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1.
Chemistry ; 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33856737

RESUMO

Polysaccharides due to their outstanding properties, have attracted the attention of researchers, working in the biomedical field and especially of those working in drug delivery. Modified/functionalized polysaccharides further increase the importance for various applications with every passing day. Delivery of therapeutics for diverse ailments in different body endocrine glands and hormones in a safe way is focal point of researchers working in the field. Among the routes followed, transdermal route is preferred due to non-exposure of active moieties to the harsh gastric environment and first pass metabolism. This review starts with the overview of polysaccharides used for the delivery of various therapeutic agents. Advantages of polysaccharides use in transdermal route are dealt in detail. Types of polysaccharides will be elaborated through examples and in this context, special emphasis will be on the polysaccharides being used for synthesis of the membranes/films. Techniques employed for their modification to design novel carriers for therapeutics delivery will also be discussed. The review will end with a brief discussion on recent developments and future perspectives for delivery of therapeutic agents.

2.
Trials ; 22(1): 235, 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781315

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An estimated 463 million people globally have diabetes, with the prevalence growing in low-and middle-income settings, such as Bangladesh. Given the need for context-appropriate interventions to prevent type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), the 'Diabetes: Community-led Awareness, Response and Evaluation' (D:Clare) trial will rigorously evaluate the replication and scale-up of a participatory learning and action (PLA) cycle intervention in Bangladesh, to inform policy on population-level T2DM prevention and control. METHODS: This is a stepped-wedge cluster randomised controlled trial, with integrated process and economic evaluations, conducted from March 2020 to September 2022. The trial will evaluate a community-based four-phase PLA cycle intervention focused on prevention and control of T2DM implemented over 18 months, against a control of usual care. Twelve clusters will be randomly allocated (1:1) to implement the intervention at project month 1 or 12. The intervention will be evaluated through three cross-sectional surveys at months 1, 12 and 24. The trial will be conducted in Alfadanga Upazila, Faridpur district, with an estimated population of 120,000. Clusters are defined as administrative geographical areas, with approximately equal populations. Each of the six unions in Alfadanga will be divided into two clusters, forming 12 clusters in total. Given the risk of inter-cluster contamination, evaluation surveys will exclude villages in border areas. Participants will be randomly sampled, independently for each survey, from a population census conducted in January 2020. The primary outcome is the combined prevalence of intermediate hyperglycaemia and T2DM, measured through fasting and 2-h post-glucose load blood tests. A total of 4680 participants provide 84% power to detect a 30% reduction in the primary outcome, assuming a baseline of 30% and an ICC of 0.07. The analysis will be by intention-to-treat, comparing intervention and control periods across all clusters, adjusting for geographical clustering. DISCUSSION: This study will provide further evidence of effectiveness for community-based PLA to prevent T2DM at scale in a rural Bangladesh setting. However, we encountered several challenges in applying the stepped-wedge design to our research context, with particular consideration given to balancing seasonality, timing and number of steps and estimation of partial versus full effect. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN: ISRCTN42219712 . Registered on 31 October 2019.

3.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 1195-1211, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762817

RESUMO

Aim: The study was aimed to understand the underlying causes for the differences in propranolol pharmacokinetics (PK) between healthy and cirrhosis populations by using a systematic whole-body physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model-building approach for suggesting model informed propranolol dosing in liver cirrhosis patients with different stages of disease severity. Methods: A whole-body PBPK model was developed by using population simulator PK-Sim® by using reported physicochemical and clinical data for propranolol in healthy and liver cirrhosis populations. The model evaluation was done by visual verification and comparison of PK parameters using their observed/predicted ratios (Robs/pred). Results: The developed model has effectively described the disposition of propranolol after intravenous and oral application in healthy and liver cirrhosis populations. All the model predictions were comparable to the observed clinical data and the Robs/pred for all the PK parameters were within a 2-fold range. A significant increase in plasma concentration of propranolol and decrease in drug clearance was observed in progressive stages of liver cirrhosis. The developed model after evaluation with the reported clinical PK data was used for suggesting model informed propranolol dosing in different stages of liver cirrhosis based on systemic unbound drug concentration. Conclusion: The developed PBPK model has successfully described propranolol PK in healthy and cirrhosis populations after IV and oral administration. The evaluated PBPK propranolol-cirrhosis model can have many implications in predicting propranolol dosing in liver cirrhosis patients with different stages of disease severity.

