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1.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 7087921, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566096

RESUMO

The widespread adaptation of a new generation of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) unveils a superlative effect in the eradication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). However, this therapy has been reported to exhibit vigorous side effects that pose a risk in fleet recovery. This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of DAAs: sofosbuvir (SOF) and ribavirin (RBV), along with black cumin (BLC) and ascorbate (ASC), as adjuvants on hematological parameters; oxidative stress markers such as total antioxidant status (TAS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione (GSH), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and malondialdehyde (MDA); liver function markers such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP); and viral load with determined genotypes. HCV-infected patients (n = 30) were randomly divided into two equal groups: control group (n = 15) and treatment group (n = 15). The control group was subjected only to SOF and RBV (400 mg each/day). Synergistically, the treatment group was administered with adjuvant therapy of BLC (250 mg/day) and ASC (1000 mg/day) along with DAAs (400 mg each/day) for 8 weeks. All selected patients were subjected to sampling at pre- and posttreatment stages for the assessment of defined parameters. The data revealed that the BLC/ASC adjuvant therapy boosted the efficacy of DAAs by reducing the elevated levels of liver markers such as AST, ALT, ALP, and bilirubin in the treatment group compared with those in the control group (P > 0.05). The adjuvant therapy synchronously showed an ameliorating effect on hematological parameters. The SOF/RBV with adjuvant therapy also demonstrated an increasing effect in the activity of SOD, TAS, and GSH and a decreasing effect for GSSG, GGT, and malondialdehyde (MDA; P > 0.05) followed by curtailing a RT-PCR-quantified viral load. Our findings provide evidence that systemic administration of BLC/ASC efficiently alleviates hematological, serological, and antioxidant markers as well as the viral load in hepatitis C patients. This highlights a potentially novel role of BLC and ASC in palliating hepatitis C.

2.
J Clin Microbiol ; 2020 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404484

RESUMO

Timely and accurate methods for detecting Clostridium perfringens associated diseases (CPAD) are crucial to improve patient care. A number of studies have evaluated the accuracy of nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) in detecting CPAD, but decisive results about its effectiveness have not been reported. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the diagnostic performance of NAAT for detecting C. perfringens in clinical diarrheal samples. Five databases including PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane library were systematically probed up to December 06, 2019. From 2632 citations, we identified five eligible studies comprising 817 samples. Three studies (n = 695) compared NAAT with a microbiological culture while the other three studies (n = 322) compared it with an immunoassay. NAAT revealed higher diagnostic accuracy against immunoassay [sensitivity: 0.53 (0.35-0.7), specificity: 0.97 (0.95-0.99), positive likelihood ratio (PLR): 23.2 (3.49-153.98), negative likelihood ratio (NLR): 0.25 (0-245.28), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR): 74.11 (2.11-2593.7)] as compared to microbiological culture [sensitivity: 0.31 (0.22-0.41), specificity: 0.95 (0.93-0.97), PLR: 11.56 (3.87-34.6), NLR: 0.57 (0.27-1.21), DOR: 18.1 (4.83-67.8)]. NAAT pooled specificity was consistently ≥95% against applied reference standards. A meta-regression and sub-group analysis of sample condition, gene target, study design, and reference standards could not explain the heterogeneity (P >0.05) in the diagnostic efficiency. The analysis has demonstrated that the diagnostic accuracy of NAAT is relatively insufficient to replace traditional reference standards as a single diagnostic test. NAAT can be applied in combination with microbiological culture because of the advantage of time to result and in scenarios where traditional tests are not feasible. Further investigations in this direction with larger sample sizes are still warranted to support our findings.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267668

RESUMO

High-performance Ag-Se-based n-type printed thermoelectric (TE) materials suitable for room-temperature applications have been developed through a new and facile synthesis approach. A high magnitude of the Seebeck coefficient up to 220 µV K-1 and a TE power factor larger than 500 µW m-1 K-2 for an n-type printed film are achieved. A high figure-of-merit ZT ∼0.6 for a printed material has been found in the film with a low in-plane thermal conductivity κF of ∼0.30 W m-1 K-1. Using this material for n-type legs, a flexible folded TE generator (flexTEG) of 13 thermocouples has been fabricated. The open-circuit voltage of the flexTEG for temperature differences of ΔT = 30 and 110 K is found to be 71.1 and 181.4 mV, respectively. Consequently, very high maximum output power densities pmax of 6.6 and 321 µW cm-2 are estimated for the temperature difference of ΔT = 30 K and ΔT = 110 K, respectively. The flexTEG has been demonstrated by wearing it on the lower wrist, which resulted in an output voltage of ∼72.2 mV for ΔT ≈ 30 K. Our results pave the way for widespread use in wearable devices.

