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1.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 18637, 2020 10 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122817

RESUMO

Colistin is a last-resort antimicrobial used for the treatment of human infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. However, colistin is still widely used in intensive poultry production in Bangladesh. We aimed to investigate the dynamics and genetic diversity of colistin-resistant commensal Escherichia coli from broiler chickens. A total of 1200 E. coli strains were characterized from 20 broiler farms at three-time points along the production period. All strains were screened for mcr-1 to mcr-5 genes by a multiplex PCR, and their genetic diversity was measured by repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP)-PCR fingerprinting. Genomic diversity and characterization were performed by whole genome sequencing (WGS). Twenty-five percent of the commensal E. coli strains harbored mcr-1 genes. Frequency of mcr-1 gene detection correlated positively (odds ratio 1.71; 95% CI 0.96-3.06; p = 0.068) with the use of colistin in poultry flocks. REP-PCR profiles and WGS analysis showed diverse E. coli population carrying multiple antimicrobial resistance genes. Phylogenetic comparison of mcr-1-bearing strains recovered from this study with a global strain collection revealed wide phylogenetic relationship. This study identified a high prevalence of mcr-1 gene among genetically diverse E. coli populations from broiler chickens in Bangladesh suggesting a massive horizontal spread of mcr-1 rather than by clonal expansion.

2.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(3)2020 01 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732576

RESUMO

Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin is a cattle-adapted S. enterica serovar causing both intestinal and systemic infection in its bovine host, and it is also a serious threat to human health. The present study aimed to determine the population structure of S Dublin isolates obtained from Danish cattle herds and to investigate how cattle isolates relate to Danish human isolates, as well as to non-Danish human and bovine isolates. Phylogenetic analysis of 197 Danish cattle isolates from 1996 to 2016 identified three major clades corresponding to distinct geographical regions of cattle herds. Persistence of closely related isolates within the same herd and their circulation between epidemiologically linked herds for a period of more than 20 years were demonstrated. These findings suggest that a lack of internal biosecurity and, to some extent, also a lack of external biosecurity in the herds have played an important role in the long-term persistence of S Dublin in Danish cattle herds in the period investigated. Global population analysis revealed that Danish cattle isolates clustered separately from bovine isolates from other countries, whereas human isolates were geographically spread. Resistance genes were not commonly demonstrated in Danish bovine isolates; only the isolates within one Danish clade were found to often harbor two plasmids of IncFII/IncFIB and IncN types, the latter plasmid carrying bla TEM-1, tetA, strA, and strB antibiotic resistance genes.IMPORTANCE S Dublin causes economic losses in cattle production, and the bacterium is a public health concern. A surveillance and control program has been in place in Denmark since 2002 with the ultimate goal to eradicate S Dublin from Danish cattle herds; however, a small proportion of herds have remained positive for many years. In this study, we demonstrate that herds with persistent infection often were infected with the same strain for many years, indicating that internal biosecurity has to be improved to curb the infection. Further, domestic cases of S Dublin infection in humans were found to be caused both by Danish cattle isolates and by isolates acquired abroad. This study shows the strength of whole-genome sequencing to obtain detailed information on epidemiology of S Dublin and allows us to suggest internal biosecurity as a main way to control this bacterium in Danish cattle herds.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/epidemiologia , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Infecções por Salmonella/epidemiologia , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Humanos , Filogenia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/classificação , Sorogrupo , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/veterinária
3.
Vet Microbiol ; 230: 23-31, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30827393