4.
J Microencapsul ; : 1-16, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689550

RESUMO

This study aimed to develop and optimise a Curcumin-loaded SLNs (C-SLNs) patch through a new approach for transdermal delivery. C-SLNs were optimised through the response surface central composite design using the modified injection method. Optimised C-SLNs were loaded into a polyvinyl alcohol-based patch through the backing membrane method. Compatibility studies (FTIR, XRPD), in vitro release, ex vivo skin permeation, accelerated stability, and evaluation studies of the patch were also performed. Prepared C-SLNs exhibited average particle diameter of 170 ± 2 nm with an encapsulation efficiency of 90 ± 3.5% (w/w) while SEM illustrated spherical shape of particles. In vitro release data ensured a sustained release for up to 72 hours. The enhancement ratio of C-SLNs based patch with permeation enhancer (PE) was high up to 6.5 folds as compared to patch without PE. It is concluded that the modified injection method is simple, economical, and less time consuming for the development of C-SLNs patch for the transdermal route.

5.
Cureus ; 12(12): e11867, 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33282609

RESUMO

Objective To evaluate the association of chronic low back pain with levels of vitamin D in the affected population. Methodology This observational study was carried out from August 2016 to August 2019 at Khairpur Medical College and Shaheed Mohatarma Benazir Bhutto Medical College, Karachi, Pakistan. Patients aged 18 years and above suffering from chronic low back pain with pain persisting for more than 12 weeks were the study participants after written consent and prior approval from the ethical review committee was obtained for conducting the study. Data was recorded on predesigned performa and analyzed on SPSS Version 20 (IBM Corp.). Results There were 1,152 cases with chronic lower back pain, of whom 632 (54.9%) were females and 520 (45.1%) were males. The mean age of the patients was 41.76 ± 11.18 years. The mean visual analog scale (VAS) level was 5.36 ± 1.65; 707 cases (61.4%) had moderate pain according to VAS, 292 (25.3%) had severe pain, and 153 (13.3%) had mild pain. Concerning vitamin D levels, the mean levels were 22.74 ± 13.80, with 599 (52%) of the patients having deficient levels of vitamin D, 347 (30.1%) having insufficient levels, and only 204 (17.7%) of the cases having normal vitamin D levels. Conclusions Lower back pain is one of the common presenting problems in orthopedic clinics. We found no relationship between chronic lower back pain and vitamin D levels in our study.

6.
Cureus ; 12(10): e11271, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33274146

RESUMO

Objective This study's main purpose is to determine the functional outcome of volar locking plates in the management of intraarticular fracture of the distal radius. Methodology This cross-sectional study was conducted from August 2016 to August 2019. Forty-nine patients with the intraarticular distal radius fractures managed by the volar locking plate were included in the study. Patients with open fractures, ipsilateral other limb injuries, polytrauma patients, pathological fractures, and patients having neurovascular injuries were excluded from the study. AO Classification was used to classify fractures. The fracture was approached through the volar approach and fixed by the volar locking plate. A modified mayo wrist score evaluated the functional outcome. All the data were recorded on predesigned performa, and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS), version 20 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY) was used to analyze the data. Results A total of 49 patients with intraarticular fractures of the distal radius were included in the study. The mean age of the patient was 37.20 ± 10.05 years. Out of 49 patients, 29 (59.2%) were males, and 20 (40.8%) were females. Union was achieved in almost all fractures except one case, which went into non-union despite the adequate initial reduction, and the mean time of union was 11.98 ± 1.64 weeks. With respect to the stratification of functional outcome very good and good functional outcome was achieved in 46 patients (93.8%) in both the groups, the satisfactory outcome was achieved in two (4.1%) cases and one patient had a bad outcome in which union was not achieved and went into non-union. Conclusion Open reduction and internal fixation of intraarticular fracture of the distal radius using a volar locking plate is a good option for managing these fractures as it provides stable fixation, and good to excellent outcomes can be achieved by using these plates.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373323

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a recently emerged pandemic caused by a novel virus known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This disease is communicable and mainly affects the respiratory tract. The outbreak of this disease has greatly influenced human health and economic activities worldwide. The absence of any medication for this infection highlights the urgent need for the development of alternative methods for managing the spread of the disease. Our immune system operates based on a complex array of cells, processes, and chemicals that continuously protect our body from invading pathogens, including viruses, toxins, and bacteria. The present study was conducted to perform a comprehensive review of all dietary treatments for boosting immunity against viral infections. No study was found to explicitly support the use of any healthy foods or supplements to protect against COVID-19. However, this study offers details on well-researched functional foods and supplements that typically improve the immune response, which could be helpful against this newly emerged pandemic.

