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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238665, 2022. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153463

RESUMO

Abstract Malakand region is an endemic area for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). However, there are limited number of studies of this disease in Pakistan. Therefore, a study was conducted to understand the level of awareness attitude and practice among the residents of Makaland towards CL and the disease vectors. This study adopted a cross-sectional approach with a total of 400 respondents (n=93 rural and n= 307 urban). Overall, the population in Malakand region (61.2%) were well-informed in the role of sand fly in transmitting diseases, but most lack knowledge on the vector's behavior and almost a quarter (24.5%) were unable to provide knowledge on proper control measures. Alarmingly, the practice and attitudes of the general population was not satisfactory as close to half (49.8%) of the population did adopt any control method. This study calls for increase in awareness through health education campaign to reduce the risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis outbreaks in the future.


Resumo A região de Malakand é uma área endêmica para leishmaniose cutânea (CL). No entanto, há um número limitado de estudos sobre esta doença no Paquistão. Portanto, foi realizado um estudo para entender o nível de atitude e prática de conscientização entre os residentes de Makaland em relação aos CL e os vetores da doença. Este estudo adotou uma abordagem transversal com um total de 400 entrevistados (n = 93 rural e n = 307 urbano). No geral, a população da região de Malakand (61,2%) estava bem informada sobre o papel da mosca na transmissão de doenças, mas a maioria não possui conhecimento sobre o comportamento do vetor e quase um quarto (24,5%) foi incapaz de fornecer conhecimento sobre medidas de controle adequadas . De maneira alarmante, a prática e as atitudes da população em geral não foram satisfatórias, pois cerca da metade (49,8%) da população adotou algum método de controle. Este estudo apela ao aumento da conscientização por meio de campanhas de educação em saúde para reduzir o risco de surtos de leishmaniose cutânea no futuro.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238735, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153486

RESUMO

Abstract Using wire mesh live traps distribution pattern of the Rattus rattus and Mus musculus in different shops of three districts of Malakand region, Pakistan were recorded from September 2014 to October 2015. Over all 103 rodents (Rattus rattus 86 and Mus musculus 17) were caught during in 0.04 trap success (2448 trap nights). Regression of daily captures on cumulative captures revealed an estimate of 103 rodents from all the sampled structures with an average of 3.55 rodents per shop. R. rattus; 83.4% of captures were numerically dominant in almost all types of shops sampled, and were significantly different than Mus musculus; 16.5% of captures. Both species were found together in some shops while they were mostly trapped from the separate shops. Male rodents outnumbered the females.


Resumo Usando o padrão de distribuição de armadilhas vivas de malha de arame do Rattus rattus e Mus musculus em diferentes lojas de três distritos da região de Malakand, o Paquistão foi registrado de setembro de 2014 a outubro de 2015. No total, 103 roedores (Rattus rattus 86 e Mus musculus 17) foram pegos durante em 0,04 armadilha de sucesso (2448 noites de armadilha). A regressão das capturas diárias em capturas cumulativas revelou uma estimativa de 103 roedores de todas as estruturas amostradas, com uma média de 3,55 roedores por loja. R. rattus; 83,4% das capturas foram numericamente dominantes em quase todos os tipos de lojas da amostra e foram significativamente diferentes do Mus musculus; 16,5% das capturas. Ambas as espécies foram encontradas juntas em algumas lojas, enquanto estavam na maior parte presas em lojas separadas. Os roedores machos eram mais numerosos do que as fêmeas.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 785-791, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153392

RESUMO

Abstract Present study was conducted to study seasonal abundance and distribution of dragonflies in upper Siran valley district Mansehra Pakistan. To collect data, eleven localities were visited for three consecutive years (2016-2018). Results come up with a sum of 300 specimens identified under three families, eight genera and twenty species. Highest seasonal abundance recorded during summer and spring were 80.67% and 13.33% respectively while minimum 6.00% was recorded during early autumn. Dominant species observed were, Orthetrum chrysis (14.00%), followed by O. gluacum (12.00%), Palpoleura sexmaculata sexmaculata (11.33%) and O. cancellatum cancellatum (8.00%). However the highest population of dragonflies was found in Munda Gucha with a percentage of 11.33 followed by Jabbar (11.00%) and Sachan (9.67%). The lowest populations were recorded in Suham (6.00%), Dadar (7.67%) and Jabori (7.67%). The surveyed valley showed diverse Anisopterous fauna and thus further extensive surveys are recommended that can come up with more important species from the area.


