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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e245124, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1278473

RESUMO

Abstract The present study reports on seasonal and spatial variations in diversity, distribution and abundance of dinoflegellates and indicates the presence of HAB species in Pakistan waters. A total of 179 taxa, recorded in this study from offshore and near-shore waters, belong to 41 genera in 26 families and 10 orders. The high species count (149 species) was recorded from Manora Island offshore station (MI-1) and 105 spp, 109 spp and 115 spp were encountered from the Mubarak village offshore station (MV-1), Manora near shore station (MI-2) and Mubarak Village near-shore station (MV-2) respectively. Tripos furca was the dominant and frequently occurring species (> 1 x103 to > 25 x103 cells L-1 from coastal and >1x 105 cells L-l from near-shore stations) in addition to less abundant Alexandrium catenella, Alexandrium sp., Alexandrium minutum, and Prorocentrum micans (>103 to 25x 103cells/L). Another 44 species occurred in relatively low numbers (<103 cell L-l). Seventy species were found throughout the study period at all four stations. High number of species in three genera (Tripos (38), Protoperidinium (34) and Prorocentrum (20) was recorded. Potently toxic (16 genera 43 species) and HAB related (19 genera and 30 species) dinoflagellate taxa were also recorded. The percent contribution of dinoflagellates in total phytoplankton population generally remained below 20% except for a few instances. Manora Island stations had comparatively higher Shannon index and equitability and slightly lower dominance index. The PCA plot showed strong positive correlation among chlorophyll-a concentration, dissolved oxygen, total number of phytoplankton and dinoflagellates.


Resumo O presente estudo relata variações sazonais e espaciais na diversidade, na distribuição e na abundância de dinoflegelados e indica a presença de espécies de HAB nas águas do Paquistão. Um total de 179 táxons, registrados nesse estudo de águas offshore e próximas à costa, pertence a 41 gêneros em 26 famílias e 10 ordens. A alta contagem de espécies (149 espécies) foi registrada na estação offshore da Ilha de Manora (MI-1) e 105 spp., 109 spp. e 115 spp. foram encontrados na estação offshore da vila de Mubarak (MV-1), Manora perto da estação costeira (MI- 2) e estação próxima à costa da Vila de Mubarak (MV-2), respectivamente. Tripos furca foi a espécie dominante e de ocorrência frequente (> 1 x103 a > 25 x103 células L-1 da costa e > 1x 105 células Ll de estações próximas à costa), além de Alexandrium catenella menos abundante, Alexandrium sp., Alexandrium minutum e Prorocentrum micans (> 103 a 25x 103 células/L). Outras 44 espécies ocorreram em números relativamente baixos (< 103 células L-1). Setenta espécies foram encontradas durante o período de estudo em todas as quatro estações. Foi registrado um alto número de espécies em três gêneros (Tripos (38), Protoperidinium (34) e Prorocentrum (20). Potencialmente tóxicos (16 gêneros e 43 espécies) e HAB relacionados (19 gêneros e 30 espécies), táxons de dinoflagelados também foram registrados. A contribuição percentual de dinoflagelados na população fitoplanctônica total geralmente permaneceu abaixo de 20%, exceto em alguns casos. As estações da Ilha de Manora tinham índice de Shannon comparativamente mais alto e equitabilidade e índice de dominância ligeiramente mais baixos. O gráfico de PCA mostrou forte correlação positiva entre concentração de clorofila-a e oxigênio dissolvido, número total de fitoplânctons e dinoflagelados.