8.
Pharmaceutics ; 12(11)2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182248

RESUMO

Intricate formulation methods and/or the use of sophisticated equipment limit the prevalence of liposomal dosage-forms. Simple techniques are developed to assemble amphiphiles into globular lamellae while transiting from the immiscible organic to the aqueous phase. Various parameters are optimized by injecting chloroform solution of amphiphiles into the aqueous phase and subsequent removal of the organic phase. Further simplification is achieved by reorienting amphiphiles through a spontaneous phase transition in a swirling biphasic system during evaporation of the organic phase under vacuum. Although the chloroform injection yields smaller Z-average and poly-dispersity-index the spontaneous phase transition method overrides simplicity and productivity. The increasing solid/solvent ratios results in higher Z-average and broader poly-dispersity-index of liposomes under a given set of experimental conditions, and vice versa. Surface charge dependent large unilamellar vesicles with a narrow distribution have poly-dispersity-index < 0.4 in 10 µM saline. As small and monodisperse liposomes are prerequisites in targeted drug delivery strategies, hence the desired Z-average < 200 d.nm and poly-dispersity-index < 0.15 is obtained through the serial membrane-filtration method. Phosphatidylcholine/water 4 µmol/mL is achieved at a temperature of 10°C below the phase-transition temperature of phospholipids, ensuring suitability for thermolabile entities and high entrapment efficiency. Both methods furnish the de-novo rearrangement of amphiphiles into globular lamellae, aiding in the larger entrapped volume. The immiscible organic phase benefits from its faster and complete removal from the final product. High cholesterol content (55.6 mol%) imparts stability in primary hydration medium at 5 ± 3 °C for 6 months in light-protected type-1 glass vials. Collectively, the reported methods are novel, scalable and time-efficient, yielding high productivity in simple equipment.

9.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(11)2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147727

RESUMO

Aminodextran (AMD) coated magnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles are synthesized via electrostatic adsorption of aminodextran onto magnetic nanoparticles and their potential theranostic application is evaluated. The uncoated and aminodextran-coated nanoparticles are characterized to determine their hydrodynamic size, morphology, chemical composition, zeta potential and magnetization. The aminodextran containing cobalt ferrite nanoparticles of nanometer size are positively charged in the pH range from 3 to 9 and exhibit saturation magnetization of 50 emu/g. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) indicates capability for diagnostics and a reduction in intensity with an increase in nanoparticle amount. The hyperthermia capability of the prepared particles shows their potential to generate suitable local heat for therapeutic purposes. There is a rise of 7 °C and 9 °C at 327 kHz and 981 kHz respectively and specific absorption rates (SAR) of aminodextran-coated nanoparticles are calculated to be 259 W/g and 518 W/g at the given frequencies larger than uncoated nanoparticles (0.02 W/g). The development of novel aminodextran coated magnetic cobalt ferrite nanoparticles has significant potential to enable and improve personalized therapy regimens, targeted cancer therapies and ultimately to overcome the prevalence of nonessential and overdosing of healthy tissues and organs.

10.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(7): 275, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033847

RESUMO

In the published manuscript, co-author Sarah Hendrickx name was misspelled and co-author Guy Caljon's last and first names were inadvertently switched.