4.
Int J Infect Dis ; 95: 15-21, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194240

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Effective methods for diagnosing urogenital tuberculosis (UGTB) are important for its clinical management. Therefore, we undertook a systematic review to assess the performance of the urine-based Xpert MTB/RIF assay for UGTB. METHODS: PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane library, and Scopus were systematically searched up to July 30, 2019. A hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) was applied to calculate the pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and odds ratio (OR) for the diagnostic accuracy of the Xpert test. RESULTS: Our search identified 858 unique articles from which 69 studies were selected for full-text revision, with 12 studies meeting the inclusion criteria. Eleven studies comprising 1202 samples compared Xpert with mycobacterial culture, while 924 samples from eight studies compared it with a composite reference standard (CRS). The values for pooled sensitivity, specificity, PLR, NLR, and OR were 0.89, 0.95, 20.1, 0.18, and 159.53, respectively, when compared with the mycobacterial culture. Likewise, when compared with a CRS, the respective pooled sensitivity, specificity, PLR, NLR, and OR values were 0.55, 0.99, 40.67, 0.43, and 166.17, thereby suggesting a high level of accuracy for diagnosing UGTB. A meta-regression and sub-group analysis of TB-burden countries, study design, decontamination, concentration, and reference standard could not explain the heterogeneity (p > 0.05) in the diagnostic efficiency. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that Xpert is a promising diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of UGTB via urine specimen.

5.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2018: 8367846, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29492183

RESUMO

Honey clasps several medicinal and health effects as a natural food supplement. It has been established as a potential therapeutic antioxidant agent for various biodiverse ailments. Data report that it exhibits strong wound healing, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antiviral, and antidiabetic effects. It also retains immunomodulatory, estrogenic regulatory, antimutagenic, anticancer, and numerous other vigor effects. Data also show that honey, as a conventional therapy, might be a novel antioxidant to abate many of the diseases directly or indirectly associated with oxidative stress. In this review, these wholesome effects have been thoroughly reviewed to underscore the mode of action of honey exploring various possible mechanisms. Evidence-based research intends that honey acts through a modulatory road of multiple signaling pathways and molecular targets. This road contemplates through various pathways such as induction of caspases in apoptosis; stimulation of TNF-α, IL-1ß, IFN-γ, IFNGR1, and p53; inhibition of cell proliferation and cell cycle arrest; inhibition of lipoprotein oxidation, IL-1, IL-10, COX-2, and LOXs; and modulation of other diverse targets. The review highlights the research done as well as the apertures to be investigated. The literature suggests that honey administered alone or as adjuvant therapy might be a potential natural antioxidant medicinal agent warranting further experimental and clinical research.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Mel , Animais , Humanos
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28479926

RESUMO

Breast cancer has been recognized as the leading cause of death in women worldwide. Research has shown the importance of complementary and alternative therapies in cancer. In this study, we investigated the antitumoural therapeutic effects of Malaysian Tualang honey (TH) and Australian/New Zealand Manuka honey (MH) against breast cancer in rats. Thirty syngeneic virgin female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were induced by the carcinogen 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU) 80 mg/kg. The treatment started when first palpable tumour reached 10-12 mm in size by dividing rats into following groups: Group 0 (negative control); Group 1 (positive control); and Groups 2 and 3 which received 1.0 g/kg body weight/day of TH and MH, respectively, for 120 days. The data demonstrate that cancer masses in TH and MH treated groups showed a lower median tumour size, weight, and multiplicity compared with the nontreated positive control (p < 0.05). Treatment also showed a dramatic slower growth rate (up to 70.82%) compared with the nontreated control (0%) (p < 0.05). The antitumoural effect was mediated through modulation of tumour growth, tumour grading, estrogenic activity, and haematological parameters. Our findings demonstrate that systemic administration of TH and MH increases the susceptibility of expression of proapoptotic proteins (Apaf-1, Caspase-9, IFN-γ, IFNGR1, and p53) and decreases the expression of antiapoptotic proteins (TNF-α, COX-2, and Bcl-xL 1) in its mechanism of action. This highlights a potential novel role for TH and MH in alleviating breast cancer.