2.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2021 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34734244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is evident that an association between smoking and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exists, but research is lacking in establishing the directionality of the relationship. METHODS: We used longitudinal data from wave I (2001-2002) and II (2004-2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Individuals with nicotine dependence (ND) were matched to individuals without ND using propensity score matching to estimate the risk of developing PTSD after trauma. We also matched smokers (with or without ND) to lifetime non-smokers to estimate their risk of developing PTSD after trauma. Lastly, we conducted a mediation analysis on the effect of ND severity on PTSD symptoms. RESULTS: Individuals with ND (n = 1,514) were more likely to develop PTSD (OR: 1.59; 95%CI: 1.09-2.32; p = 0.017) compared to individuals without ND (n = 6,047). Smokers (regardless of ND status) (n = 2,335) compared to non-smokers (n = 5,226) had no significant effect on risk of PTSD (p = 0.26). Withdrawal was found to be a mediator of the effect of ND severity on PTSD symptoms. CONCLUSION: ND, but not smoking status, increases a smoker's risk of developing PTSD. This provides information that could aid in preventive strategies for individuals with ND who are exposed to trauma. IMPLICATIONS: This study provides evidence in a national representative sample of adults in the U.S. that nicotine dependence may increase one's risk of developing PTSD after exposure to trauma. It also shows the directionality of the association between smoking and PTSD. Lastly, it demonstrates that withdrawal may be the link to the association between nicotine dependence and PTSD. We hope that with these findings, preventative strategies are put in place for smokers who are dependent and are exposed to trauma, such that they do not develop PTSD.

3.
Auton Neurosci ; 237: 102907, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34773737

RESUMO

The underlying pathophysiology of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) remains unclear. This phenomenon is likely multifactorial, and there is considerable evidence that genetic factors play a role. There are certain genetic causes of epilepsy in which the risk of SUDEP appears to be increased relative to epilepsy overall. For individuals with pathogenic variants in genes including SCN1A, SCN1B, SCN8A, SCN2A, GNB5, KCNA1 and DEPDC5, there are varying degrees of evidence to suggest an increased risk for sudden death. Why the risk for sudden death is higher is not completely clear; however, in many cases pathogenic variants in these genes are also associated with autonomic dysfunction, which is hypothesized as a contributing factor to SUDEP. We review the evidence for increased SUDEP risk for patients with epilepsy due to pathogenic variants in these genes, and also discuss what is known about autonomic dysfunction in these contexts.

4.
Psychol Health Med ; : 1-16, 2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34758693

RESUMO

The literature lacks a rigorous psychometric evaluation of the Arabic version of Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This study aims to evaluate reliability, determine the underlying factor structure of the Arabic version of HADS and assess its suitability as screening tool for depression and anxiety among Arabic HD patients.A sample of 370 HD patients were recruited from all health districts in Kuwait. Reliability for HADS (all items) and its subscales HADS-A (anxiety) and HADS-D (depression) were estimated using Cronbach's alpha and item analysis was conducted. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were conducted to extract and test the factor structure for the Arabic version of HADS. Eight models were tested using CFA to determine goodness-of-fit.The Cronbach α for the Arabic HADS (all items), HADS-A and HADS-D were 0.884, 0.852 and 0.764, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficient between HADS-A and HADS-D subscales indicated significant correlation (r = +0.69, PV < 0.001). EFA indicated two factors with eigenvalues >1, which accounted for 48.5% of the total variance. CFA revealed the one-factor model had the poorest fit, the two-factor models with acceptable fit, and three-factor models showed good fit.The Arabic HADS has good reliability and internal consistency, which warrants its use in screening for anxiety and depression among Arabic HD patients. Furthermore, the three-factor structure has shown a better fit which warrants further exploration in HD patients with the advancement in theory of psychological models for anxiety and depression.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34679263

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The current pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona-Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has become a global health menace with significant morbidity and mortality besides huge socioeconomic implications. Despite the approval of few vaccines for the prevention of the disease, the discovery of safe and effective countermeasures especially from natural sources is of paramount importance, as the number of cases continues escalating. Arq Ajib has long been used for various diseases and its ingredients have been reported for antiviral, antimicrobial, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant activities. The present study investigates the inhibitory effect of phytocompound of Arq Ajib on potential drug targets of SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: The structures of phytocompounds present in Arq Ajib were retrieved from PubChem database and some were illustrated using Marvin Sketch. SARS-CoV-2 S glycoprotein (PDB ID: 6LZG) and 3CLpro (PDB ID: 7BQY) were selected as the target protein. Dock Prep module in UCSF Chimera software was used for receptor structure processing. AutoDock Vina was used to calculate the binding affinities between the protein and ligands and to predict most promising compounds with best scores. RESULTS: Molecular docking results predicted that the phytocompounds of Arq Ajib had good binding affinity and interaction with S glycoprotein and 3CLpro. Quercetin and Isorhoifolin from Mentha arvensis were identified as promising candidates with the potential to interact with 3CLpro and spike glycoprotein and inhibit the viral replication and its entry into the host. CONCLUSIONS: Arq Ajib may prove valuable for developing novel therapeutic candidate for COVID-19; however, it has to be substantiated further with in-vitro and in-vivo studies.