RESUMO

Salmonella Pathogenicity Islands 19 (SPI19) encodes a type VI secretion system (T6SS). SPI19 is only present in few serovars of S. enterica, including the host-adapted serovar S. Dublin and the host-specific serovar S. Gallinarum. The role of the SPI19 encoded T6SS in virulence in these serovar is not fully understood. Here we show that during infection of mice, a SPI19/T6SS deleted strain of S. Dublin 2229 was less virulent than the wild type strain after oral challenge, but not after IP challenge. The mutant strain also competed significantly poorer than the wild type strain when co-cultured with strains of E. coli, suggesting that this T6SS plays a role in pathogenicity by killing competing bacteria in the intestine. No significant difference was found between wild type S. Gallinarum G9 and its ΔSPI19/T6SS mutant in infection, whether chicken were challenged orally or by the IP route, and the S. Gallinarum G9 ΔSPI19/T6SS strain competed equally well as the wild type strain against strains of E. coli. However, contrary to what was observed with S. Dublin, the wild type G9 strains was significantly more cytotoxic to monocyte derived primary macrophages from hens than the mutant, suggesting that SPI19/T6SS in S. Gallinarum mediates killing of eukaryotic cells. The lack of significant importance of SPI19/T6SS after oral and systemic challenge of chicken was confirmed by knocking out SPI19 in a second strain, J91. Together the results suggest that the T6SS encoded from SPI19 have different roles in the two serovars and that it is a virulence-factor after oral challenge of mice in S. Dublin, while we cannot confirm previous results that SPI19/T6SS influence virulence significantly in S. Gallinarum.


Assuntos
Macrófagos/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/genética , Sistemas de Secreção Tipo VI/genética , Animais , Galinhas , Escherichia coli/fisiologia , Feminino , Ilhas Genômicas/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mutação , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/patogenicidade , Sorogrupo , Fatores de Virulência/genética
4.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(4): 822-825, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30642840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genes regulated by breast cancer risk alleles identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) may harbor rare coding risk alleles. METHODS: We sequenced the coding regions for 38 genes within 500 kb of 38 lead GWAS SNPs in 13,538 breast cancer cases and 5,518 controls. RESULTS: Truncating variants in these genes were rare, and were not associated with breast cancer risk. Burden testing of rare missense variants highlighted 5 genes with some suggestion of an association with breast cancer, although none met the multiple testing thresholds: MKL1, FTO, NEK10, MDM4, and COX11. Six common alleles in COX11, MAP3K1 (two), and NEK10 (three) were associated at the P < 0.0001 significance level, but these likely reflect linkage disequilibrium with causal regulatory variants. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence that rare coding variants in these genes confer substantial breast cancer risks. However, more modest effect sizes could not be ruled out. IMPACT: We tested the hypothesis that rare variants in 38 genes near breast cancer GWAS loci may mediate risk. These variants do not appear to play a major role in breast cancer heritability.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Frequência do Gene/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos
5.
Mol Biol Rep ; 45(6): 2707-2716, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30377949

RESUMO

De novo synthesis of purines has been suggested to be an important factor for the pathogenesis of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). We analyzed the role of the redundant purine biosynthesis genes purN and purT, responsible for the third step in the purine biosynthesis, during UPEC infection. Growth experiments in M9 (minimal media), MOPS (rich media), filtered urine, and human serum with E. coli UTI89 and ΔpurN, ΔpurT, and ΔpurN/T mutants revealed that UPEC relies on de novo purine synthesis for growth in minimal medium. Mutants in individual genes as well as the double mutant grew equally well as the wild type in urine, rich media, and serum. However, during competition for growth in urine, the wild type UTI89 strain significantly outcompeted the purine auxotrophic ΔpurN/T mutant from late exponential growth phase. Inactivation of purN and/or purT significantly affected UPEC invasion of human bladder cells, but not the intracellular survival. Cytotoxicity levels to bladder cells were also diminished when both purN and purT were deleted, while single gene mutants did not differ from the wild type. When infecting human macrophages, no differences were observed between UTI89 and mutants in uptake, survival or cytotoxicity. Finally, the lack of the pur-gene(s), whether analysed as single or double gene knock-out, did not affect recovery rates after in vivo infection in a mouse model of UTI. These findings suggest that de novo synthesis of purines might be required only when UPEC is fully deprived of nucleotides and when grown in competition with other microorganisms in urine.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Hidroximetil e Formil Transferases/genética , Purinas/biossíntese , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/genética , Animais , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Infecções por Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroximetil e Formil Transferases/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Cultura Primária de Células , Purinas/metabolismo , Bexiga Urinária , Infecções Urinárias/genética , Infecções Urinárias/metabolismo , Urina/microbiologia , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/metabolismo , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência
6.
Front Microbiol ; 9: 1010, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29867897

