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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253508, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360218

RESUMO

Abstract Present research work represents antiviral and antibacterial value of body fat of Saara hardwickii commonly called as spiny tailed lizard. Oil was extracted from body fats located in the ventral region of this animal using hydrocarbons e.g., n-hexane, methanol, butanol and ethyl acetate as a solvent. The antibacterial activity of lizard oil was tested against standard as well as multi-resistant lines ofEscherichia coli, Styphalococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Proteus vulgaris alone and with antibiotic ampicillin. For antibacterial potential, Ethyl acetate and Butanol solvent extract showed best zone of inhibition (7mm) with P. aeruginosa and S. aureus respectively. For antiviral potential, Butanol and Methanol extract showed best HA (Hemagglutination) titer of 04 with NDV and IBV viral strain respectively. It is concluded that lizard oil has antimicrobial potential against different pathogens strains (virus, bacteria).


Resumo O presente trabalho de pesquisa apresenta a importância antiviral e antibacteriana da gordura corporal de Saara hardwickii, comumente chamado de lagarto de cauda espinhosa. O óleo foi extraído de gorduras corporais localizadas na região ventral desse animal usando hidrocarbonetos, por exemplo, n-hexano, metanol, butanol e acetato de etila, como solvente. A atividade antibacteriana do óleo do lagarto foi testada em linhagens padrão e multirresistentes de Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa e Proteus vulgaris, de forma isolada e com antibiótico ampicilina. Para o potencial antibacteriano, acetato de etila e extrato de butanol apresentaram melhor zona de inibição (7 mm) com P. aeruginosa e S. aureus, respectivamente. Para o potencial antiviral, o extrato de butanol e o extrato de metanol apresentaram melhor título de hemaglutinação de 4 com as cepas virais NDV e IBV, respectivamente. Conclui-se que o óleo do lagarto possui potencial antimicrobiano contra diferentes cepas de patógenos (vírus e bactérias).

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e259094, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364533

RESUMO

Abstract Due to extensive application of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feed, antimicrobial resistance has been increased. To overcome this challenge, rumen microbiologists search for new probiotics to improve the rate of livestock production. The present study was aimed to isolate and evaluate breed-specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as potential animal probiotics. The current study was conducted during 10 months from July 2020 to April 2021, in which a total of n=12 strains were isolated from different samples including milk, rumen, and feces of Nilli Ravi Buffaloes. These isolates were evaluated for their antimicrobial potential against common animal pathogens (Bacillus spp., E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Listeria spp.). All the isolates were identified using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and the phylogenetic analyses inferred that these strains showed close relations to the species of various genera; Enterococcus lactis, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Bacillus subtilis Weissella cibaria, Weissella soli, Bacillus tequilensis, Weissella bombi, Bacillus licheniformis, Lactococcus lactis, Bacillus megaterium, Lactobacillus ruminis, and Lactococcus lactis. NMCC-Ru2 has exhibited the enormous potential of antimicrobial activity, 28 mm, for Salmonella typhimurium;23 mm for Listeria monocytogenes 21 mm for E.coil. Highest resistance was seen in NMCC-Ru2 agasint test antbiotic, like 25.5 mm for Tetracycline. Overall results revesl that the probiotic profile of isolates was achieved using standard criteria, particularly with animal probiotic properties


Resumo Devido à extensa aplicação de antibióticos como promotores de crescimento na alimentação animal, a resistência aos antimicrobianos aumentou. Para superar esse desafio, os microbiologistas do rúmen buscam novos probióticos para melhorar a produtividade do gado. O presente estudo teve como objetivo isolar e avaliar bactérias lácticas específicas de raças (BAL) como potenciais probióticos animais. 12 cepas foram isoladas de diferentes amostras, incluindo leite, rúmen e fezes de búfalos Nilli Ravi. Esses isolados foram avaliados quanto ao seu potencial antimicrobiano contra patógenos animais comuns (Bacillus spp., E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Listeria spp.). Todos os isolados foram identificados por meio do sequenciamento do gene 16S rRNA e as análises filogenéticas inferiram que essas cepas apresentaram estreita relação com as espécies de vários gêneros; Enterococcus lactis, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Bacillus subtilis, Weissella cibaria, Weissella soli, Bacillus tequilensis, Weissella bombi, Bacillus licheniformis, Lactococcus lactis, Bacillus megaterium, Lactobacillus ruminis e Lactococcus lactis. O perfil probiótico dos isolados foi obtido usando critérios padrão, particularmente com propriedades probióticas animais.