6.
Entropy (Basel) ; 23(10)2021 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34681981

RESUMO

Dynamic cumulative residual (DCR) entropy is a valuable randomness metric that may be used in survival analysis. The Bayesian estimator of the DCR Rényi entropy (DCRRéE) for the Lindley distribution using the gamma prior is discussed in this article. Using a number of selective loss functions, the Bayesian estimator and the Bayesian credible interval are calculated. In order to compare the theoretical results, a Monte Carlo simulation experiment is proposed. Generally, we note that for a small true value of the DCRRéE, the Bayesian estimates under the linear exponential loss function are favorable compared to the others based on this simulation study. Furthermore, for large true values of the DCRRéE, the Bayesian estimate under the precautionary loss function is more suitable than the others. The Bayesian estimates of the DCRRéE work well when increasing the sample size. Real-world data is evaluated for further clarification, allowing the theoretical results to be validated.

7.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 760047, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34692740

RESUMO

Background: Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is important for reducing hospitalization and mortalities. Both Pfizer-BioNTech (BNT162b2) and the Oxford-AstraZeneca (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) vaccines are used in Saudi Arabia and in many parts of the world. Post-vaccinal side effects were recorded, so we aimed to screen different complaints after vaccination among vaccinees in Saudi Arabia. Methods: An online questionnaire was designed to screen the local, systemic, and allergic post vaccination reactions for vaccinees who received either one or two doses of the BNT162b2 vaccine or one dose of the ChAdOx1 vaccine. The number and percentage were recorded for each response and analyzed using cross-tab and Chi square tests. The degree of the severity of post vaccination reactions were analyzed using Roc curve. The cofactors that may affect the severity of post-vaccinal reactions including previous COVID-19 infection, age, sex, body mass index, and comorbidities were investigated. Results: During our study, 4,170 individuals reported their responses: 2,601 received one dose of BNT162b2, of whom 456 completed the second dose, and 1,569 received a single dose of ChAdOx1. The side effects were reported in 85.6% of BNT162b2 vaccinees and 96.05% of ChAdOx1 vaccinees who voluntarily responded to a survey about post-vaccination side effects. The side effects were more severe in BNT162b2 than ChAdOx1. ChAdOx1 vaccinees reported mild, moderate, severe and critical side effects in 30.13, 28.62, 29.73, and 1.53%, respectively. In contrast, mild side effects were recorded among the majority of BNT162b2 vaccinees (63.92%) while moderate, severe, and critical side effects were 27.67, 7.68, and 0.72%, respectively. Both local and systemic side effects were recorded more frequently in ChAdOx1 in comparison to BNT162b2 vaccinees. Palpitation was among the new systemic side effects reported in the current study in high frequency. Abnormal menstrual cycle (delaying/increase hemorrhages or pain) was also reported in 0.98% (18/1846) of Pfizer-BioNTech and 0.68% (7/1028) of ChAdOx1 vaccinees, while deep vein thrombosis was only reported in a single case vaccinated with BNT162b2 vaccine. Conclusion: Both vaccines induced post-vaccinal side effects; however, ChAdOx1 induces a higher frequency of post-vaccinal systemic side effects than BNT162b2.