RESUMO

In the current study, we identified plasmids carrying antimicrobial resistance genes in draft whole genome sequences of 16 selected Salmonella enterica isolates representing six different serovars from humans in Ghana. The plasmids and the location of resistance genes in the genomes were predicted using a combination of PlasmidFinder, ResFinder, plasmidSPAdes and BLAST genomic analysis tools. Subsequently, S1-PFGE was employed for analysis of plasmid profiles. Whole genome sequencing confirmed the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes in Salmonella isolates showing multidrug resistance phenotypically. ESBL, either blaTEM52-B or blaCTX-M15 were present in two cephalosporin resistant isolates of S. Virchow and S. Poona, respectively. The systematic genome analysis revealed the presence of different plasmids in different serovars, with or without insertion of antimicrobial resistance genes. In S. Enteritidis, resistance genes were carried predominantly on plasmids of IncN type, in S. Typhimurium on plasmids of IncFII(S)/IncFIB(S)/IncQ1 type. In S. Virchow and in S. Poona, resistance genes were detected on plasmids of IncX1 and TrfA/IncHI2/IncHI2A type, respectively. The latter two plasmids were described for the first time in these serovars. The combination of genomic analytical tools allowed nearly full mapping of the resistance plasmids in all Salmonella strains analyzed. The results suggest that the improved analytical approach used in the current study may be used to identify plasmids that are specifically associated with resistance phenotypes in whole genome sequences. Such knowledge would allow the development of rapid multidrug resistance tracking tools in Salmonella populations using WGS.

7.
Cancer Med ; 7(5): 1978-1987, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29608257

RESUMO

Epidemiological, biological, and molecular data suggest links between endometriosis and endometrial cancer, with recent epidemiological studies providing evidence for an association between a previous diagnosis of endometriosis and risk of endometrial cancer. We used genetic data as an alternative approach to investigate shared biological etiology of these two diseases. Genetic correlation analysis of summary level statistics from genomewide association studies (GWAS) using LD Score regression revealed moderate but significant genetic correlation (rg  = 0.23, P = 9.3 × 10-3 ), and SNP effect concordance analysis provided evidence for significant SNP pleiotropy (P = 6.0 × 10-3 ) and concordance in effect direction (P = 2.0 × 10-3 ) between the two diseases. Cross-disease GWAS meta-analysis highlighted 13 distinct loci associated at P ≤ 10-5 with both endometriosis and endometrial cancer, with one locus (SNP rs2475335) located within PTPRD associated at a genomewide significant level (P = 4.9 × 10-8 , OR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.07-1.15). PTPRD acts in the STAT3 pathway, which has been implicated in both endometriosis and endometrial cancer. This study demonstrates the value of cross-disease genetic analysis to support epidemiological observations and to identify biological pathways of relevance to multiple diseases.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Endometriose/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases Classe 2 Semelhantes a Receptores/genética , Austrália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Endométrio/epidemiologia , Endometriose/epidemiologia , Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo
8.
Vet Microbiol ; 216: 38-44, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29519523

RESUMO

Over the last few years, polyamines have been described as key-signal of virulence in pathogenic bacteria. In the current study, we investigated whether the knockout of genes related to polyamine biosynthesis and putrescine transport affected the virulence of an avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) strain. One-week-old White Leghorn chickens were infected intratracheally with mutants in polyamine biosynthesis (ΔspeB/C and ΔspeD/E) and transport genes (ΔpotE) of a well-characterized APEC strain of ST117 (O83: H4). All polyamine mutants and the wild-type strain were able to infect chicken; however, we observed significantly fewer lesions in the lungs of the chickens infected with the polyamine mutants in comparison with chicken infected with the wild-type. Results derived from histology of infected lungs detected significantly fewer lesions in the lung of birds infected within particular the putrescine transport mutant (ΔpotE). A decrease in colonization levels was observed in the liver and spleen of birds infected with the putrescine biosynthesis mutant ΔspeB/C, and likewise, a decrease of the colonization levels of all organs from birds infected with the ΔpotE was detected. Together, our data demonstrate that the deletion of polyamine genes, and in particular the PotE membrane protein, attenuates the virulence of APEC during infection of chickens.