3.
Acta Neuropsychiatr ; : 1-25, 2022 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35543105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long haulers have been recently reported after contracting coronavirus disease (COVID-19). In the present study, we aimed to screen for the neuropsychiatric signs detected <1 to >6 months after infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to determine whether vaccination has an effect on them. METHODS: An online survey was conducted among participants who had been diagnosed with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. The clinical signs and durations of neuropsychiatric complaints and their correlations to sex, age, severity of COVID-19 signs, and vaccination status were screened. RESULTS: A total of 2218 individuals, including 1358 females and 860 males, with an age range of 12-70 years, submitted their responses. The respondents experienced cognitive dysfunction, mood alteration, depression, tinnitus, sleep disorders, and loss of taste and smell, with prevalence rates ranging from 18.9% (tinnitus) to 63.9% (loss of taste and smell). Of the respondents, 2.2-7.7% of confirmed the persistence of symptoms for >6 months. Tinnitus was the least common complaint, and only 2.2% of the study participants had tinnitus for >6 months. Meanwhile, mood alteration persisted for >6 months in 7.6% of the study participants. More respondents who received two doses of BNT162b2 vaccine showed persistent symptoms than those in the other groups. Disease severity and female sex were identified as potential determinants of the development and persistency of such symptoms. CONCLUSION: Post-COVID neuropsychiatric symptoms were present in considerable percentages of the study participants with SARS-CoV-2 infection, persisting for >6 months in up to 7.6% of the participants.

4.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 29(4): 2291-2298, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531152

RESUMO

The study aims to investigate the effect of foliar spray with three plant growth regulators (PGRs) p-Chlorophenoxyacetic acid (CPA) at 20 and 40 ppm; Gibberellic acid (GA3) at 20 and 30 ppm, 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) at 10 and 20 ppm on the response of fruit set, yield, and fruit quality of some hot pepper cultivars (Chillina, Parbirian, Shampion, and Hyffa) grown in sandy soil under plastic tunnels as compared to the control. Spraying Chillina cultivar GA3 at 30 ppm significantly increased the number of fruits/ plant and fruit set (%), yield/plant, and total yield/fad. In addition, the contents of TSS and Vit C, furthermore, maximum capsaicin content were observed in chili fruits in both seasons. However, the interaction between Chillina cultivar and spraying with GA3 at 20 ppm ranked second in yield and quality. The interaction between Parbirian cultivars and spraying with GA3 at 20 or 30 ppm increased the number of flowers/plants in both seasons. On the other hand, the interaction between Shampion cultivar and spraying with tap water (control) gave the lowest values of the number of flowers/ plants, the number of fruits/ plant and fruit set (%), yield, and its components, and fruit quality in both seasons.

5.
Saudi J Biol Sci ; 29(4): 2238-2246, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35531200

RESUMO

Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is considered a nitrogen (N) intensive plant with high nitrate (NO3 -) accumulation in its leaves. The current study via a two-year field trial introduced an approach by combining N fertilization from different sources (e.g., ammonium nitrate; 33.5 % N, and urea; 48 % N) at different rates (180, and 360 kg N ha-1) with the foliar spraying of molybdenum (Mo) as sodium molybdate, and/or manganese (Mn) as manganese sulphate at rates of 50 and 100 mgL-1 of each or with a mixture of Mo and Mn at rates of 50 and 50 mg L-1, respectively on growth, chemical constituents, and NO3 - accumulation in spinach leaves. Our findings revealed that the highest rate of N fertilization (360 kg N ha-1) significantly increased most of the measured parameters e.g., plant length, fresh and dry weight plant-1, number of leaves plant-1, leaf area plant-1, leaf pigments (chlorophyll a, b and carotenoids), nutrients (N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn), total soluble carbohydrates, protein content, net assimilation rate, and NO3 - accumulation, but decreased leaf area ratio and relative growth rate. Moreover, plants received urea-N fertilizer gave the highest values of all previous attributes when compared with ammonium nitrate -N fertilizers, and the lowest values of NO3 - accumulation. The co-fertilization of N-Mo-Mn gave the highest values in all studied attributes and the lowest NO3 - accumulation. The best treatment was recorded under the treatment of 360 kg N-urea ha-1 in parallel with the combined foliar application of Mo and Mn (50 + 50 mg L-1). Our findings proposed that the co-fertilization of N-Mo-Mn could enhance spinach yield and its quality, while reducing NO3 - accumulation in leaves, resulting agronomical, environmental and economic benefits.