Resumo O presente estudo foi realizado para verificar a abundância sazonal e a distribuição de libélulas no vale superior de Siran, distrito de Mansehra, Paquistão. Para a coleta de dados, 11 localidades foram visitadas por três anos consecutivos (2016-2018). Os resultados apresentaram uma soma de 300 espécimes identificados em três famílias, 8 gêneros e 20 espécies. A maior abundância sazonal registrada durante o verão e a primavera foi de 80,67% e 13,33%, respectivamente, enquanto o mínimo de 6% foi registrado no início do outono. As espécies dominantes observadas foram Orthetrum chrysis (14%), seguido por O. gluacum (12%), Palpoleura sexmaculata sexmaculata (11,33%) e O. cancellatum cancellatum (8%). No entanto, a maior população de libélulas foi encontrada em Munda Gucha (11,33%), seguida por Jabbar (11%) e Sachan (9,67%). As populações mais baixas foram registradas em Suham (6%), Dadar (7,67%) e Jabori (7,67%). O vale pesquisado mostrou fauna Anisopterous diversificada, e, portanto, recomenda-se a realização de mais pesquisas que possam apresentar mais espécies importantes da área.

4.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e238337, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978080

RESUMO

Extensive field surveys were carried out to explore the distribution of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) in selected area of FATA regions, Pakistan. Specimens of Leisler's Bat Nyctalus leisleri (Kuhl, 1819) (n5) were collected from Kurram Agency (Shublan) (N33.8229788 E70.1634414) at elevation 1427m and Khyber Agency (Landi Kotel) (N34.0909899 E71.1457517) at elevation 1091m for two years survey extending from May 2013 through August 2015. The mean head and body length, hind foot length, ear length and tail length the Nyctalus leisleri specimens captured from the study area was 65.08 ± 1.58 mm, 44.06 ± 0.52 mm, 8.38 ± 0.60 mm, 13.20 ± 0.99 mm and 39.46 ± 1.46 mm, respectively. For molecular analysis the sequences of COI gene were obtained and analyzed. The mean intraspecific divergences of Nyctalus leisleri was 0.04%. The mean interspecific divergences of Nyctalus noctula and Nyctalus leisleri was 0.2%. The mean concentration of each nucleotides was A = (26.3%), T = (32.8%), G = (15.9%) and C = (25.0%). The mean A+T contents were 59.2%and C+G were 40.9%. In the phylogenetic tree Nyctalus leisleri and Nyctalus noctula clustered with significant bootstrap support value.

5.
Nurs Open ; 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949145

RESUMO

AIM: This study aims to explore the lived experiences of frontline nurses providing nursing care for COVID-19 patients in Qatar. DESIGN: Qualitative, Phenomenological. METHODS: Nurses were recruited from a designated COVID-19 facility using purposive and snowball sampling. The participants were interviewed face-to-face using semi-structured interview questions from 6 September-10 October 2020. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using Colaizzi's phenomenological method. RESULT: A total of 30 nurses were interviewed; (76.7%) were deployed for >6 months. Three major themes were drawn from the analysis: (a) Challenges of working in a COVID-19 facility (subthemes: working in a new context and new working environment, worn out by the workload, the struggle of wearing protective gear, fear of COVID-19, witnessing suffering); (b) Surviving COVID-19 (subthemes: keeping it safe with extra measures, change in eating habits, teamwork and camaraderie, social support); and (c) Resilience of Nurses (subthemes: a true calling, a sense of purpose).