Assuntos
Antiporters/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Antiporters/metabolismo , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Galinhas/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Deleção de Genes , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/deficiência , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Mutação , Poliaminas/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/fisiopatologia , Putrescina/metabolismo , Virulência , Fatores de Virulência
9.
Nat Genet ; 49(12): 1767-1778, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29058716

RESUMO

Most common breast cancer susceptibility variants have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of predominantly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We conducted a GWAS using 21,468 ER-negative cases and 100,594 controls combined with 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer), all of European origin. We identified independent associations at P < 5 × 10-8 with ten variants at nine new loci. At P < 0.05, we replicated associations with 10 of 11 variants previously reported in ER-negative disease or BRCA1 mutation carrier GWAS and observed consistent associations with ER-negative disease for 105 susceptibility variants identified by other studies. These 125 variants explain approximately 16% of the familial risk of this breast cancer subtype. There was high genetic correlation (0.72) between risk of ER-negative breast cancer and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. These findings may lead to improved risk prediction and inform further fine-mapping and functional work to better understand the biological basis of ER-negative breast cancer.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
10.
J Med Genet ; 54(11): 732-741, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28779002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignancy in women and has a major heritable component. The risks associated with most rare susceptibility variants are not well estimated. To better characterise the contribution of variants in ATM, CHEK2, PALB2 and XRCC2, we sequenced their coding regions in 13 087 BC cases and 5488 controls from East Anglia, UK. METHODS: Gene coding regions were enriched via PCR, sequenced, variant called and filtered for quality. ORs for BC risk were estimated separately for carriers of truncating variants and of rare missense variants, which were further subdivided by functional domain and pathogenicity as predicted by four in silico algorithms. RESULTS: Truncating variants in PALB2 (OR=4.69, 95% CI 2.27 to 9.68), ATM (OR=3.26; 95% CI 1.82 to 6.46) and CHEK2 (OR=3.11; 95% CI 2.15 to 4.69), but not XRCC2 (OR=0.94; 95% CI 0.26 to 4.19) were associated with increased BC risk. Truncating variants in ATM and CHEK2 were more strongly associated with risk of oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive than ER-negative disease, while those in PALB2 were associated with similar risks for both subtypes. There was also some evidence that missense variants in ATM, CHEK2 and PALB2 may contribute to BC risk, but larger studies are necessary to quantify the magnitude of this effect. CONCLUSIONS: Truncating variants in PALB2 are associated with a higher risk of BC than those in ATM or CHEK2. A substantial risk of BC due to truncating XRCC2 variants can be excluded.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/química , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/química , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/química , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/química , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Análise de Sequência de Proteína
11.
PLoS One ; 12(5): e0178623, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28558003

RESUMO

This is the first report on the genetic diversity of commensal E. coli from pigs reared in an antibiotic free production system and belonging to different age groups. The study investigated the genetic diversity and relationship of 900 randomly collected commensal E. coli strains from non-antimicrobial treated pigs assigned to five different age groups in a Danish farm. Fifty-two unique REP profiles were detected suggesting a high degree of diversity. The number of strains per pig ranged from two to 13. The highest and the lowest degree of diversity were found in the early weaners group (Shannon diversity index, H' of 2.22) and piglets (H' of 1.46) respectively. The REP profiles, R1, R7 and R28, were the most frequently observed in all age groups. E. coli strains representing each REP profile and additional strains associated with the dominant profiles were subjected to PFGE and were assigned to 67 different genotypes. Whole genome sequence analysis of 52 isolates leading to unique REP profiles identified a high level of sequence variation. Six and six strains were assigned to sequence type ST10 and sequence type ST58, respectively. Virulence and antimicrobial resistance genes, as well as, genes associated with mobile genetic elements were commonly found among these commensal E. coli strains. Interestingly, strains yielding the three most common REP profiles clustered together in the SNPs phylogenetic tree, and such strains may represent the archetypal commensal E. coli in Danish pigs.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Variação Genética , Suínos/microbiologia , Fatores Etários , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Dinamarca , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Genes Bacterianos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
12.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 83(12)2017 06 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28389548