6.
Drug Deliv ; 29(1): 1423-1436, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532141

RESUMO

Intra-articular (IA) injection is grasping much interest due to the poor drug bioavailability at the targeted site of action which minimizes the effect of the orally administered moiety. Based on the integral role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA), much effort is exerted to develop novel localized drug delivery systems to increase their bioavailability and minimize their side effects. Artificial intelligence (AI) is acquiring an increasing role in the design of experiments being an effective tool for saving both time and resources. Hence, the aim of this work was to develop, characterize and optimize targeted in-situ forming nano particles (ISNs) for IA delivery of piroxicam using Design® Expert as an AI-based application where a 33 full factorial experimental design was adopted. Morphological investigation, injectability, rheological studies, Fourier Transform Infrared Radiation (FTIR) as well as biological, histopathological, and biochemical examinations were performed to evaluate the optimized-ISNs. The optimized formulation, exhibiting a nano-sized particle size with a dense core, showed significant improvement in the histopathological findings compared to both the oral solution and the placebo. Additionally, the once-a-week IA administration of the optimized-ISNs proved a significant reduction in the protein expression of both STAT-3 and RANKL and the levels of anti-CCP and MCP-1 by almost 54 and 73%, respectively, coupled with a marked decline in the content of IL-17, MMP-3, NF-κB and TNF-α as compared to the positive control. In conclusion, the use of ISNs for intra-articular injection has demonstrated their effectiveness in piroxicam delivery for RA treatment.


Assuntos
Artrite Reumatoide , Nanopartículas , Artrite Reumatoide/tratamento farmacológico , Artrite Reumatoide/metabolismo , Inteligência Artificial , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Humanos , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Nanopartículas/química , Piroxicam
7.
Expert Rev Endocrinol Metab ; : 1-10, 2022 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35535380

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Differences and disorders of sex development (DSD) are a diverse group of conditions, which often present in early childhood and may require input from a group of experts in a wide range of clinical fields. Clinical guidance in this field recommends that these experts function as a multidisciplinary team (MDT) within which each expert has a defined role, which ensures an integrated and streamlined approach to the care of affected individuals. AREAS COVERED: This review will focus on the benefits of multidisciplinary care for people with DSD, as well as the challenges that may be faced. EXPERT OPINION: Core members of the MDT for people with DSD include endocrinologists, surgeons, psychologists, geneticists, specialist nurses, radiologists, and gynecologists, although many other health-care professionals may also be pertinent, at different stages of the patient's life. With greater acceptance of remote and digital health-care technology, there is a need to review the traditional concepts of the clinical MDT so that new care models can be explored for effective and efficient delivery of complex care.

