use of targeted therapies to maximize efficacy in the treatment of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos
8.
Nat Genet ; 38(11): 1239-41, 2006 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17033622

RESUMO

We identified constitutional truncating mutations of the BRCA1-interacting helicase BRIP1 in 9/1,212 individuals with breast cancer from BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation-negative families but in only 2/2,081 controls (P = 0.0030), and we estimate that BRIP1 mutations confer a relative risk of breast cancer of 2.0 (95% confidence interval = 1.2-3.2, P = 0.012). Biallelic BRIP1 mutations were recently shown to cause Fanconi anemia complementation group J. Thus, inactivating truncating mutations of BRIP1, similar to those in BRCA2, cause Fanconi anemia in biallelic carriers and confer susceptibility to breast cancer in monoallelic carriers.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Grupos de Complementação da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Penetrância , RNA Helicases/genética , Adulto , Códon sem Sentido , Frequência do Gene , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem
9.
Nat Genet ; 38(8): 873-5, 2006 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16832357

RESUMO

We screened individuals from 443 familial breast cancer pedigrees and 521 controls for ATM sequence variants and identified 12 mutations in affected individuals and two in controls (P = 0.0047). The results demonstrate that ATM mutations that cause ataxia-telangiectasia in biallelic carriers are breast cancer susceptibility alleles in monoallelic carriers, with an estimated relative risk of 2.37 (95% confidence interval (c.i.) = 1.51-3.78, P = 0.0003). There was no evidence that other classes of ATM variant confer a risk of breast cancer.


Assuntos
Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Alelos , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Linhagem
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