RESUMO

This study describes the results of a randomized clinical trial investigating the effect of oxytetracycline treatment dose and mode of administration on the selection of antibiotic-resistant coliform bacteria in fecal samples from nursery pigs. Nursery pigs (pigs of 4 to 7 weeks of age) in five pig herds were treated with oxytetracycline for Lawsonia intracellularis-induced diarrhea. Each group was randomly allocated to one of five treatment groups: oral flock treatment with a (i) high (20 mg/kg of body weight), (ii) medium (10 mg/kg), or (iii) low (5 mg/kg) dose, (iv) oral pen-wise (small-group) treatment (10 mg/kg), and (v) individual intramuscular injection treatment (10 mg/kg). All groups were treated once a day for 5 days. In all groups, treatment caused a rise in the numbers and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria right after treatment, followed by a significant drop by the time that the pigs left the nursery unit. The counts and proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms did not vary significantly between treatment groups, except immediately after treatment, when the highest treatment dose resulted in the highest number of resistant coliforms. A control group treated with tiamulin did not show significant changes in the numbers or proportions of tetracycline-resistant coliforms. Selection for tetracycline-resistant coliforms was significantly correlated to selection for ampicillin- and sulfonamide-resistant strains but not to selection for cefotaxime-resistant strains. In conclusion, the difference in the dose of oxytetracycline and the way in which the drug was applied did not cause significantly different levels of selection of tetracycline-resistant coliform bacteria under the conditions tested.IMPORTANCE Antimicrobial resistance is a global threat to human health. Treatment of livestock with antimicrobials has a direct impact on this problem, and there is a need to improve the ways that we use antimicrobials in livestock production. We hypothesized that antibiotic resistance development following treatment of diarrhea in nursery pigs could be reduced either by lowering the dose of oxytetracycline or by replacing the commonly used practice of flock treatment with individual or small-group treatments, since this would reduce the number of pigs treated. However, the study showed no significant difference between treatment groups with respect to the number or proportion of tetracycline-resistant coliforms selected. The most important conclusion is that under practical field conditions, there will be no added value, in terms of lowering resistance development, by exchanging flock treatment for individual or small-group treatment of nursery pigs. The reason for the lack of an effect of single-animal treatment is probably that such animals share the environment with treated animals and take up resistant bacteria from the environment.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por Desulfovibrionaceae/veterinária , Diarreia/veterinária , Lawsonia (Bactéria)/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxitetraciclina/administração & dosagem , Doenças dos Suínos/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Desulfovibrionaceae/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Desulfovibrionaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Desulfovibrionaceae/fisiopatologia , Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Diarreia/microbiologia , Diarreia/fisiopatologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fezes/microbiologia , Lawsonia (Bactéria)/genética , Lawsonia (Bactéria)/isolamento & purificação , Lawsonia (Bactéria)/fisiologia , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Doenças dos Suínos/fisiopatologia
13.
BMC Microbiol ; 17(1): 5, 2017 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28056788