7.
F1000Res ; 10: 173, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33968365

RESUMO

Background: Nutritional screening, intervention and assessment in patients with undernutrition are key components of any nutritional care. The goal of any nutritional assessment is to determine the specific nutritional risk(s). Presently, there are no guidelines on any ideal screening tool to be used on admission for identification of children that are at risk of developing malnutrition during their hospital stay. The objective of the study was to develop a valid and simple nutritional screening tool which can be used on hospital admission to identify pediatric patients at risk of malnutrition . Methods: This study was cross sectional analytical that enrolled children (n:161) admitted with acute illness to the general wards at Cairo University Children Hospitals (CUCH). The answers to the developed questionnaire were compared to the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), those with high accuracy (≥80%) were used for validity with anthropometric measures. Results: In the 'less than two years of age' group, the simple and valid nutritional screening tools were the following questions: (Is there a problem during breast-feeding?), (Is there scanty breast milk?), (Is there appetite loss?). The simple and valid nutritional screening tools during the 'early childhood' group were the following questions: (Is there appetite loss?), (Is there any skipping of meals?), (Are they watching TV, videotapes and/or playing computer games for more than two hours/day?). The simple and valid  nutritional screening tools during the 'late childhood' group were the following questions: (Is there appetite loss?), (Are they watching TV, videotapes and/or playing computer games for more than two hours/day?). Conclusion: The simple and valid nutritional screening tools differ according to age groups. The one which is valid in all ages is the question about the appetite loss.

8.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; 12(3): 331-336, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Postoperative infections can occur during surgical replacement of pulse generators for pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. The incidence of infection is poorly documented in children and patients with adult congenital heart disease. The utility of surveillance cultures obtained from device pocket swabs is unknown in this group. METHODS: We reviewed surgical replacements of cardiovascular implantable pulse generators from 2010 to 2017. Two cohorts were defined. In a surveillance cohort (123 patients), aerobic and anaerobic culture swabs of the device pocket were obtained at the time of generator change. In a nonsurveillance cohort (107 patients), generator change occurred without obtaining cultures. RESULTS: During 230 generator changes (mean patient age 19 years; 77% with structural congenital heart disease), two clinical infections occurred at the surgical site (0.9% incidence). Neither infection occurred in the surveillance cohort. Cultures were positive in 12 (9.8%) of 123 patients in the surveillance cohort, but 11 of 12 were likely contaminants and none were subsequently associated with clinical disease. There was no association between clinical infection or positive surveillance cultures and the location of pulse generator, the presence of other concurrent surgeries, or a history of prior pocket infection. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical infection was rare after pulse generator change in children and young adults. No cases required reintervention on the pocket. Surveillance cultures did not improve clinical care. These data extend current recommendations that surveillance cultures are not required during generator change to the pediatric and young adult population.

9.
Endocr Rev ; 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961029

RESUMO

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is a group of autosomal recessive disorders affecting cortisol biosynthesis. Reduced activity of an enzyme required for cortisol production leads to chronic overstimulation of the adrenal cortex and accumulation of precursors proximal to the blocked enzymatic step. The most common form of CAH is caused by steroid 21- hydroxylase deficiency due to mutations in CYP21A2. Since the last publication summarizing CAH in Endocrine Reviews in 2000 there have been numerous new developments. These include more detailed understanding of steroidogenic pathways, refinements in neonatal screening, improved diagnostic measurements utilizing chromatography and mass spectrometry coupled with steroid profiling, and improved genotyping methods. Clinical trials of alternative medications and modes of delivery have been recently completed or are under way. Genetic and cell-based treatments are being explored. A large body of data concerning long-term outcomes in patients affected by CAH, including psychosexual well-being, has been enhanced by the establishment of disease registries. This review provides the reader with current insights in congenital adrenal hyperplasia with special attention to these new developments.