8.
Eur Heart J ; 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597388

RESUMO

AIMS: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide, and increased low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) play a critical role in development and progression of atherosclerosis. Here, we examined for the first time gut immunomodulatory effects of the microbiota-derived metabolite propionic acid (PA) on intestinal cholesterol metabolism. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using both human and animal model studies, we demonstrate that treatment with PA reduces blood total and LDL cholesterol levels. In apolipoprotein E-/- (Apoe-/-) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), PA reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption and aortic atherosclerotic lesion area. Further, PA increased regulatory T-cell numbers and interleukin (IL)-10 levels in the intestinal microenvironment, which in turn suppressed the expression of Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (Npc1l1), a major intestinal cholesterol transporter. Blockade of IL-10 receptor signalling attenuated the PA-related reduction in total and LDL cholesterol and augmented atherosclerotic lesion severity in the HFD-fed Apoe-/- mice. To translate these preclinical findings to humans, we conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled human study (clinical trial no. NCT03590496). Oral supplementation with 500 mg of PA twice daily over the course of 8 weeks significantly reduced LDL [-15.9 mg/dL (-8.1%) vs. -1.6 mg/dL (-0.5%), P = 0.016], total [-19.6 mg/dL (-7.3%) vs. -5.3 mg/dL (-1.7%), P = 0.014] and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels [PA vs. placebo: -18.9 mg/dL (-9.1%) vs. -0.6 mg/dL (-0.5%), P = 0.002] in subjects with elevated baseline LDL cholesterol levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal a novel immune-mediated pathway linking the gut microbiota-derived metabolite PA with intestinal Npc1l1 expression and cholesterol homeostasis. The results highlight the gut immune system as a potential therapeutic target to control dyslipidaemia that may introduce a new avenue for prevention of ACVDs.

9.
Eur Heart J Case Rep ; 5(10): ytab383, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34632266

RESUMO

Background: Simultaneous left ventricular (LV) and aortic (Ao) pressure gradient assessment has been rendered challenging since the recall of the Langston catheter. Here we describe a simple method for simultaneous LV and Ao pressure gradient assessment using a Swan-Ganz catheter. Case summary: We describe two cases where assessment of simultaneous left ventricle and Ao valve gradients was done using a Swan-Ganz catheter to assess the degree of Ao stenosis and dynamic LV outflow obstruction. Discussion: Using Swan-Ganz catheter assessment of simultaneous left ventricle and Ao valve gradients can simplify the procedure with reduced cost and increased patient safety.

10.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246591, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468519

RESUMO

There are different opinions around the World regarding the zoonotic capability of H3N8 equine influenza viruses. In this report, we have tried to summarize the findings of different research and review articles from Chinese, English, and Mongolian Scientific Literature reporting the evidence for equine influenza virus infections in human beings. Different search engines i.e. CNKI, PubMed, ProQuest, Chongqing Database, Mongol Med, and Web of Knowledge yielded 926 articles, of which 32 articles met the inclusion criteria for this review. Analyzing the epidemiological and Phylogenetic data from these articles, we found a considerable experimental and observational evidence of H3N8 equine influenza viruses infecting human being in different parts of the World in the past. Recently published articles from Pakistan and China have highlighted the emerging threat and capability of equine influenza viruses for an epidemic in human beings in future. In this review article we have summarized the salient scientific reports published on the epidemiology of equine influenza viruses and their zoonotic aspect. Additionally, several recent developments in the start of 21st century, including the transmission and establishment of equine influenza viruses in different animal species i.e. camels and dogs, and presumed encephalopathy associated to influenza viruses in horses, have documented the unpredictable nature of equine influenza viruses. In sum up, several reports has highlighted the unpredictable nature of H3N8 EIVs highlighting the need of continuous surveillance for H3N8 in equines and humans in contact with them for novel and threatening mutations.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8 , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae , Animais , China , Doenças dos Cavalos/transmissão , Cavalos , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H3N8/genética , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/veterinária , Paquistão , Filogenia , Zoonoses
11.
CNS Neurosci Ther ; 27(12): 1540-1548, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34545997