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: So far, little is known about the genetic diversity and relatedness among Escherichia coli (E. coli) populations in the gut of swine. Information on this is required to improve modeling studies on antimicrobial resistance aiming to fight its occurrence and development. This work evaluated the genotype variation of E. coli isolated from swine fecal samples at the single pig and pen level, as well as between pens using repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) PCR fingerprinting and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The genetic diversity of strains collected from media supplemented with ampicillin or tetracycline was also investigated. Besides, the genetic relationship of strains within each pen, between pens, as well as among strains within each group isolated from media with or without antibiotic, was assessed. RESULTS: REP-PCR patterns (N = 75) were generated for all the isolates (N = 720). Two profiles (REP_2 and REP_5) dominated, accounting for 23.7 and 23.3% of all isolates, respectively. At the pig and at the pen level, the number of different strains ranged from two to eight, and from 27 to 31, respectively, and multiple isolates from a single pen were found to be identical; however, in some of the pens, additional strains occurred at a lower frequency. E. coli isolates yielding different REP profiles were subjected to PFGE and led to 41 different genotypes which were also compared. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the presence of dominant strains, our results suggest a high genetic diversity of E. coli strains exist at the pen level and between pens. Selection with antibiotic seems to not affect the genetic diversity. The dominant REP profiles were the same found in a previous study in Denmark, which highlights that the same predominant strains are circulating in pigs of this country and might represent the archetypal E.coli commensal in pigs.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Fazendas , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Berçários para Lactentes , Sus scrofa/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Impressões Digitais de DNA/veterinária , DNA Bacteriano , Dinamarca , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado/veterinária , Escherichia coli/classificação , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/veterinária , Fezes/microbiologia , Genoma Bacteriano , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana/veterinária , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Suínos
14.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 25(11): 1503-1510, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27550749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The strongest known risk factor for endometrial cancer is obesity. To determine whether SNPs associated with increased body mass index (BMI) or waist-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with endometrial cancer risk, independent of measured BMI, we investigated relationships between 77 BMI and 47 WHR SNPs and endometrial cancer in 6,609 cases and 37,926 country-matched controls. METHODS: Logistic regression analysis and fixed effects meta-analysis were used to test for associations between endometrial cancer risk and (i) individual BMI or WHR SNPs, (ii) a combined weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) for BMI or WHR. Causality of BMI for endometrial cancer was assessed using Mendelian randomization, with BMIwGRS as instrumental variable. RESULTS: The BMIwGRS was significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk (P = 3.4 × 10-17). Scaling the effect of the BMIwGRS on endometrial cancer risk by its effect on BMI, the endometrial cancer OR per 5 kg/m2 of genetically predicted BMI was 2.06 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.89-2.21], larger than the observed effect of BMI on endometrial cancer risk (OR = 1.55; 95% CI, 1.44-1.68, per 5 kg/m2). The association attenuated but remained significant after adjusting for BMI (OR = 1.22; 95% CI, 1.10-1.39; P = 5.3 × 10-4). There was evidence of directional pleiotropy (P = 1.5 × 10-4). BMI SNP rs2075650 was associated with endometrial cancer at study-wide significance (P < 4.0 × 10-4), independent of BMI. Endometrial cancer was not significantly associated with individual WHR SNPs or the WHRwGRS. CONCLUSIONS: BMI, but not WHR, is causally associated with endometrial cancer risk, with evidence that some BMI-associated SNPs alter endometrial cancer risk via mechanisms other than measurable BMI. IMPACT: The causal association between BMI SNPs and endometrial cancer has possible implications for endometrial cancer risk modeling. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(11); 1503-10. ©2016 AACR.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias do Endométrio/etiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Obesidade/complicações , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Obesidade/genética , Relação Cintura-Quadril
15.
EBioMedicine ; 10: 150-63, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27515689

RESUMO

Nearly 50% of cancer patients undergo radiotherapy. Late radiotherapy toxicity affects quality-of-life in long-term cancer survivors and risk of side-effects in a minority limits doses prescribed to the majority of patients. Development of a test predicting risk of toxicity could benefit many cancer patients. We aimed to meta-analyze individual level data from four genome-wide association studies from prostate cancer radiotherapy cohorts including 1564 men to identify genetic markers of toxicity. Prospectively assessed two-year toxicity endpoints (urinary frequency, decreased urine stream, rectal bleeding, overall toxicity) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) associations were tested using multivariable regression, adjusting for clinical and patient-related risk factors. A fixed-effects meta-analysis identified two SNPs: rs17599026 on 5q31.2 with urinary frequency (odds ratio [OR] 3.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.08-4.69, p-value 4.16×10(-8)) and rs7720298 on 5p15.2 with decreased urine stream (OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.90-3.86, p-value=3.21×10(-8)). These SNPs lie within genes that are expressed in tissues adversely affected by pelvic radiotherapy including bladder, kidney, rectum and small intestine. The results show that heterogeneous radiotherapy cohorts can be combined to identify new moderate-penetrance genetic variants associated with radiotherapy toxicity. The work provides a basis for larger collaborative efforts to identify enough variants for a future test involving polygenic risk profiling.