10.
Int J Esthet Dent ; 16(2): 232-242, 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969977

RESUMO

AIM: The purpose of the present study was to determine opinions about beauty and attractiveness, to distinguish the rate of variables among gender and age groups, and to evaluate and determine the most attractive lip surface area (SA) and upper to lower lip ratio. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was performed in two phases: In phase 1, a set of 10 internet-based frontal facial images were used to generate 5 synthetic images that were distributed to participants, who were asked to choose the most and least attractive image. A total of 312 responses were received in this phase. In phase 2, the images that had been chosen in phase 1 were manipulated to reduce or augment the lip size. Five images had variable lip SA, and three had variable upper to lower lip ratio. A total of 687 responses were received in phase 2. RESULTS: The majority of respondents preferred a more natural lip SA, while in terms of upper to lower lip ratio, 1:2 was considered the most attractive ratio, and 2:1 the least attractive. CONCLUSION: The lips have a great impact on the perception of beauty. Age, gender, trends, and social media all play a role in determining what is considered to be the most attractive lip SA and upper to lower lip ratio. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The lip SA and upper to lower lip ratios determined in this study may provide guidelines for clinicians in the improvement of facial esthetics. Current trends and social media are the gold standard today regarding patient perception of beauty and esthetics.

11.
Nanotechnology ; 2021 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33971641

RESUMO

In this work, heterostructures of coupled TiO2@MoS2 with different phases of MoS2 were synthesized via hydrothermal technique. The prepared materials were characterized using various techniques, including XRD, SEM, TEM, BET, and UV-vis. The optimized nanocoposites were tested for photocatalytic degradation of Methyl Orange (MO) under visible light radiation and adsorption of Rhodmin b (RhB) and Methelene Blue (MB). The TiO2@1T/2H-MoS2 heterostructures exhibit a narrow bandgap compared to the other materials. A remarkable photodegradation efficiency of TiO2@1T/2H-MoS2 was observed, which completely degraded 20 ppm of MO after 60 min. This can be assigned to the formation of unique heterostructures with aligned energy bands between MoS2 nanosheets and TiO2 nanobelts. The formation of these novel interfaces promoted the electron transfer and increased the separation efficiency of carriers, resulting in high photocatalytic degradation. Furthermore, the adsorption efficiency of TiO2@1T/2H-MoS2 was unique, 20 ppm solutions of RhB and MB were degraded after only 1 and 2 min respectively. The superior adsorption performance of the TiO2@1T/2H-MoS2 can be attributed to its high surface area (279.9 m2/g) and the rich concentration of active sites. This study provides a powerful way for designing an effective photocatalyst and adsorbent TiO2 based nanocomposites for water remediation.

12.
Rheumatol Int ; 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33954813

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) increases the risk of coagulopathy. Although the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs) has been proposed as a possible mechanism of COVID-19-induced coagulopathy, its clinical significance remains uncertain. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and clinical significance of aPLs among critically ill patients with COVID-19. This prospective observational study included 60 patients with COVID-19 admitted to intensive care units (ICU). The study outcomes included prevalence of aPLs, and a primary composite outcome of all-cause mortality and arterial or venous thrombosis between antiphospholipid-positive and antiphospholipid-negative patients during their ICU stay. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the influence of aPLs on the primary composite outcome of mortality and thrombosis. A total of 60 critically ill patients were enrolled. Among them, 57 (95%) were men, with a mean age of 52.8 ± 12.2 years, and the majority were from Asia (68%). Twenty-two patients (37%) were found be antiphospholipid-positive; 21 of them were positive for lupus anticoagulant, whereas one patient was positive for anti-ß2-glycoprotein IgG/IgM. The composite outcome of mortality and thrombosis during their ICU stay did not differ between antiphospholipid-positive and antiphospholipid-negative patients (4 [18%] vs. 6 [16%], adjusted odds ratio 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.1-6.7; p value = 0.986). The presence of aPLs does not seem to affect the outcomes of critically ill patients with COVID-19 in terms of all-cause mortality and thrombosis. Therefore, clinicians may not screen critically ill patients with COVID-19 for aPLs unless deemed clinically appropriate.