8.
Dalton Trans ; 2022 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35535795

RESUMO

Addition of 2-aminobenzothiazole (abt) and substituted derivatives to Hg(OAc)2 leads to the high yield formation of ortho-cyano-aminothiophenolate (ocap) complexes [Hg{SC6H3XN(CN)}]n (X = H, Me, Cl, Br, NO2) resulting from dehydrogenation and C-S bond cleavage. The reaction appears to be unique to Hg(OAc)2 and with HgCl2 the product [HgCl2(abt)]n contains an intact abt ligand, but reacts with acetate to afford the ocap complex [Hg{SC6H4N(CN)}]n. Binding of abt to Hg(II) has previously been probed in molecular structures of [Hg(sac)2(abt)L] (L = MeOH, DMSO) and these have been reexamined to understand the perturbation of abt upon coordination. When the reaction of abt and Hg(OAc)2 was carried out at low temperatures the intermediate [Hg(κ2-OAc)(EtOH)(µ-HNCNSC6H4)]2 was isolated resulting from a single ligand deprotonation thus allowing a mechanism for ring-opening to be proposed. Reactions of [Hg{SC6H3XN(CN)}]n with mono- and bidentate phosphines have been studied, affording a series of complexes in which the ocap ligands adopt four different binding modes in the solid state, as shown by a number of crystallographic studies. In all, the ligand chelates to a single mercury centre but spans to the second via either: (i) a simple S,N-chelate, (ii) coordination through nitrogen of the CN group, (iii) the sulfur acting as a thiolate-bridge, (iv) both thiolate bridging and cyanide coordination. With PPh3 two different binding modes are seen in complexes [Hg{SC6H3XN(CN)}(PPh3)]2 being dependant upon the nature of the arene-substituent, while addition of excess PPh3 affords mononuclear [Hg{SC6H3XN(CN)}(PPh3)2]. With dppm, binuclear [Hg{SC6H3XN(CN)}(κ1-dppm)]2 result in which the diphosphine binds in a monodentate fashion. With the more flexible diphosphines, dppe and dppb, coordination polymers [Hg{SC6H3XN(CN)}(κ1,κ1-diphosphine)]n result in which ocap binds in a simple chelate fashion. Somewhat unexpectedly, with dppp, binuclear complexes [Hg2{SC6H3XN(CN)}2(µ,κ1,κ1-dppp)] result in which two diphosphines bridge the Hg2 centre, while with dppf mononuclear chelates are proposed to result. Thus, the simple and high-yielding ring-opening of 2-aminobenzothiazole and substituted derivatives by mercuric acetate provides ready access to a range of novel ortho-cyano-aminothiophenolate complexes, being shown to be a highly versatile ligand that can adopt a number of different coordination modes.

9.
J Phys Chem Lett ; : 4207-4214, 2022 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35512383

RESUMO

Hematite (α-Fe2O3) is a photoelectrode for the water splitting process because of its relatively narrow bandgap and abundance in the earth's crust. In this study, the photoexcited state of a hematite thin film was investigated with femtosecond oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the PAL-XFEL in order to follow the dynamics of its photoexcited states. The 200 fs decay time of the hole state in the valence band was observed via its corresponding XAS feature.

10.
SAR QSAR Environ Res ; 33(4): 289-305, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532308

RESUMO

Tuberculosis (TB) is a global threat with a large burden across the continents in terms of mortality, morbidity, and financial losses. The disease has evolved into multi-drug-resistant (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR-TB) tuberculosis owing to numerous factors ranging from patients' non-compliance to demographical implications. There have been very few new drugs for resistant TB. Resistance has already been reported even for the newly introduced drug bedaquiline. An attempt has been made to integrate both structure-based and QSAR drug design techniques (QSAR-SBDD) for the identification of novel leads. The docking scores normally do not correlate with the activity. Hence, the docking results have been analysed in terms of the number of interactions rather than docking scores. The parameters derived from interactions have been used in developing the QSAR models. The best model shows a good correlation (r = 0.908) between the activity and interaction parameter 'C' describing the sum of all the interactions with each amino acid residue. This model also predicts external dataset with a good correlation (rext = 0.851) and can be used for the identification of novel chemical entities (NCEs) and repurposed drugs for TB therapeutics.


Assuntos
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculose , Trifosfato de Adenosina , Antituberculosos/química , Humanos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
11.
Surg Neurol Int ; 13: 120, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35509546

RESUMO

Background: Hypertonic saline (HS) and mannitol are hyperosmolar agents that are usually used to reduce intracranial pressure (ICP) and provide a satisfactory brain relaxation. The aim of the study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to compare the efficacy of HS and mannitol on brain relaxation intraoperatively in patient undergoing craniotomies for supra-tentorial brain tumors. Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized control trials. We included randomized control trials that compared equiosmolar HS and mannitol in supratentorial tumors craniotomies and reported at least one of the following outcomes: degree of brain relaxation, ICP, central venous pressure, mean arterial pressure, perioperative fluid input, urine output, Na+ levels, and K+ levels. We searched Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Embase using MESH terms and keywords. The bibliographic references of included studies and trial registries were also searched. Results: Seven articles were included. The degree brain of relaxation was comparable across the two groups with slight tendency toward HS (RR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.99-1.29; P = 0.08). Mannitol was associated with significantly higher urine output (standardized mean difference [SMD] = -1.33, 95% CI -1.56--1.10; P < 0.001). Na+ levels were higher in HS group (SMD = 1.47, 95% CI 0.86-2.09; P < 0.001). Mannitol was associated with non-significant decrease in CVP and increase fluid input (SMD = 0.42, 95% CI 0.00-0.85 and SMD = -0.18, 95% CI -0.37-0.02, respectively). Conclusion: Both HS and mannitol are associated with satisfactory brain relaxation with a non-statistically significant tendency for HS to achieve better relaxation scores with mannitol resulting in higher urine output while HS with higher Na+ levels.