RESUMO

AIMS: Cilostazol (CLS) has shown antidepressant effect in cardiovascular patients, post-stroke depression, and animal models through its neurotrophic and antiinflammatory activities. Consequently, we aimed to investigate its safety and efficacy in patients with MDD by conducting double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. METHODS: 80 participants with MDD (DSM-IV criteria) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score >20 were treated with CLS 50 mg or placebo twice daily plus escitalopram (ESC) 20 mg once daily for six weeks. Patients were evaluated by HDRS scores (weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6). Serum levels of CREB1, BDNF, 5-HT, TNF-α, NF- κB, and FAM19A5 were assessed pre- and post-treatment. RESULTS: Co-administration of CLS had markedly decreased HDRS score at all-time points compared to the placebo group (p < 0.001). Early improvement, response, and remission rates after 6 weeks were significantly higher in the CLS group (90%, 90%, 80%, respectively) than in the placebo group (25%, 65%, 50% respectively) (p < 0.001). Moreover, the CLS group was superior to the placebo group in modulation of the measured neurotrophic and inflammatory biomarkers. CONCLUSION: CLS is safe and effective short-term adjunctive therapy in patients with MDD with no other comorbid conditions. Trial registration ID:NCT04069819.

12.
World J Surg ; 45(11): 3438-3448, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34341844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of tumor burden score (TBS) on conditional survival (CS) among patients undergoing curative-intent resection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been examined to date. METHODS: Patients who underwent liver resection of HCC between 2000 and 2017 were identified from a multi-institutional database. The impact of TBS and other clinicopathologic factors on 3-year conditional survival (CS3) was examined. RESULTS: Among 1,040 patients, 263 (25.3%) patients had low TBS, 668 (64.2%) had medium TBS and 109 (10.5%) had high TBS. TBS was strongly associated with OS; 5-year OS was 39.0% among patients with high TBS compared with 61.1% and 79.4% among patients with medium and low TBS, respectively (p < 0.001). While actuarial survival decreased as time elapsed from resection, CS increased over time irrespective of TBS. The largest differences between 3-year actuarial survival and CS3 were noted among patients with high TBS (5-years postoperatively; CS3: 78.7% vs. 3-year actuarial survival: 30.7%). The effect of adverse clinicopathologic factors including high TBS, poor/undifferentiated tumor grade, microvascular invasion, liver capsule involvement, and positive margins on prognosis decreased over time. CONCLUSIONS: CS rates among patients who underwent resection for HCC increased as patients survived additional years, irrespective of TBS. CS estimates can be used to provide important dynamic information relative to the changing survival probability after resection of HCC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular , Neoplasias Hepáticas , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/cirurgia , Hepatectomia , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Carga Tumoral
13.
Saudi Med J ; 42(8): 847-852, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344808

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess local epidemiology and risk factors for bacterial, fungal, and viral infections among the autologous bone marrow transplant population. METHODS: This study is a retrospective correlational cohort design comprising 150 adult patients who underwent autologous transplants at Princess Noorah Oncology Center, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 2014 and 2020. RESULTS: The study findings indicate that bacterial infection prevalence differed significantly across the different disease status pre-salvage as patients with the relapsed disease were more likely to have bacterial infections. The median of engraftment days differed significantly between those who had a bacterial infection and those who did not. Interestingly, previous pneumonia infection had a positive relationship with the number of hospital stays. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial infections are the dominant type of infection among the autologous patient population. The research reflects authentic practice and reports unique characteristics of autologous transplant patients in terms of the prevalence and types of infection these patients experience.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Viroses , Transplante de Medula Óssea , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Autólogo
14.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(7)2021 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34359171

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate risk factors, serum minerals, and metabolites associated with non-infectious abortion and calving rates of Egyptian buffaloes. Data were obtained from 364 pregnant buffaloes of different ages and parities over 7 years from 2014 to 2020. Body condition score (BCS) was a risk factor regarding abortion and calving; the thinnest buffaloes were more likely to abort and less likely to calving than those with body energy reserves. In comparison with the spring season, aborting probability decreased 49.7% the odds ratio (OR = 0.503), while the chance of calving increased 72.1% (OR = 1.721) during winter. The parity was another significant factor related to abortion and calving rates; multiparous buffaloes were less likely to abort and more likely to calving than primiparous. Dry buffaloes had 88.2% (OR = 0.118) lesser odds of abortion and six times (OR = 6.012) more likely to give birth than those lactating. The sex of the fetus was not a risk factor regarding abortion or calving. Other variables significantly associated with abortion rate were glucose and copper in the sera of aborted buffaloes were significantly higher (p < 0.05), and those of urea, uric acid, total protein, total cholesterol, phosphorus, magnesium and iron were significantly (p < 0.05) lower than a normal pregnancy. In conclusion, the present results emphasize that the identification of the risk factors, serum minerals and metabolites associated with fetus abortion of Egyptian buffalo may provide useful information, which assists to construct suitable preventive measures to raise reproductive performance.