11.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(20)2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053899

RESUMO

Titanium-aluminium-vanadium (Ti 6Al 4V) alloys, nickel alloys (Inconel 718), and duraluminum alloys (AA 2000 series) are widely used materials in numerous engineering applications wherein machined features are required to having good surface finish. In this research, micro-impressions of 12 µm depth are milled on these materials though laser milling. Response surface methodology based design of experiment is followed resulting in 54 experiments per work material. Five laser parameters are considered naming lamp current intensity (I), pulse frequency (f), scanning speed (V), layer thickness (LT), and track displacement (TD). Process performance is evaluated and compared in terms of surface roughness through several statistical and microscopic analysis. The significance, strength, and direction of each of the five laser parametric effects are deeply investigated for the said alloys. Optimized laser parameters are proposed to achieve minimum surface roughness. For the optimized combination of laser parameters to achieve minimum surface roughness (Ra) in the titanium alloy, the said alloy consists of I = 85%, f = 20 kHz, V = 250 mm/s, TD = 11 µm, and LT = 3 µm. Similarly, optimized parameters for nickel alloy are as follows: I = 85%, f = 20 kHz, V = 256 mm/s, TD = 8 µm, and LT = 1 µm. Minimum roughness (Ra) on the surface of aluminum alloys can be achieved under the following optimized parameters: I = 75%, f = 20 kHz, V = 200 mm/s, TD = 12 µm, and LT = 3 µm. Micro-impressions produced under optimized parameters have surface roughness of 0.56 µm, 2.46 µm, and 0.54 µm on titanium alloy, nickel alloy, and duralumin, respectively. Some engineering applications need to have high surface roughness (e.g., in case of biomedical implants) or some desired level of roughness. Therefore, validated statistical models are presented to estimate the desired level of roughness against any laser parametric settings.

12.
East Mediterr Health J ; 26(9): 1052-1061, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33047796

RESUMO

Background: Prophylactic use of antibiotics before surgery is evidence-based practice for prevention of surgical site infections (SSIs). Aims: To investigate adherence to and surgeons' perception of antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines. Methods: A two-phase, cross-sectional prospective study conducted in two teaching hospitals. Phase 1: 6-month audit of prescriptions to investigate adherence rate to evidence-based guidelines. The important information was collected from medical charts through a predesigned proforma. Phase 2: self-administration questionnaire was used to investigate the surgeons' perception. Descriptive statistics, independent-sample Kruskal-Wallis test and multivariate linear regression analysis were performed using SPSS version 21.0. Results: A total of 866 eligible surgical cases (acute appendectomy; n = 418; 48.2%), laparoscopic cholecystectomy (n = 278; 32.1%) and inguinal hernia (n = 170; 19.7%) were investigated. Surgical antibiotic prophylaxis was prescribed in 97.5% of procedures. Out of these, 9.5% adhered to guidelines with respect to correct choice, 40% for timing, and 100% for dose and route (optimal value 100%). Most patients received ceftriaxone (n = 503; 59.5%) as prophylactic antibiotic. The questionnaire (good internal consistency; α ≥ 0.7) was filled out by 200 surgeons. More than half (69%) of participants thought that antibiotics were overused. Most surgeons perceive that poor adherence to treatment guidelines is due to poor awareness, underestimation of infection, lack of consensus, and disagreement with guidelines recommendations. Conclusions: Surgeons have positive perception that antibiotics should be used according to guidelines recommendations. However, we found poor treatment adherence to antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines.

13.
Polymers (Basel) ; 12(9)2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899452

RESUMO

This work estimates that if the growth of polymer production continues at its current rate of 5% each year, the current annual production of 395 million tons of plastic will exceed 1000 million tons by 2039. Only 9% of the plastics that are currently produced are recycled while most of these materials end up in landfills or leak into oceans, thus creating severe environmental challenges. Covalent adaptable networks (CANs) materials can play a significant role in reducing the burden posed by plastics materials on the environment because CANs are reusable and recyclable. This review is focused on recent research related to CANs of polycarbonates, polyesters, polyamides, polyurethanes, and polyurea. In particular, trends in self-healing CANs systems, the market value of these materials, as well as mechanistic insights regarding polycarbonates, polyesters, polyamides, polyurethanes, and polyurea are highlighted in this review. Finally, the challenges and outlook for CANs are described herein.