12.
Neurophotonics ; 9(Suppl 1): 013001, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35493335

RESUMO

Neurophotonics was launched in 2014 coinciding with the launch of the BRAIN Initiative focused on development of technologies for advancement of neuroscience. For the last seven years, Neurophotonics' agenda has been well aligned with this focus on neurotechnologies featuring new optical methods and tools applicable to brain studies. While the BRAIN Initiative 2.0 is pivoting towards applications of these novel tools in the quest to understand the brain, this status report reviews an extensive and diverse toolkit of novel methods to explore brain function that have emerged from the BRAIN Initiative and related large-scale efforts for measurement and manipulation of brain structure and function. Here, we focus on neurophotonic tools mostly applicable to animal studies. A companion report, scheduled to appear later this year, will cover diffuse optical imaging methods applicable to noninvasive human studies. For each domain, we outline the current state-of-the-art of the respective technologies, identify the areas where innovation is needed, and provide an outlook for the future directions.

13.
World J Urol ; 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499590

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in global perioperative data of GreenLight-XPS 180-Watt photo-selective vaporization of the prostate (GL-XPS) of the Global Greenlight Group (GGG) database. METHODS: 3441 men, who underwent GL-XPS for symptomatic BPH between 2011 and 2019 at seven high volume international centers, were included. Primary outcome measurements were operative time (OT; min), effective laser time (LT; min of OT), as well as intraoperative and postoperative adverse events (AEs), all analyzed by year of surgery (2011-2019) and prostate volume (PV) group (< 80 ml vs. 80-150 ml vs. > 150 ml). RESULTS: The median age was 70 years (interquartile range 64-77), the median PV was 64 ml (IQR 47-90). The OT and LT slightly increased but stayed highly efficient all in all. Median OT was 60 min (IQR 45-83) and LT was 33 min (IQR 23-46). Median energy use was 253 kJ (IQR 170-375) with an energy density of 3.94 kJ/ml (IQR 2.94-5.02). The relative probability of perioperative AEs decreased by 17% each year (p < 0.001). The relative probability of perioperative transfusion dropped significantly from 2% in 2011 to 0% in 2019 (p = 0.007). The early postoperative complications (within 30 days after surgery) decreased significantly from 48.8% (n = 106) in 2011 to 24.7% (n = 20) in 2019 (p > 0.001). CONCLUSION: These findings from the GGG demonstrate significant improvement secondary to growing experience with GL-XPS between 2011 and 2019 in intraoperative AEs, including transfusions, and postoperative AEs. While staying highly efficient in OT and LT of GL-XPS within a 9-year period of experience.

14.
J Multidiscip Healthc ; 15: 567-576, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35378741

RESUMO

Background: Chronic non-communicable diseases and musculoskeletal disorders are primarily associated with poor lifestyle behaviors and underestimated public health issues. Physical therapists have an essential role in promoting health. Still, few studies have described the current role of physical therapy in health promotion to lessen the impact of public health issues and chronic musculoskeletal conditions. Therefore, this study aimed to explore physical therapists' health promotion in the musculoskeletal practice setting and investigate potential barriers and needed education. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted, using an electronic survey distributed among physical therapists practicing in Saudi Arabia who managed patients with musculoskeletal disorders. Results: A total of 150 physical therapists participated in this survey. The physical therapists dealing with musculoskeletal disorders were, to a fair degree, aware of the importance of lifestyle risk factors related to health and wellness, particularly those relating to physical aspects. However, participants' knowledge and experience (according to their report) were relatively limited in other lifestyle behaviors such as smoking, nutrition, sleep, and stress management. Participants believed further education/training would be needed to address these behaviors. Conclusion: The participants appreciated the importance of addressing lifestyle factors. Nonetheless, knowledge and experience in health promotion were limited. To optimize the outcome of musculoskeletal patients through health promotion, more training will be needed.

