Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 252
Filtrar
1.
Food Chem ; 370: 131026, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509938

RESUMO

Cyclodextrins are garnering increasing attention because they offer several benefits. For instance, cyclodextrins can form several complexes and supramolecular structures not only for food packaging but also for applications in other fields of science. In this review, we discussed the physical and chemical properties of cyclodextrins and the mechanism of their inclusion complex formation. The use of cyclodextrins in various types of food packaging is elaborated upon. We also explain the effects of cyclodextrins on the packaging of fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, and processed foods. Furthermore, some feasible suggestions for future applications are provided. In addition to the positive attributes of cyclodextrins, there are some limitations and drawbacks, which are discussed briefly in this review. In summary, this review can serve as a guide for researchers exploring cyclodextrins for the development of various packaging films.


Assuntos
Ciclodextrinas , Animais , Embalagem de Alimentos
2.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 284: 114799, 2022 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34748869

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Natural musk (Moschus), derived naturally from male musk deer (Moschus berezovskii Flerov, Moschus sifanicus Przewalski, or Moschus moschiferus Linnaeus), has long been an important component of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and was used as resuscitation, blood circulation, and collateral drainage. detumescence and pain relief. Artificial musk was researched and applied into TCM as natural musk being as unsustainable resources. AIM OF THE STUDY: We mainly summarized chemical compositions, pharmacological activities and mechanism of action of natural and artificial musk, and designed to serve as a foundation for further research into musk chemical compositions and pharmacological effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Those mainstream scientific databases including Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, CNKI, Wiley Online Library, web of science, were used for searching with below "Keywords", as well as literature-tracking. Literatures spanned 1962 to 2021, and involved into Chinese, English, Janpanese, Korean. RESULTS: Natural musk contains some very desirable but scarce compounds, as well as their biological features, which led to the development of artificial musk. The chemical ingredients, pharmacological activities, and mechanisms of action of natural and artificial musk are summarized and compared in this paper. Polypeptide and protein, muscone, musclide, steroids, muscopyridine, and other chemical constituents of musk demonstrated important therapeutic properties against inflammation, immune system disorders, neurological disorders, cardiovascular system disorders, and so on. The mechanism of action contributed to effect on mediators, acceptors and relative signal pathways. CONCLUSIONS: Natural and artificial musk were revealed having some activated compounds, and showed excellent pharmacological effect. Meantime, above two sides of natural and artificial musk ought to get further research.

3.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 753359, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34867364

RESUMO

Combinations of two and more drugs with different target sites are being used as a new treatment regimen for resistant clones of bacteria. Though, achieving the right combination of the drugs for optimal dosage regimen is challenging. In our study, we studied the antimicrobial effect of aditoprim, a novel dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor, and its synergistic effect with sulfamethoxazole. Synergy testing was performed by checkerboard micro dilution method and validation of different checkerboard ratios by static and dynamic time-kill analysis and in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) model, and semi mechanistic PK/PD modeling was used to calculate and validate the synergistic effect of drug combination. Both checkerboard and static time-kill assays demonstrated the greater synergistic effect [fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) = 0.37] of the aditoprim [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 0.25 µg/ml]-sulfamethoxazole (MIC=>64 µg/ml) combination against all T. Pyogenes isolates. In the in vitro PK/PD model, the dosage proportion of sulfamethoxazole 4 mg/ml twice a day in combination with steady-state aditoprim 1 mg/ml efficiently repressed the growth of bacteria in 24 h with the ratio of 2-log10 decrease, related to the early inoculum against three T. Pyogenes isolates. The semi mechanistic PK/PD model projected that a combination of a high dose of aditoprim (2 mg/ml) with sulfamethoxazole (2 mg/day) was necessary to attain the killing of bacteria below the detection limit (limit of detection (LOD); i.e., 1 log10 CFU/ml) at 24 h with an MIC sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) of 64 µg/ml. However, it is anticipated that a combination of high dose of aditoprim with sulfamethoxazole is critical to attain the suppressed bacterial growth to < LOD. This study represents essential PK/PD modeling for optimization of combination of aditoprim and sulfamethoxazole to suppress growth of T. Pyogenens.