7.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 17(1): 208, 2017 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28399853

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Honey has been shown to have anti-cancer effects, but the mechanism behind these effects is not fully understood. We investigated the role of Malaysian jungle Tualang honey (TH) in modulating the hematological parameters, estrogen, estrogen receptors (ER1) and pro and anti-apoptotic proteins expression in induced breast cancer in rats. METHODS: Fifty nulliparous female Sprague-Dawley rats were used and grouped as follows: Group 0 (healthy normal rats control), Group 1 (negative control; untreated rats), Groups 2, 3 and 4 received daily doses of 0.2, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg body weight of TH, respectively. The rats in groups 1, 2, 3, 4 were induced with 80 mg/kg of 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea (MNU). TH treatment in groups 2, 3 and 4 was started one week prior to tumor induction and continued for 120 days. RESULTS: The TH-treated rats had tumors of different physical attributes compared to untreated negative control rats; the tumor progression (mean 75.3 days versus 51.5 days); the incidence (mean 76.6% versus 100%); the multiplicity (mean 2.5 versus 4 tumor masses per rat); the size of tumor mass (mean 0.41 cm versus 1.47 cm [p < 0.05]) and the weight of the tumor mass (mean 1.22 g versus 3.23 g; [p < 0.05]). Histological examinations revealed that cancers treated with TH were mainly of grades I and II compared with the non-treated control, in which the majority were of grade III (p < 0.05). TH treatment was found to modulate hematological parameters such as Hb, RBCs, PCV, MCV, RDW, MCHC, polymorphs and lymphocytes values. TH treatment groups were found to have a lower anti-apoptotic proteins (E2, ESR1 and Bcl-xL) expression and a higher pro-apoptotic proteins (Apaf-1 and Caspase-9) expression at serum and on cancer tissue level (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Tualang Honey alleviates breast carcinogenesis through modulation of hematologic, estrogenic and apoptotic activities in this experimental breast cancer animal model. Tualang Honey may be used as a natural 'cancer-alleviating' agent or as a supplement to chemotherapeutic agents.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Mel/análise , Animais , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores Estrogênicos/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo
8.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; 34(9): 1849-64, 2016 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26372227

RESUMO

Carbapenems are used to control the outbreak of ß-lactamases expressing bacteria. The effectiveness of drugs is influenced by its interaction with human serum albumin (HSA). Strong binding of carbapenems to HSA may lead to decreased bioavailability of the drug. The non-optimal drug dosage will provide a positive selection pressure on bacteria to develop resistance. Here, we investigated the interaction between meropenem and HSA at physiological pH 7.5 (N-isoform HSA) and non-physiological pH 9.2 (B-isoform HSA). Results showed that meropenem quenches the fluorescence of both 'N' and 'B' isoforms of HSA (ΔG < 0 and binding constant ~10(4) M(-1)). Electrostatic interactions and van der Waal interactions along with H-bonds stabilized the complex of meropenem with 'N' and 'B' isoforms of HSA, respectively. Molecular docking results revealed that meropenem binds to HSA near Sudlow's site II (subdomain IIIA) close to Trp-214 with a contribution of a few residues of subdomain IIA. CD spectroscopy showed a change in the conformation of both the isoforms of HSA upon meropenem binding. The catalytic efficiency of HSA (only N-isoform) on p-nitrophenyl acetate was increased primarily due to a decrease in Km and an increase in kcat values. This study provides an insight into the molecular basis of interaction between meropenem and HSA.


Assuntos
Albumina Sérica/química , Tienamicinas/química , Sítios de Ligação , Dicroísmo Circular , Ativação Enzimática , Transferência Ressonante de Energia de Fluorescência , Humanos , Cinética , Meropeném , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica , Isoformas de Proteínas , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Análise Espectral/métodos , Termodinâmica , Tienamicinas/metabolismo
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24363771

RESUMO

The main treatment for cancer is by using chemotherapy and radiotherapy which themselves are toxic to other viable cells of the body. Recently, there are many studies focusing on the use of natural products for cancer prevention and treatment. Of these natural products, honey has been extensively researched. The mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of honey as chemopreventive and therapeutic agent has not been completely understood. The possible mechanisms are due to its apoptotic, antiproliferative, antitumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF), antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, estrogenic and immunomodulatory activities. We collate the findings of several studies published in the literature in order to understand the mechanism of its action.

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