15.
Cureus ; 14(4): e24026, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35463563

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Upper and lower extremity amputations are associated with variable degrees of physical disability. In Saudi Arabia, disability still represents a major challenge for healthcare systems. There are insufficient data to describe the incidence and prevalence of impairment and disability. This study attempts to identify the patterns of limb amputations at a tertiary centre. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of the data of patients who received integrated tertiary healthcare in an amputation rehabilitation program (ARP) from 2013 to 2018 at King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia was conducted. Data were collected using the demographic data and clinical history of amputees. RESULTS: A total of 412 patients were included in the study. Transtibial amputation (70%) and partial hand amputation (48%) were the most common levels for lower and upper limb amputations, respectively. There was a significantly higher rate of lower limb amputations secondary to vascular causes than that of upper limb amputations, which were more related to traumatic causes. Most patients, 213 (52%), were enrolled in an amputation rehabilitation program over a year after their amputation. CONCLUSION: Vascular amputation is the most common cause of amputation. Most patients entered the rehabilitation program over a year after amputation. National guidelines for the prevention and management of the risk factors for vascular amputations should be developed.

17.
World J Urol ; 2022 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35488914

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is associated with a higher risk of post-operative complications following radical cystectomy (RC) for bladder cancer (BCa). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of patients undergoing RC for non-metastatic urothelial BCa at 13 tertiary care centres from 2007-2019. Patients who received NAC ('NAC + RC' group) were compared with those who underwent upfront RC ('RC alone' group) for intra-operative variables, incidence of post-operative complications as per the Clavien-Dindo classification (CDC) and rates of re-admission and re-intervention. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine predictors of CDC overall and CDC major (grade III-V) complications. We also analysed the trend of NAC utilization over the study period. RESULTS: Of the 3113 patients included, 968 (31.1%) received NAC while the remaining 2145 (68.9%) underwent upfront RC for BCa. There was no significant difference between the NAC + RC and RC alone groups with regards to 30-day CDC overall (53.2% vs 54.6%, p = 0.4) and CDC major (15.5% vs 16.5%, p = 0.6) complications. The two groups were comparable for the rate of surgical re-intervention (14.6% in each group) and re-hospitalization (19.6% in NAC + RC vs 17.9% in RC alone, p = 0.2%) at 90 days. On multivariable regression analysis, NAC use was not found to be a significant predictor of 90-day CDC overall (OR 1.02, CI 0.87-1.19, p = 0.7) and CDC major (OR 1.05, CI 0.87-1.26, p = 0.6) complications. We also observed that the rate of NAC utilization increased significantly (p < 0.001) from 11.1% in 2007 to 41.2% in 2019, reaching a maximum of 48.3% in 2018. CONCLUSION: This large multicentre analysis with a substantial rate of NAC utilization showed that NAC use does not lead to an increased risk of post-operative complications following RC for BCa. This calls for increasing NAC use to allow patients to avail of its proven oncologic benefit.

18.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 697815, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35444626

RESUMO

Cover crops are known to alleviate the adverse effects of continuous cropping by influencing plant health and changing host fungal-microbiome structures. However, insight into the shift of rhizomicrobiota composition and their effects on plant growth performance and resistance mechanism is still limited under plastic shed cultivation (PSC). Four leafy vegetable rotations namely spinach rotation (SR), non-heading Chinese cabbage rotation (NCCR), coriander rotation (CR), and leafy lettuce rotation (LLR) were used as cover crops in 7-years of continuous cucumber planted soil (CC). Their ecological impacts were studied for plant growth performance, replant diseases incidence rate, and rhizosphere fungal microbiome. Compared to CC, SR showed a highly suppressive effect on fusarium wilt, i.e., by 13.2% in the spring season, while NCCR decreased the root-knot nematode incidence rate by 8.9% in the autumn season. Such protective effects caused a significant increase of shoot and fruit biomass and thus sustained the fruit quality of cucumber. High-throughput sequencing revealed that the CR, SR, and NCCR treatments altered the fungal community composition by increasing the abundance of the beneficial fungal genera, decreasing pathogenic taxa, and fostering the saprotrophic and symbiotic functions. However, the relative abundance of most of the potentially pathogenic fungal genera increased in CC and LLR cropping. There were 8 potential pathogens and 10 beneficial or biocontrol fungi characterized. It was found that Paecilomyces, Chaetomium, Cladorrhinum, Zopfiella, Purpureocillium, and Metarhizium were the putative biocontrol microbes that positively affected plant growth and replanted diseases inhibition. The characterized Fusarium, Dactylonectria, Alternaria, Gibberella, and Aspergillus were the key pathogenic fungal agents found to be negatively associated with plant growth characters, suggesting that rhizomicrobiome may play an important role in the occurrence of disease incidence of cucumber plants. Considering the ecological potential of some cover plants, this study suggested that rotation with spinach, non-heading Chinese cabbage, or coriander can enhance rhizosphere immunity by triggering the development of plant-protective fungal microbiomes under plastic shed cucumber cultivation.