14.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e038915, 2020 09 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928865

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Do not resuscitate (DNR) decision making is an integral component of emergency medicine practice. There is a paucity of data, protocols and guidelines regarding the perceptions and barriers that are involved in the interactions among healthcare professionals, patients and their caregivers regarding DNR decision making. The aim of this study is, therefore, to explore the perceptions and factors influencing DNR decision making in the emergency department and to evaluate the use of a context-based protocol for DNR decision making. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This will be a sequential mixed method study beginning with qualitative research involving in-depth interviews (IDIs) with patient family members and focus group discussion with healthcare professionals. The consensual qualitative approach will be used to perform a thematic analysis to the point of saturation. The expected outcome will be to identify key themes that suggest perceptions and factors involved in DNR decision making. After piloting, the derived protocol will then be used with a different group of individuals (150 healthcare professionals) who meet the eligibility criteria in a quantitative cross-sectional study with universal sampling. Data will be analysed using NVIVO in the qualitative phase and SPSS V.19 in the quantitative phase. The study findings will support the development of a standardised protocol for DNR decision making for healthcare professionals in the emergency department. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The proposal was reviewed by the ethics review committee (ERC) of the institution (ERC # 2020-1551-7193). The project is an institution SEED grant recipient PF139/0719. The results will be disseminated among participants, patient communities and healthcare professionals in the institution through seminars, presentations, brochures and emails. The findings will be published in a highly accessed peer-reviewed medical journal and will be presented at international conferences.

15.
J Microencapsul ; 37(8): 595-608, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32981415

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to utilise the proficient function of diacerein (DCR) and anti-inflammatory polymers to develop sustained release nanoencapsulated emulgel for potential use in osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Chitosan (CHS) and chondroitin sulphate (CS) were employed as natural anti-inflammatory polymers to encapsulate nanoformulation of DCR. Optimised nanoformulation was prepared and characterised by investigating impact of polymers and surfactant on particle size, PDI, and encapsulation efficiency (EE). Afterwards, nanoemulgel of optimised DCR-NPs was formulated and evaluated for transdermal application. RESULTS: Optimised nanoformulation depicted spherical shape with particle size of 320 nm having PDI and EE of 0.3 ± 0.07 and 82 ± 4% (w/w), respectively. DCR-nanoemulgel depicts sustained action of drug up to 96 h with enhanced permeation activity and non-irritancy index. CONCLUSIONS: The elaborated nanoemulgel sustained release of drug having superior penetration properties with provision of enhanced therapeutic effect owing to the presence of CHS, CS, and Argan oil possessing indelible anti-inflammatory attributes.

16.
J Control Release ; 327: 595-615, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920080

RESUMO

At present, several drug molecules have been used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the utilization of these compounds through the oral and parenteral route is limited due to low bioavailability, rapid metabolism, poor absorption, first-pass effect, and serious adverse effects. A transdermal delivery system is an appealing option in this scenario, as it possesses the proficiency to overcome drawbacks associated with the oral and parenteral route. With the innovation of several enhancement strategies, many therapeutic agents have been administered transdermally, proposing an exceptional approach to treat RA. The present article provides an insight into the etiology and pathophysiology of RA. The challenges of the transdermal route and the strategies to improve those problems are described. The current advances in increasing the transdermal efficiency of the therapeutics against RA are discussed. Limitations and advantages regarding the state of the art transdermal delivery system and future outlook are also summarized.

17.
Cureus ; 12(8): e9937, 2020 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32864274

RESUMO

Background and Objectives Liraglutide, an analog of human glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), has been approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pakistan since 2016. It is a GLP-1 receptor agonist that has shown promising results in terms of not only glycemic control but also weight loss. Our study aimed to provide evidence regarding the safety and effectiveness of liraglutide in Pakistan and to look at the adherence rate and treatment satisfaction of patients using liraglutide. Methods This is an observational retrospective study that recruited patients who were treated with liraglutide. Data were collected at the first visit and follow-up. Morisky Green Levine Adherence Scale and Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM-9) were used for the determination of adherence and satisfaction with the treatment. Results A total of 70 patients were recruited in the study, The mean difference in weight, body mass index, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C), systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure from baseline to follow-up was -5.36 kg, -2.14 kg/m2, -1.76%, -12.38 mmHg, and 5.55 mmHg, respectively. Nausea was the main side effect reported. TSQM-9 scores were compared from baseline, and it was found that patients are satisfied with the treatment and its effectiveness. Conclusions Our study has demonstrated the effectiveness of liraglutide as a monotherapy or combination therapy in the Pakistani population. Liraglutide led to reduction in HbA1C and weight. This is associated with high treatment satisfaction rate and adherence rate. Thus, liraglutide remains an effective though expensive treatment option in a country like Pakistan.