4.
Nutrients ; 13(12)2021 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34959926

RESUMO

Recently, obesity-induced insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease have become major social problems. We have previously shown that Astaxanthin (AX), which is a natural antioxidant, significantly ameliorates obesity-induced glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. It is well known that AX is a strong lipophilic antioxidant and has been shown to be beneficial for acute inflammation. However, the actual effects of AX on chronic inflammation in adipose tissue (AT) remain unclear. To observe the effects of AX on AT functions in obese mice, we fed six-week-old male C57BL/6J on high-fat-diet (HFD) supplemented with or without 0.02% of AX for 24 weeks. We determined the effect of AX at 10 and 24 weeks of HFD with or without AX on various parameters including insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance, inflammation, and mitochondrial function in AT. We found that AX significantly reduced oxidative stress and macrophage infiltration into AT, as well as maintaining healthy AT function. Furthermore, AX prevented pathological AT remodeling probably caused by hypoxia in AT. Collectively, AX treatment exerted anti-inflammatory effects via its antioxidant activity in AT, maintained the vascular structure of AT and preserved the stem cells and progenitor's niche, and enhanced anti-inflammatory hypoxia induction factor-2α-dominant hypoxic response. Through these mechanisms of action, it prevented the pathological remodeling of AT and maintained its integrity.


Assuntos
Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Anti-Inflamatórios , Antioxidantes , Suplementos Nutricionais , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Inflamação , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Xantofilas/administração & dosagem , Xantofilas/farmacologia
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21540, 2021 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728752

RESUMO

Non-fullerene based organic compounds are considered promising materials for the fabrication of modern photovoltaic materials. Non-fullerene-based organic solar cells comprise of good photochemical and thermal stability along with longer device lifetimes as compared to fullerene-based compounds. Five new non-fullerene donor molecules were designed keeping in view the excellent donor properties of 3-bis(4-(2-ethylhexyl)-thiophen-2-yl)-5,7-bis(2ethylhexyl) benzo[1,2-:4,5-c']-dithiophene-4,8-dione thiophene-alkoxy benzene-thiophene indenedione (BDD-IN) by end-capped modifications. Photovoltaic and electronic characteristics of studied molecules were determined by employing density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). Subsequently, obtained results were compared with the reference molecule BDD-IN. The designed molecules presented lower energy difference (ΔΕ) in the range of 2.17-2.39 eV in comparison to BDD-IN (= 2.72 eV). Moreover, insight from the frontier molecular orbital (FMO) analysis disclosed that central acceptors are responsible for the charge transformation. The designed molecules were found with higher λmax values and lower transition energies than BDD-IN molecule due to stronger end-capped acceptors. Open circuit voltage (Voc) was observed in the higher range (1.54-1.78 V) in accordance with HOMOdonor-LUMOPC61BM by designed compounds when compared with BDD-IN (1.28 V). Similarly, lower reorganization energy values were exhibited by the designed compounds in the range of λe(0.00285-0.00370 Eh) and λh(0.00847-0.00802 Eh) than BDD-IN [λe(0.00700 Eh) and λh(0.00889 Eh)]. These measurements show that the designed compounds are promising candidates for incorporation into solar cell devices, which would benefit from better hole and electron mobility.

6.
J Radiosurg SBRT ; 7(4): 309-319, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631232

RESUMO

Purpose: To investigate whether there is a volume threshold in target volume of brain metastases below which a small cone size and sharp penumbra in Gamma Knife (GK) may provide improved plan quality when compared to Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT)-based stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods: For patients treated on GK SRS for brain metastases in 2018-2019 in our institution, 121 patients with two and three targets were identified. Twenty-six patients with two or three brain metastases (total of 76 lesions) were selected for this study. Two VMAT plans, SmartArc (Pinnacle) and HyperArc (Eclipse), were generated retrospectively for each patient. Plan quality was evaluated based on RTOG conformity index (CI), Paddick gradient index (GI), normal tissue (NT) V12Gy and V4.5Gy. By using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve for both VMAT plans (SmartArc and HyperArc) and metrics of RTOG CI and NT V12Gy, we compared GK plans to SmartArc and HyperArc plans separately to determine the threshold volume. Results: For SmartArc plans, both ROC curve analyses showed a threshold volume of 0.4 cc for both CI and NT V12Gy. For HyperArc plans, the threshold volumes were 0.2 cc for the CI and 0.5 cc for NT V12Gy. GK plans produced improved dose distribution compared to VMAT for targets ≤0.4 cc, but HyperArc was found to have competing results with GK in terms of CI and NT V12Gy. For targets > 0.4 cc, both SmartArc and HyperArc showed better plan quality when compared to the GK plans. Conclusions: Target volumes ≤0.4 cc may require a small cone size and sharp penumbra in GK while for target volumes >0.4 cc, VMAT-based SRS can provide improved overall plan quality and faster treatment delivery.