19.
Oman Med J ; 37(2): e367, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35449790

RESUMO

Objectives: We sought to estimate the percentage achievements of non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) target in patients with very high atheroscleroticcardiovascular diseases (ASCVD) risk stratified by triglyceride (TG) levels despite statin-controlled low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in the Centralized Pan-Middle East Survey on the under treatment of hypercholesterolemia. Methods: The non-HDL-C target achievement in patients with diabetes mellites (DM) and patients with established ASCVD was defined according to European Society of Cardiology and European Atherosclerosis Society 2019 guidelines for managing dyslipidemia. Patients were stratified to controlled LDL-C defined as < 70 mg/dL (< 1.8 mmol/L) with normal TG < 150 mg/dL (< 1.7 mmol/L) and high TG between 150-400 mg/dL (1.7-4.5 mmol/L). Results: The mean age of our cohort was 58.0±11.0 years, 6.8% (n = 717) were male, 9.7% (104) were smokers, and 48.4% (n = 518) had body mass index of ≥ 30 kg/m2. Those with high TG levels male (76.5% vs. 63.8%; p < 0.001), smokers (16.1% vs. 7.7%; p < 0.001), have metabolic syndrome (77.6% vs. 17.1%; p < 0.001), and low HDL-C levels (79.2% vs. 49.4%; p < 0.001). The majority (93.9%, n = 1008) were on statins (atorvastatin and rosuvastatin) with only 2.2% (n = 24) on the combined statins plus fenofibrate/gemfibrozil. Only 27.4% (n = 294) of patients had non-HDL-C goal attainment. Goal attainment rates in patients with diabetes (3.1% vs. 34,4%; p < 0.001), coronary artery disease (CAD) (2.4% vs. 37.9%; p < 0.001), diabetes plus CAD (0% vs. 40.0%; p < 0.001), and CVD (0% vs. 30.0%; p = 0.048) were significantly lower in those with higher TG levels. Conclusions: A large proportion of statin-controlled LDL-C diabetic patients and patients with established ASCVD with high TGs did not achieve the non-HDL-C target. Our study did not demonstrate an association between ASCVD and high TG levels; and therefore, a follow-up study is highly required to assess long-term ASCVD outcomes in this cohort.

20.
Vet Sci ; 9(4)2022 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35448675

RESUMO

Protamine, an antagonizing agent to heparin, is indispensable for dogs undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass. Protamine-induced hypotension (PIH) during cardiac anesthesia has been reported in humans. The purpose of this study was to describe the hemodynamic effect of protamine administration in dogs during cardiac surgery in clinical cases. Study design: Retrospective, clinical, cohort study. A total of 14 client-owned dogs who suffered heart failure due to medically uncontrolled myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) were included in this study. The severity of MMVD was classified according to American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine staging (ACVIM: stage B2, C, D) and dogs undergoing mitral valve surgery. Records with clinical data for dogs treated between July 2019 to August 2020 were examined for age, sex, breed, body weight, concurrent diseases, hospitalization, anesthetic record, and mortality within 3 months after the operation. PIH was defined as mean arterial pressure (MAP) lowered by 20% of that before protamine infusion. To evaluate the effect of protamine on hemodynamic variables, each of the other values was compared with values at the beginning of protamine infusion. MAP decreased by 41.0 and 45.7% in two dogs (14.3%) compared with pressure before protamine infusion. Others did not show obvious alteration in hemodynamic variables. Epinephrine treatment alleviated hypotension in one dog. Another dog with systemic hypotension concomitant with elevated central venous pressure did not respond to epinephrine treatment and a reboot of extracorporeal circulation was required. Reheparinization and reinstitution of cardiopulmonary bypass successfully resuscitate the second dog. In conclusion, clinicians should alert the incidence of severe hypotension even with slow protamine infusion following canine cardiac surgery. This study also provides two effective treatments for catastrophic hypotension during protamine infusion.

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