15.
Comp Clin Path ; : 1-8, 2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34335135

RESUMO

Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is one of the major viral diseases still causing great economic losses among breeding flocks of Egypt. This study was designed to focus light on non-cutaneous lesions (prevalence, intensity, and impacts) among necropsied LSD infected cattle. We selected some dairy and beef flocks (Frisian breed) located in 3 governorates (Sharkia, Dakahlia, and Kaloubia) in Nile delta, Egypt, in the period from January 2019 to January 2020 for our survey study. The case history of farms declared no previous vaccination of examined farms. The clinical signs, morbidity, and mortality rates were recorded. Average morbidity and mortality percentage were 22.28% and 6.59%, respectively. PCR for specimens from liver, kidneys, heart, lungs, testis, udder, trachea, and lymph node indicates presence of amplicon capripoxvirus gene product at molecular weight size 192 bp. Postmortem lesions of necropsied and emergency slaughtered were recorded. The main detectable histopathology lesions among the infected animals were orchitis (75%), mastitis in immature and lactating udder (66.66%), and necrotic hepatitis (77.77%), disseminated vasculitis (61.11), glomerulonephritis (55.55), myocardial degeneration (50%), and serous atrophy of coronary fats (38.88%), lymphadenitis (88.88%), necrosis and depleted lymphoid tissue of spleen (38.88%), necrotic myositis (77.77%), tracheitis (16.66%), and pneumonia (interstitial bronchopneumonia) (44.44%) besides intra-cytoplasmic inclusions bodies in skin (33.33%). It could be concluded that higher mortalities of LSD may be due to systemic infection of infected animals which had great impact on economic losses among breeding flocks.

17.
Open Vet J ; 11(2): 270-276, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34307083

RESUMO

Background: Companion animals are prone to spinal cord injuries commonly associated with severe locomotor and sensory complications, which can escalate to a state of irreversible paralysis. Stem cell therapies propose a hope for treating spinal cord injuries via differentiation into neurons and associated glial cells, halting the immune attacks, inhibiting apoptosis and necrosis, and secretion of neurotrophic factors that stimulate the regeneration process. Aim: The study aims to evaluate the use of autologous bone marrow derived stromal cells in platelet-rich plasma carrier for selected clinical cases having chronic spinal cord injuries in dogs and cats via a one-time combined intrathecal/intravenous injection. Methods: Cells were injected in five dogs and three cats suffering from disc protrusion leading to spinal cord injury and in thosewho did not respond to conventional treatment during a clinical trial. Results: Results indicated that the transplanted cells led to the restoration of the weight bearing locomotor function and spinal reflexes in a period less than 90 days with physical rehabilitation. The treatment showed minor changes in the magnetic resonance images of extruded discs. Conclusion: This study concluded that the combined intrathecal/intravenous injection of bone marrow stromal cells is a safe and promising procedure for treating chronic spinal cord injuries in companion animals.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Doenças do Cão , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Plasma Rico em Plaquetas , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal , Animais , Medula Óssea , Gatos , Cães , Injeções Intravenosas , Animais de Estimação , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/terapia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/veterinária , Células Estromais
18.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255273, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34324581