7.
J Lab Physicians ; 13(3): 270-276, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602793

RESUMO

Beta-thalassemia major patients are the leading consumers of blood transfusions in Pakistan and, therefore, have a greater risk of acquiring transfusion-transmitted infections, most notably hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV). The present study includes a comprehensive review on the status of HBV and HCV in beta-thalassemia major patients in Pakistan. For this purpose, we examined original articles assessing the epidemiology of HBV and HCV in transfusion-dependent thalassemia patients. We searched 10 major subscription databases from January through February 2020, that is, Medline, PakMediNet, CINAHL, Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and Directory of Open Access Journals. The World Health Organization resources were also explored for relevant reports. The search criteria included published articles up to December 31, 2019, with no language restrictions. Articles identified were introduced into the Endnote version X9 software and then screened for relevance and duplication. The results were stated as the pooled prevalence for the overall study and also for region-wise subgroups. A total of 33 studies conducted from 1995 to 2019 were included in the review. All 33 articles yielded information on HCV prevalence, while 19 of them provided information on HBV prevalence. The overall sample size was 8,554 that tested the prevalence of HCV in thalassemia patients. The sample size from the 19 studies that tested the prevalence of HBV was 6,184. The overall pooled prevalence of HBV was computed to be 4.13%, while the pooled prevalence of HCV was 29.79%. The majority of the studies were obtained from the Punjab Province (33.33%), followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (24.24%). The total sample size of 33 studies was less than 10% of the total number of estimated thalassemic patients, that is, 100,000. Further studies or a national baseline survey are imperative to confirm the actual frequency of HBV and HCV in thalassemia patients across the country.

8.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 88(5): 470-476, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483296

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HIV index testing, an intervention in which HIV-positive "indexes" (persons diagnosed with HIV) are supported to recruit their "contacts" (sexual partners and children) efficiently identifies HIV-infected persons in need of treatment and HIV-uninfected persons in need of prevention. However, index testing implementation in sub-Saharan African health care settings has been suboptimal. The objective of this study was to develop and pilot test a blended learning capacity-building package to improve index testing implementation in Malawi. METHODS: In 2019, a blended learning package combining digital and face-to-face training modalities was field tested at 6 health facilities in Mulanje, Malawi using a pre-/post- type II hybrid design with implementation and effectiveness outcomes. Health care worker (HCW) fidelity to the intervention was assessed via observed encounters before and after the training. Preliminary effectiveness was examined by comparing index testing program indicators in the 2 months before and 4 months after the training. Indicators included the mean number of indexes screened, contacts elicited, and contacts who received HIV testing per facility per month. RESULTS: On a 30-point scale, HCW fidelity to index testing protocols improved from 6.0 pre- to 25.5 post-package implementation (P = 0.002). Index testing effectiveness indicators also increased: indexes screened (pre = 63, post = 101, P < 0.001); contacts elicited (pre = 75, post = 131, P < 0.001); and contacts who received HIV testing (pre = 27, post = 41, P = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: The blended learning package improved fidelity to index testing protocols and preliminary effectiveness outcomes. This package has the potential to enhance implementation of HIV index testing approaches, a necessary step for ending the HIV epidemic.