Assuntos
Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Tolerância a Radiação/genética , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Alelos , Estudos de Coortes , Terapia Combinada , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/radioterapia , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Breast Cancer Res ; 18(1): 64, 2016 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27459855

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs10771399, at 12p11 that is associated with breast cancer risk. METHOD: We performed a fine-scale mapping study of a 700 kb region including 441 genotyped and more than 1300 imputed genetic variants in 48,155 cases and 43,612 controls of European descent, 6269 cases and 6624 controls of East Asian descent and 1116 cases and 932 controls of African descent in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC; http://bcac.ccge.medschl.cam.ac.uk/ ), and in 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Stepwise regression analyses were performed to identify independent association signals. Data from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements project (ENCODE) and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used for functional annotation. RESULTS: Analysis of data from European descendants found evidence for four independent association signals at 12p11, represented by rs7297051 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.12; P = 3 × 10(-9)), rs805510 (OR = 1.08, 95 % CI = 1.04-1.12, P = 2 × 10(-5)), and rs1871152 (OR = 1.04, 95 % CI = 1.02-1.06; P = 2 × 10(-4)) identified in the general populations, and rs113824616 (P = 7 × 10(-5)) identified in the meta-analysis of BCAC ER-negative cases and BRCA1 mutation carriers. SNPs rs7297051, rs805510 and rs113824616 were also associated with breast cancer risk at P < 0.05 in East Asians, but none of the associations were statistically significant in African descendants. Multiple candidate functional variants are located in putative enhancer sequences. Chromatin interaction data suggested that PTHLH was the likely target gene of these enhancers. Of the six variants with the strongest evidence of potential functionality, rs11049453 was statistically significantly associated with the expression of PTHLH and its nearby gene CCDC91 at P < 0.05. CONCLUSION: This study identified four independent association signals at 12p11 and revealed potentially functional variants, providing additional insights into the underlying biological mechanism(s) for the association observed between variants at 12p11 and breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 12 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Alelos , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Epigênese Genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vigilância da População , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Risco
17.
Nat Genet ; 48(6): 667-674, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27135401

RESUMO

We conducted a meta-analysis of three endometrial cancer genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and two follow-up phases totaling 7,737 endometrial cancer cases and 37,144 controls of European ancestry. Genome-wide imputation and meta-analysis identified five new risk loci of genome-wide significance at likely regulatory regions on chromosomes 13q22.1 (rs11841589, near KLF5), 6q22.31 (rs13328298, in LOC643623 and near HEY2 and NCOA7), 8q24.21 (rs4733613, telomeric to MYC), 15q15.1 (rs937213, in EIF2AK4, near BMF) and 14q32.33 (rs2498796, in AKT1, near SIVA1). We also found a second independent 8q24.21 signal (rs17232730). Functional studies of the 13q22.1 locus showed that rs9600103 (pairwise r(2) = 0.98 with rs11841589) is located in a region of active chromatin that interacts with the KLF5 promoter region. The rs9600103[T] allele that is protective in endometrial cancer suppressed gene expression in vitro, suggesting that regulation of the expression of KLF5, a gene linked to uterine development, is implicated in tumorigenesis. These findings provide enhanced insight into the genetic and biological basis of endometrial cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8 , Feminino , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
18.
J Med Genet ; 53(5): 298-309, 2016 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26921362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: BRCA1 interacting protein C-terminal helicase 1 (BRIP1) is one of the Fanconi Anaemia Complementation (FANC) group family of DNA repair proteins. Biallelic mutations in BRIP1 are responsible for FANC group J, and previous studies have also suggested that rare protein truncating variants in BRIP1 are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. These studies have led to inclusion of BRIP1 on targeted sequencing panels for breast cancer risk prediction. METHODS: We evaluated a truncating variant, p.Arg798Ter (rs137852986), and 10 missense variants of BRIP1, in 48 144 cases and 43 607 controls of European origin, drawn from 41 studies participating in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Additionally, we sequenced the coding regions of BRIP1 in 13 213 cases and 5242 controls from the UK, 1313 cases and 1123 controls from three population-based studies as part of the Breast Cancer Family Registry, and 1853 familial cases and 2001 controls from Australia. RESULTS: The rare truncating allele of rs137852986 was observed in 23 cases and 18 controls in Europeans in BCAC (OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.58 to 2.03, p=0.79). Truncating variants were found in the sequencing studies in 34 cases (0.21%) and 19 controls (0.23%) (combined OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.70, p=0.75). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that truncating variants in BRIP1, and in particular p.Arg798Ter, are not associated with a substantial increase in breast cancer risk. Such observations have important implications for the reporting of results from breast cancer screening panels.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , RNA Helicases/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Proteínas de Grupos de Complementação da Anemia de Fanconi , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco
19.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 22(5): 851-61, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26330482