13.
BMC Oral Health ; 21(1): 221, 2021 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33931037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Women tend to delay dental treatment due to misconceptions regarding the safety of dental procedures during pregnancy which may negatively affect their quality of life. Minimally invasive restorative techniques offer alternatives for caries treatment and can improve their oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) during this stage. METHODS: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in 2019 and included 162 pregnant women visiting public family health centers in Alexandria, Egypt, with mild to moderate dental pain due to caries. Participants were randomly assigned into Papacarie-Duo group (n = 82) and ART group (n = 80). The outcome variable was percent change in OHRQoL (oral health impact profile, OHIP-14) after 6 months. T test/Mann Whitney U test were used to compare groups and a multivariable linear regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the factors affecting the outcome variable. RESULTS: A significant reduction (P < 0.002) was noted in OHIP-14 between baseline and 6 months indicating improvement in OHRQoL in the Papacarie-Duo and ART groups (16.26% and 18.91%, P = 0.120 in bivariate analysis). Multiple linear regression revealed significantly greater reduction in OHIP-14 scores in the Papacarie-Duo than the ART group (regression coefficient = 4.03, 95% confidence interval: 0.652, 7.409, P = 0.020). CONCLUSION: Minimally invasive restorative techniques, such as ART and chemo-mechanical caries removal using Papacarie- Duo can improve the OHRQoL of pregnant women suffering from mild to moderate pain due to dental caries. Significantly more improvement was noted in the Papacarie-Duo group after adjusting all other variables. Trial registration ID NCT04619264 ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ ); November 6 2020, retrospective registration. ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04619264?term=NCT04619264&draw=2&rank=1 ).

14.
J Pediatr Surg ; 2021 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33933265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: hypospadias is one of the most widespread male congenital anomalies, occurring in 1:250 to 1:300 live births. Several repair techniques have been developing to improve the outcomes. PURPOSE: a randomized prospective controlled study was adopted to evaluate effectiveness of autologous platelet gel in healing promotion and improving the outcomes of hypospadias repair. METHODS: thirty children who aged between 6 months and 12 years were recruited and subdivided into two groups; group A had tubularized incised plate (TIP) repair with autologous platelet gel application and group B had TIP repair without autologous platelet gel. RESULTS: there was no significant difference in duration of operation between both groups. All patients in groups A and B had slit-like meatus shape in the distal glans. While all those of group A had one urine stream, yet only 11 of group B had one. There were complications that happened exclusively in group B such as spray stream (27%) and fistula (20%). Whereas other complications occurred insignificantly more in group B than in A including meatal stenosis (53 versus 27%), glans dehiscence, (20 versus 7%), bleeding (33 versus 13%), infection (33 versus 27%), edema (27% versus13), respectively. The incidence of skin necrosis was equal in both groups. CONCLUSION: autologous platelet gel usage in TIP hypospadias repair can be a reliable technique to promote wound healing, and to limit of postoperative surgical complications.

15.
Br J Dermatol ; 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33937975

RESUMO

The first UK national COVID-19 lockdown began 23rd March 2020. Immediately, almost all outpatient healthcare service requests temporarily focused exclusively on urgent referrals and two-week-wait urgent cancer referrals with restrictions due to staff sickness, redeployment and changing work environments. Additionally, patient anxiety regarding attending appointments and perceived overburdening of healthcare resources resulted in fewer presentations.2 Technological advancements have arisen from challenging circumstances. The National Cancer Registration and Analysis Service (NCRAS), England, has developed a Rapid Cancer Registration Dataset (RCRD). Utilising automated datafeeds, lag-time from diagnosis to registration is reduced from 18 to 4 months, however, data has not been quality assured to the same standards and completeness.4 We identify how the pandemic has affected skin cancer.

16.
Minerva Anestesiol ; 2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938674

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the effect of preoperative ultrasound (US) guided stellate ganglion block (SGB) with bupivacaine on the frequency of post mastectomy pain syndrome (PMPS). METHODS: Eighty patients scheduled for mastectomy with axillary dissection for breast cancer were included in this randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomized into two equal groups: Group A received US guided SGB one hour before surgery using five mL of 0.5% bupivacaine and multimodal systemic analgesia, Group B (control) received multimodal systemic analgesia only. Patients were followed up for six months. PMPS was assessed using the grading system for neuropathic pain (GSNP). Postoperative opioid consumption in the first 24 hours and numeric rating scale (NRS) were documented. Patient daily activity and functional capacity were evaluated using the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) score. RESULTS: PMPS proportion was significantly lower in group A than group B [30% vs 62.5%, P = 0.004; 52% decrease (95% CI: 18.4%-71.8%)]. Postoperative opioid consumption and NRS were significantly lower in group A as compared to group B. ECOG score was significantly higher in Group A than Group B. CONCLUSIONS: Following mastectomy with axillary dissection, preoperative US guided SGB is associated with less PMPS proportion, postoperative pain and opioid consumption and better patient daily activity and functional capacity.