9.
J Lab Physicians ; 13(2): 162-168, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34483564

RESUMO

Introduction Blood transfusion is linked to several risks, most notably the transmission of transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs), including hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis, and malaria. The risk posed by these blood-borne infectious agents is high in developing countries, including Pakistan. This fact stresses the need for regular surveillance of TTIs. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to assess the seroprevalence of TTIs at a regional blood center. Material and Methods This was a retrospective 4-year descriptive study undertaken at the Regional Blood Centre in Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan, on the blood donor data from June 2016 to May 2020. A total of 41,817 donors donated blood during the study period and were screened for HBV, HCV, HIV, syphilis, and malaria. To ensure donor privacy, donors were identified via codes and no personal information was available. The data were extracted from the ZAAVIA blood transfusion information system database. Results The study included a total of 41,817 donors-41,493 (99.22%) males and 324 (0.78%) females. Of them, 22,343 (53.43%) were voluntary donors while 19,474 (46.57%) were replacement donors. An overall TTI prevalence rate of 4.61% was found. The TTI prevalence rate in voluntary donors was 3.90% while 5.42% in replacement donors. The overall prevalence of HBV, HCV, HIV, syphilis, and malaria was 1.95, 1.38, 0.23, 0.91, and 0.14%, respectively. Conclusion The current study documented a high prevalence (1,929 out of 41,817, 4.61%) of TTIs, especially in replacement donors (1,057 out of 19,474, 5.42%), and low participation of female donors. The recommendations include the promotion of voluntary blood donors, enrolment of female blood donors, and screening of donated blood through highly sensitive screening assay (i.e., nucleic acid testing).

10.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 694394, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366924

RESUMO

Background: People with schizophrenia are more likely to develop cannabis use disorder (CUD) and experience worse outcomes with use. Yet as cannabis is legalized for medical and recreational use, there is interest in its therapeutic potential. Objectives: To conduct a systematic review summarizing the design and results of controlled trials using defined doses of THC and CBD in schizophrenia. Method: A keyword search of eight online literature databases identified 11 eligible reports. Results: One placebo controlled trial (13 stable patients without CUD) found that intravenous THC increased psychosis and worsened learning/recall. Two reports of a functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study of smoked or oral THC in 12 abstinent patients with schizophrenia and CUD found no change in symptoms and cognition, and an amelioration of impaired resting state brain function in areas implicated in reward function and the default mode network. One 4 week trial in acutely psychotic inpatients without CUD (mean age 30 y) found 800 mg CBD to be similarly efficacious to amisupride in improving psychosis and cognition. Two 6 week studies of CBD augmentation of antipsychotics in stable outpatients reported mixed results: CBD 600 mg was not more effective than placebo; CBD 1,000 mg reduced symptoms in a sample that did not exclude cannabis use and CUD. A brain fMRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study of single dose CBD in a sample that did not exclude CUD and cannabis use found that CBD improved symptoms and brain function during a learning/recall task and was associated with increased hippocampal glutamate. Discussion: There is substantial heterogeneity across studies in dose, method of drug delivery, length of treatment, patient age, whether patients with cannabis use/CUD were included or excluded, and whether patients were using antipsychotic medication. Conclusion: There is insufficient evidence for an effect of THC or CBD on symptoms, cognition, and neuroimaging measures of brain function in schizophrenia. At this time, research does not support recommending medical cannabis (THC or CBD) for treating patients with schizophrenia. Further research should examine THC and CBD in schizophrenia with and without comorbid CUD and consider the role of CBD in mitigating symptom exacerbation from THC.

11.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; : 1-17, 2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34382866

RESUMO

Over a few decades, anthocyanin (ACN)-based colorimetric indicators in intelligent packaging systems have been widely used to monitor the freshness or spoilage of perishable food products. Most of the perishable food products are highly susceptible to enzymatic/microbial spoilage and produce several volatile or nonvolatile organic acid and nitrogenous compounds. As a result, the natural pH of fresh foods significantly changes. Fabrication of CAN-based colorimetric indicators in intelligent packaging systems is an advanced technique that monitors the freshness or spoilage of perishable foods based on the display of color variations at varying pH values. This study focuses on the advancement of pH-sensitive indicators and extraction of colorimetric indicators from commercially available natural sources. Moreover, the fabrication techniques and widespread industrial applications of such indicators have also been discussed. In addition, readers will get information about the color-changing and antioxidant mechanisms of ACN-based indicator films in food packaging.