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescence is the last opportunity to reverse any growth faltering accumulated from fetal life through childhood and it is considered a crucial period to optimize human development. In Bangladesh, a growing double burden of underweight and obesity in adolescents is recognized, yet limited data exists on how, when, and where to intervene. This study assesses the dynamics of growth among adolescent girls in Bangladesh, providing insight about critical junctures where faltering occurs and where immediate interventions are warranted. METHODS: We pooled data from Bangladesh's Food Security and Nutrition Surveillance Project collected between 2011 and 2014 to document the age dynamics of weight and linear growth. 20,572 adolescent girls were measured for height and 19,345 for weight. We constructed growth curves for height, weight, stunting, and underweight. We also stratified growth dynamics by wealth quintile to assess socioeconomic inequities in adolescent trajectories. RESULTS: Height-for-age z-score (HAZ) in Bangladeshi girls deteriorates throughout adolescence and especially during the early years. Mean HAZ decreases by 0.20 standard deviations (sd) per year in early adolescence (10-14 years) vs 0.06 sd/year during late adolescence (15-19 years), while stunting increases by 16 percentage points (pp) vs 6.7 pp, respectively. Conversely, BMI-for-age z-score (BAZ) increases by 0.13 sd/year in early adolescence vs 0.02 sd/year in late adolescence, and underweight decreases by 12.8 pp vs 3.2 pp. Adolescent girls in all socioeconomic groups show a similar pattern of HAZ and BAZ dynamics, but the curve for the richest quintile stays above that of the poorest across all ages. CONCLUSIONS: Trends and levels of stunting and underweight among adolescent girls in Bangladesh are worrisome, suggesting substantial linear growth faltering in early adolescence, with improving weight-for-age occurring only as linear growth slows and stops. Given the rising burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in Bangladesh and emerging evidence of the link between stunting and later chronic diseases, greater attention to adolescent growth and development is needed. Our findings suggest that, to address stunting, interventions in early adolescence would have the greatest benefits. School-based interventions could be a way to target this population.


Assuntos
Crescimento e Desenvolvimento , Adolescente , Bangladesh , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
J Craniofac Surg ; 2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34320590

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: In Somalia, which is located in the horn of Africa, a fragile and insecure state structure allowed the strengthening of terrorist groups provoking armed conflicts. Stray bullet injuries can be defined as an accidental bullet wound caused by an anonymous attacker and are usually associated with celebratory gunfire or urban violence. The anatomy of the pterygopalatine fossa (PPF) is complex and penetrating foreign body injuries pose even a greater challenge for the surgeon to operate in this area. Endoscopic approaches facilitate the removal of foreign bodies from the paranasal sinuses, orbital cavity, and aerodigestive system, minimizing potential risks. This study presents a series of removal of stray bullets found in the PPF, as a result of urban violence in Somalia in a period of 6 months. Patient demographics, foreign body origin, treatment modalities, and surgery details were evaluated and assessed. All patients were male and aged 16, 2, and 24 years, respectively. The surgeries were quite straightforward with surgery times recorded as 25, 44, and 22 minutes, respectively. The endoscopic endonasal approach proved to provide safe and sufficient access for removal. Surprisingly, even the foreign body in the PPF of a 2-year-old patient could be removed with an endoscopic endonasal approach and did not require an external approach. The management of foreign body removal in the PPF is challenging due to the potential risks of iatrogenic vascular and nervous tissue injury. The endoscopic endonasal approach for removal proved efficient in 3 cases regardless of age and anatomical dimensions.

20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198608

RESUMO

The Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) is increasingly being used for healthcare purposes. IoMT enables many sensors to collect patient data from various locations and send it to a distributed hospital for further study. IoMT provides patients with a variety of paid programmes to help them keep track of their health problems. However, the current system services are expensive, and offloaded data in the healthcare network are insecure. The research develops a new, cost-effective and stable IoMT framework based on a blockchain-enabled fog cloud. The study aims to reduce the cost of healthcare application services as they are processing in the system. The study devises an IoMT system based on different algorithm techniques, such as Blockchain-Enable Smart-Contract Cost-Efficient Scheduling Algorithm Framework (BECSAF) schemes. Smart-Contract Blockchain schemes ensure data consistency and validation with symmetric cryptography. However, due to the different workflow tasks scheduled on other nodes, the heterogeneous, earliest finish, time-based scheduling deals with execution under their deadlines. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm schemes outperform all existing baseline approaches in terms of the implementation of applications.


Assuntos
Blockchain , Internet das Coisas , Algoritmos , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos
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