18.
Int J Pharm ; 587: 119712, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745499

RESUMO

The measurement of biological processes at a molecular and cellular level serves as a basis for molecular imaging. As compared with traditional imaging approaches, molecular imaging functions to probe molecular anomalies that are the basis of a disease rather than the evaluation of end results of these molecular changes. Proteases play central role in tumor invasion, angiogenesis and metastasis thus can be exploited as a target for imaging probes in early diagnosis and treatment of tumors. Molecular imaging of protease has undergone tremendous breakthroughs in the field of diagnosis. It allows the clinicians not only to see the tumor location but also provides an insight into the expression and activity of different types of markers associated with the tumor microenvironment. These imaging techniques are expected to have a huge impact on early cancer detection and personalized cancer treatment. Effective development of protease imaging probes with the highest in vivo biocompatibility, stability and most appropriate pharmacokinetics for clinical translation will upsurge the success level of early cancer detection and treatment.

19.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(5): 185, 2020 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632542

RESUMO

The present study aimed to develop, characterize and evaluate the amphotericin B-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (AmB-NLCs) for topical treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC). AmB-NLCs were characterized for particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency and surface morphology. Prepared NLCs were also characterized for in vitro drug release, ex vivo skin permeation and deposition before evaluating their in vitro and in vivo efficacy. Cytotoxicity of NLCs was assessed on MRC-5 cells, whereas skin irritation potential was evaluated in vivo using rats. Significant accumulation of drug in to the skin supported the topical application potential of drug-loaded NLCs. Encapsulation of AmB in NLCs resulted in enhanced in vitro potency against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of L. major JISH 118 (IC50 ± SEM = 0.02 ± 0.1 µM for both) compared with free drug (IC50 ± SEM = 0.15 ± 0.2 & 0.14 ± 0.0, respectively). Similar improved potency of AmB-NLCs was also observed for other Leishmania and fungal strains compared with drug solution. Topical application of AmB-NLCs on L. major-infected BALB/c mice caused a significant reduction in parasite burden per mg of lesion (65 × 108 ± 13) compared with the control group (> 167.8 × 108 ± 11). Topical AmB-NLCs gel demonstrated superior efficacy in the vaginal C. albicans rat model for VVC as compared with plain AmB gel. Moreover, results of in vitro cytotoxicity assay and in vivo skin irritation test confirmed AmB-NLCs to be non-toxic and safe for topical use. In conclusion, NLCs may have promising potential as carrier for topical treatment of various conditions of skin and mucosa.


Assuntos
Anfotericina B/administração & dosagem , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Nanoestruturas/administração & dosagem , Administração Tópica , Animais , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Feminino , Géis/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipídeos/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Modelos Animais , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos , Pele/metabolismo , Absorção Cutânea
20.
Cureus ; 12(6): e8481, 2020 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32642385

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of proximal fibular osteotomy (PFO) in terms of pain relief, and improvement in function in medial compartment osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee joint. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This case series study was conducted at the Shaheed Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto Medical College Lyari and United Medical and Dental College of Karachi. Patients with medial compartment knee joint OA were included in the study and patients with bicompartmental or tricompartmental OA, inflammatory joint disease, valgus knee deformity, morbid obesity, or any infectious pathology involving the knee joint were excluded from the study. The medial and lateral joint spaces were measured and recorded preoperatively and postoperatively. Pre- and postoperative values of visual analog scale (VAS) results and the Oxford knee score were recorded. A PFO was performed after getting informed written consent. RESULTS:  A total of 60 patients were enrolled in the study; 16 (26.7%) were men, and 44 (73.3%) were women. The mean age of patients was 51.8 ± 4.1 years. The mean preoperative medial joint space measurement on standard anteroposterior radiograph was 1.45 ± 0.28 mm. The mean preoperative lateral joint space was 8.86 ± 1.27 mm. The recorded mean preoperative Oxford knee score was 20.82 ± 1.97 mm. Recorded levels of mean postoperative medial joint space improved to 4.63 ± 0.668 mm, and mean postoperative lateral joint space was 4.72 ± 0.79 mm. Mean recorded levels of VAS for pain postoperatively were 2.32 ± 0.792, which improved significantly from 7.90 ± 0.79. CONCLUSIONS:  PFO is a good surgical technique for pain relief and functional improvement in patients suffering from medial compartment OA.

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