12.
Essays Biochem ; 65(3): 467-480, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34223609

RESUMO

Various cell aggregate culture technologies have been developed and actively applied to tissue engineering and organ-on-a-chip. However, the conventional culture technologies are labor-intensive, and their outcomes are highly user dependent. In addition, the technologies cannot be used to produce three-dimensional (3D) complex tissues. In this regard, 3D cell aggregate printing technology has attracted increased attention from many researchers owing to its 3D processability. The technology allows the fabrication of 3D freeform constructs using multiple types of cell aggregates in an automated manner. Technological advancement has resulted in the development of a printing technology with a high resolution of approximately 20 µm in 3D space. A high-speed printing technology that can print a cell aggregate in milliseconds has also been introduced. The developed aggregate printing technologies are being actively applied to produce various types of engineered tissues. Although various types of high-performance printing technologies have been developed, there are still some technical obstacles in the fabrication of engineered tissues that mimic the structure and function of native tissues. This review highlights the central importance and current technical level of 3D cell aggregate printing technology, and their applications to tissue/disease models, artificial tissues, and drug-screening platforms. The paper also discusses the remaining hurdles and future directions of the printing processes.

13.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 255, 2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34311720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During maturation, spermatozoa acquire motility and fertilizing capacity as they transit through the epididymis. In recent years, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis has been employed in proteomics studies conducted in rat, boar and human. However, there has not been a complete information regarding the proteins associated with sperm maturation in the epididymis. In this study, we employed iTRAQ proteomics to investigate proteins associated with sperm maturation between yak and cattleyak epididymis. RESULTS: After a successful sampling and protein extraction, the iTRAQ coupled with LC-MS/MS mass spectrometry and bioinformatics analysis were performed. We identified 288 differentially abundant proteins (DAPs) between yak and cattleyak epididymis; 151 were up-regulated while 137 were down-regulated in cattleyak relative to yak. Gene Ontology analysis identified that down-regulated DAPs in cattleyak were mostly enriched in the acetylation of protein component, along with negative and positive regulatory activities. iTRAQ proteomics data showed that the top up-regulated DAPs were mainly enriched in cell communication, cell adhesion, cytoskeleton organization, stress response, post-translational modifications and metabolic functions while the down-regulated DAPs were predominantly associated with sperm maturation, long-term sperm storage, sperm forward motility, sperm-oocyte fusion and regulatory functions. CONCLUSION: These results provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying male cattleyak sterility.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Bovinos/fisiologia , Epididimo/fisiologia , Maturação do Esperma/fisiologia , Espermatozoides/fisiologia , Animais , Regulação para Baixo , Masculino , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Proteômica , Regulação para Cima
14.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299552

RESUMO

Due to the extensive application of antibiotics in medical and farming practices, the continued diversification and development of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has attracted serious public concern. With the emergence of AMR and the failure to treat bacterial infections, it has led to an increased interest in searching for novel antibacterial substances such as natural antimicrobial substances, including microbial volatile compounds (MVCs), plant-derived compounds, and antimicrobial peptides. However, increasing observations have revealed that AMR is associated not only with the use of antibacterial substances but also with tolerance to heavy metals existing in nature and being used in agriculture practice. Additionally, bacteria respond to environmental stresses, e.g., nutrients, oxidative stress, envelope stress, by employing various adaptive strategies that contribute to the development of AMR and the survival of bacteria. Therefore, we need to elucidate thoroughly the factors and conditions affecting AMR to take comprehensive measures to control the development of AMR.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções Bacterianas/tratamento farmacológico , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Humanos
15.
Future Virol ; 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181703

RESUMO

Background: Limited details are available regarding the vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in pregnant women. The authors' current study aimed to report the vertical transmission potential of COVID-19 infection in a woman pregnant with twins. Case description: The authors report the case of a 27-year-old woman infected with SARS-CoV-2. The patient was pregnant with dichorionic diamniotic fraternal twins and admitted to Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan, China. After undergoing a cesarean section, the patient gave birth to premature twins, who tested positive for COVID-19 infection. Interpretation: Findings from this case suggest a possibility of intrauterine infection caused by vertical transmission in a woman infected with COVID-19.