17.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 387-391, Jan.-May 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153349

RESUMO

Abstract Poor storage conditions provide favorable environment to stored grain pests for their growth. The bio-pesticides are the best alternatives to synthetic pesticides. Present study was conducted to compare toxicity of Rubus fruticosus and Valeriana jatamansi against granary weevil, Sitophilus granarius and subsequent changes in enzyme activity responsible for grain damage. In current research 5 g of R. fruticosus fruit and V. jatamansi rhizome powders were tested separately against S. granarius, in 50 g wheat whole grains for seven days in comparison with the control. The enzymatic activity of malate dehydrogenase and α-amylase was observed in the cellular extracts of S. granarius. The insects were crushed and homogenized in phosphate-buffer solution and centrifuged at 10000 rpm for 5 minutes. For the enzymatic measurement supernatant was tested; the spectrophotometer was adjusted at 340 nm. The reagents were mixed and incubated at 25 °C for five minutes. The cuvettes were placed in the experimental and reference sites of spectrophotometer and recorded the change in absorbance for 3-4 minutes. There was 5.60% and 14.92% reduction in the activity of malate dehydrogenase in R. fruticosus and V. jatamansi, treated insects, respectively. The alpha amylase enzyme activity was 6.82% reduced and 63.63% increase in R. fruticosus and V. jatamansi, treated insects, respectively. Present study addresses that both plant powders are effective against granary weevil by altering enzyme activities so both the plant powders can be used as bio-pesticides against the stored grains pests.


Resumo As más condições de armazenamento proporcionam um ambiente favorável às pragas armazenadas para o crescimento. Os biopesticidas são as melhores alternativas aos pesticidas sintéticos. O presente estudo foi conduzido para comparar a toxicidade de Rubus fruticosus e Valeriana jatamansi contra gorgulhos, Sitophilus granarius e subsequentes alterações na atividade enzimática responsáveis ​​por danos aos grãos. Na pesquisa atual, 5 g de frutos de R. fruticosus e pós de rizoma de V. jatamansi foram testados separadamente contra S. granarius, em 50 g de grãos integrais de trigo por sete dias, em comparação com o controle. A atividade enzimática da malato desidrogenase e α-amilase foi observada nos extratos celulares de S. granarius. Os insetos foram esmagados e homogeneizados em solução tampão fosfato e centrifugados a 10000 rpm por 5 minutos. Para a medição enzimática, o sobrenadante foi testado; o espectrofotômetro foi ajustado a 340 nm. Os reagentes foram misturados e incubados a 25 °C por cinco minutos. As cubetas foram colocadas nos locais experimentais e de referência do espectrofotômetro e registradas as alterações na absorbância por 3-4 minutos. Houve redução de 5,60% e 14,92% na atividade da malato desidrogenase em R. fruticosus e V. jatamansi, insetos tratados, respectivamente. A atividade da enzima alfa amilase foi reduzida em 6,82% e aumento de 63,63% em R. fruticosus e V. jatamansi, insetos tratados, respectivamente. O presente estudo aborda que ambos os pós de plantas são eficazes contra o gorgulho do celeiro, alterando as atividades enzimáticas, de modo que ambos os pós de plantas possam ser usados ​​como biopesticidas contra pragas de grãos armazenados.