RESUMO

Excessive exposure to estrogen is a well-established risk factor for endometrial cancer (EC), particularly for cancers of endometrioid histology. The physiological function of estrogen is primarily mediated by estrogen receptor alpha, encoded by ESR1. Consequently, several studies have investigated whether variation at the ESR1 locus is associated with risk of EC, with conflicting results. We performed comprehensive fine-mapping analyses of 3633 genotyped and imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 6607 EC cases and 37 925 controls. There was evidence of an EC risk signal located at a potential alternative promoter of the ESR1 gene (lead SNP rs79575945, P=1.86×10(-5)), which was stronger for cancers of endometrioid subtype (P=3.76×10(-6)). Bioinformatic analysis suggests that this risk signal is in a functionally important region targeting ESR1, and eQTL analysis found that rs79575945 was associated with expression of SYNE1, a neighbouring gene. In summary, we have identified a single EC risk signal located at ESR1, at study-wide significance. Given SNPs located at this locus have been associated with risk for breast cancer, also a hormonally driven cancer, this study adds weight to the rationale for performing informed candidate fine-scale genetic studies across cancer types.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Biologia Computacional , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Genótipo , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Prognóstico , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Fatores de Risco
20.
Hum Mol Genet ; 24(5): 1478-92, 2015 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25378557

RESUMO

Common variants in the hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox B (HNF1B) gene are associated with the risk of Type II diabetes and multiple cancers. Evidence to date indicates that cancer risk may be mediated via genetic or epigenetic effects on HNF1B gene expression. We previously found single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the HNF1B locus to be associated with endometrial cancer, and now report extensive fine-mapping and in silico and laboratory analyses of this locus. Analysis of 1184 genotyped and imputed SNPs in 6608 Caucasian cases and 37 925 controls, and 895 Asian cases and 1968 controls, revealed the best signal of association for SNP rs11263763 (P = 8.4 × 10(-14), odds ratio = 0.86, 95% confidence interval = 0.82-0.89), located within HNF1B intron 1. Haplotype analysis and conditional analyses provide no evidence of further independent endometrial cancer risk variants at this locus. SNP rs11263763 genotype was associated with HNF1B mRNA expression but not with HNF1B methylation in endometrial tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas. Genetic analyses prioritized rs11263763 and four other SNPs in high-to-moderate linkage disequilibrium as the most likely causal SNPs. Three of these SNPs map to the extended HNF1B promoter based on chromatin marks extending from the minimal promoter region. Reporter assays demonstrated that this extended region reduces activity in combination with the minimal HNF1B promoter, and that the minor alleles of rs11263763 or rs8064454 are associated with decreased HNF1B promoter activity. Our findings provide evidence for a single signal associated with endometrial cancer risk at the HNF1B locus, and that risk is likely mediated via altered HNF1B gene expression.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Loci Gênicos , Fator 1-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Epigênese Genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Fator 1-beta Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Fatores de Risco
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