16.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148281, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34119786

RESUMO

The use of magnetic lanthanum-based materials for phosphate removal from river water has gained increasing attention. However, challenges to produce and use lanthanum-based materials in large-scale or pilot-scale studies remain. In this work, a kilogram-scale Fe3O4/La(OH)3 magnetically recyclable composite for removing phosphate from river water was developed through a low-temperature precipitation route. The composite was used to remove phosphate from river water at both bench- and pilot-scales. Based on the bench-scale tests, the developed Fe3O4/La(OH)3 composite was found to have excellent magnetic particle separation efficiency (>98%) and a sorption capacity of 11.77 mg/g for phosphate. A 1.0 g/L dosage of the composite in the river water sample was able to selectively reduce the phosphate level from 0.089 to 0.005 mg/L in 60 min over five consecutive adsorption cycles. At the pilot-scale, the Fe3O4/La(OH)3 composite only achieved 36.0% phosphate removal efficiency, which is considerably different from the bench-scale results over an operational time of five months and a total treatment volume of 300 m3. This significantly reduced removal efficiency is mainly attributable to turbidity, suspended solids, and organic matter in the river water and the deteriorated magnetic separation efficiency. This study revealed potential challenges and shed new insights on moving magnetic nanocomposite-based technology from the bench-scale to the pilot-scale, which can inspire new designs for the application of similar technology.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Purificação da Água , Adsorção , Lantânio , Fosfatos/análise , Rios , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
17.
WMJ ; 120(1): 54-61, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33974767

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: An increasing number of Americans are turning to kratom for self-management of various pain, anxiety, and mood states and as an opioid substitute. Addiction to this unique botanical develops and carries a high relapse risk and, to date, there are no guidelines on how to maintain long-term abstinence. The aim of this article is to compile all available information on management of "kratom use disorder" (KUD)-as coined here-from the literature, with evidence from the clinical practice of expert addictionologists in an attempt to develop a standard of care consensus. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted to capture all relevant cases pertaining to maintenance treatment for KUD. Results were supplemented with case reports and scientific posters gleaned from reliable online sources and conference proceedings. Additionally, a survey of members of the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) was administered to assess the practice patterns of experts who treat patients with KUD in isolation of a comorbid opioid use disorder (OUD). RESULTS: Based on a literature review, 14 reports exist of long-term management of KUD, half of which do not involve a comorbid OUD. Pharmacological modalities utilized include mostly buprenorphine but also a few cases of naltrexone and methadone, all with favorable outcomes. This is supported by the results of the expert survey, which demonstrated that those who have managed KUD in isolation of a comorbid OUD reported having utilized buprenorphine (89.5%), as well as the other medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD). CONCLUSIONS: This is the first comprehensive review to examine the existing literature referring to management of KUD in combination with a survey of current experts' clinical consensus regarding pharmacological management. Based on this information, it seems reasonable that the indication for MOUD should be extended to cases of moderate to severe KUD.


Assuntos
Buprenorfina , Mitragyna , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides , Humanos , Metadona , Naltrexona , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Opioides/tratamento farmacológico , Estados Unidos
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000115