18.
Bioorg Chem ; 112: 104920, 2021 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910078

RESUMO

DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV (topo IV) inhibitors are among the most interesting antibacterial drug classes without antibacterial pipeline representative. Twenty-four new quinoline-1,3,4-oxadiazole and quinoline-1,2,4-triazole hybrids were developed and tested against DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV from Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The most potent compounds 4c, 4e, 4f, and 5e displayed an IC50 of 34, 26, 32, and 90 nM against E. coli DNA gyrase, respectively (novobiocin, IC50 = 170 nM). The activities of 4c, 4e, 4f, and 5e on DNA gyrase from S. aureus were weaker than those on E. coli gyrase. Compound 4e showed IC50 values (0.47 µM and 0.92 µM) against E. coli topo IV and S. aureus topo IV, respectively in comparison to novobiocin (IC50 = 11, 27 µM, respectively). Antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains has been studied. Some compounds have demonstrated superior antibacterial activity to ciprofloxacin against some of the bacterial strain studied. The most active compounds in this study showed no cytotoxic effect with cell viability>86%. Finally, a molecular docking analysis was performed to investigate the binding mode and interactions of the most active compounds to the active site of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV (topo IV) enzymes.

19.
Environ Res ; 197: 111110, 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864793

RESUMO

Capacitive deionization (CDI) is an evolving technology for eradicating salt and toxic heavy metal ions from brackish wastewater. However, traditional CDI electrodes have lower salt adsorption capacity and inadequate adsorption of selective metal ions for long-term operations. Herein, Ag nanospheres incorporated pomegranate peel-derived activated carbon (Ag/P-AC) was prepared and implied to the CDI process for removing NaCl, toxic mono-, di-, and trivalent metal ions. Morphological analysis revealed that the 80-100 nm-sized Ag nanospheres were uniformly decorated on the surfaces of P-AC nanosheets. The Ag/P-AC has a higher specific surface area (640 m2 g-1), superior specific capacitance (180 F g-1 at 50 mV s-1) and a lower charge transfer resistance (0.5 Ω cm2). CDI device was fabricated by Ag/P-AC as an anode, which adsorbed anions and P-AC as cathode for adsorption of positively charged ions at 1.2 V in an initial salt concentration of 1000 mg L-1. An asymmetric Ag/P-AC//P-AC exhibited a maximum NaCl adsorption capacity of 36 mg g-1 than symmetric P-AC//P-AC electrodes (22.7 mg g-1). Furthermore, Pb(II), Cd(II), F-, and As(III) ions were successfully removed from simulated wastewater by using Ag/P-AC//P-AC based CDI system. These asymmetric CDI-electrodes have an excellent prospect for the removal of salt and toxic contaminants in industrial wastewater.

20.
Environ Pollut ; 284: 117176, 2021 Apr 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901983

RESUMO

Although crop residue return increases upland soil emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas, the mechanisms responsible for the increase remain unclear. Here, we investigate N2O emission pathways, gross nitrogen (N)-cycling rates, and associated N-cycling gene abundances in an upland soil following the addition of various organic material under aerobic incubation using a combination of 15N tracing technique, acetylene (C2H2) inhibition, and real-time PCR (qPCR) methods. Increased total N2O emissions following organic material amendment was attributed to both increased nitrification-derived N2O emissions, following increased ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB)-amoA abundance, and denitrification-derived N2O emissions, following increased nirS and decreased nosZ abundance. Increasing plant residue carbon (C)/N ratio decreased total N2O emissions by decreasing the contribution of denitrification to N2O emissions, potentially due to higher proportions of denitrified N emitted as N2O than nitrified N emitted as N2O. We further propose a novel conceptual framework for organic material input effects on denitrification-derived N2O emissions based on the decomposable characteristics of the added organic material. For slowly decomposing organic materials (e.g., plant residue) with insufficient available C, NO3--N immobilization surpassed denitrification, resulting in gradual decrease in denitrification-derived N2O emissions with an increase in mineralization of plant residue C losses. In contrast, available C provided by readily available C sources (e.g., glucose) seemed sufficient to support the co-occurrence of NO3--N immobilization and denitrification. Overall, for the first time, we offer a microbial process perspective of N2O emissions following organic material input. The findings could facilitate the improvement of process-orientated models of N2O emissions and the formulation of appropriate N2O mitigation strategies for crop residue-amended soils.

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