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the published literature over the last 5 years on the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in multiple sclerosis (MS), focusing on efficacy, safety, and tolerability. MS commonly has neuropsychiatric comorbidity. ECT is used in MS for severe and life-threatening forms of mental illness when other treatment options have failed or when a rapid response is required. DATA SOURCES: English-language literature published in the last 5 years (January 2015-June 2, 2020) was searched using the terms: ECT, electroconvulsive therapy, shock therapy, electroshock therapy, electroconvulsive therapies, multiple sclerosis, chronic progressive multiple sclerosis, acute relapsing multiple sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis, relapsing and remitting. KnowledgeShare, a National Health Service library application providing updates on evidence-based practice, was used along with EMBASE, PsycInfo, MEDLINE, PubMed, the TRIP database (which offers a complete and updated list of evidence-based online resources), HDAS (Healthcare Databases Advanced Search), CRDWeb (Centre for Reviews and Dissemination), and the Cochrane Library. Reference lists of articles identified in the search were also reviewed. STUDY SELECTION: Our initial search revealed 30 articles of potential relevance. However, after individually evaluating these articles, only 6 case studies and 1 review article detailing the use of ECT in MS were included. DATA EXTRACTION: The studies were analyzed by both authors to obtain clinical information relevant to meeting the objectives of the review. DATA SYNTHESIS: The efficacy and safety in using ECT for MS is derived only from case series and case reports. There were no controlled trials or systematic reviews, and the evidence collated was of low quality. CONCLUSIONS: The consensus is that ECT is an effective treatment for specific mental disorders in MS including catatonia. We have used ECT successfully in our clinic for patients with MS. However, there are concerns about the potential effects of ECT on neurologic and cognitive function. There are also possible risks with using anesthetic agents and particularly neuromuscular blockers.


Assuntos
Catatonia , Eletroconvulsoterapia , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente , Esclerose Múltipla , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla/terapia , Medicina Estatal
19.
J Family Med Prim Care ; 10(2): 998-1002, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34041111

RESUMO

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the aetiological agent of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis globally. Beta thalassaemia major individuals are at greater risk of contracting HBV infection due to multiple blood transfusions required for the medical management of these patients. Based on HBV genetic variability, it is divided into 10 genotypes. The determination of HBV genotypes has significant implications for clinical management and treatment regimens. Aim: This study was performed to assess the HBV epidemiology and circulating genotypes in multi-transfused ß-thalassemia major patients with the aim to be considered while formulating the treatment pattern taking into account particular needs of thalassaemia patients. Materials and Methods: This study was performed from September 2018 to June 2019, at the Department of Pathology and Transfusion Medicine, Shaheed Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto (SZAB) Medical University, Islamabad. A total of 2,260 thalassaemia patients were enrolled in the study. The study was endorsed by the Ethics Committee of the SZAB Medical University, Islamabad. The samples were serologically screened for HBsAg on the LIAISON® XL Murex HBsAg Quant assay (DiaSorin S.p.A., Italy) a chemiluminescence based immunoassay (CLIA). HBV quantitative PCR kit was used to measure the HBV DNA in serum samples. The HBV genotypes were determined using universal primers targeting the P1 and S1 region amplification. Results: Of 2,260 thalassaemia patients, 64.6% were males while 35.4% were females. The HBsAg was identified in 98 individuals (4.33%). The PCR analysis was done for these 98 patients and in this cohort, genotype D was 59.18% (n = 58), genotype A was 21.42% (n = 21) while genotype C was 19.38% (n = 19). Conclusion: The determination of HBV genotypes in the multi-transfused patients is key to the effective management of chronic HBV patients as the severity and course of the disease is dependent on a specific type of genotypes. Quality assured screening of donated blood will prevent the incidence of HBV in thalassaemia patients.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34000170

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review the published literature over the last 10 years for the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in tardive dyskinesia (TD), focusing on the efficacy of this treatment. DATA SOURCES: A comprehensive evidence search of the published literature in the last 10 years (2010-2020) was conducted using the search terms electroconvulsive therapy, electroshock therapy, ECT, tardive dyskinesia, and tardive dystonia. The review was limited to articles published in the English language. MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and the NICE (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence) guidelines were also searched. STUDY SELECTION: Twenty-three case studies published within the last 10 years were retrieved. The search revealed 5 articles of potential relevance. DATA EXTRACTION: The articles were analyzed by both authors to obtain clinical information relevant to meeting the objectives of the review. DATA SYNTHESIS: The efficacy in using ECT for TD is derived only from case series and case reports. There were no controlled trials, and the evidence collated was limited and of low quality. CONCLUSIONS: The review indicates that ECT could be considered as a treatment for TD. However, this treatment may only be considered when patients present with a coexistent refractory mood or affective disorder. Further clinical trials are needed to improve understanding regarding the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of using ECT in this patient group.


Assuntos
Eletroconvulsoterapia , Discinesia Tardia , Humanos , Discinesia Tardia/terapia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...