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1.
BMJ ; 372: n437, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33637488
2.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567634

RESUMO

Optimal breastfeeding practices among mothers have been proven to have health and economic benefits, but evidence on breastfeeding practices among adolescent mothers in Bangladesh is limited. Hence, this study aims to estimate breastfeeding indicators and factors associated with selected feeding practices. The sample included 2554 children aged 0-23 months of adolescent mothers aged 12-19 years from four Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys collected between 2004 and 2014. Breastfeeding indicators were estimated using World Health Organization (WHO) indicators. Selected feeding indicators were examined against potential confounding factors using univariate and multivariate analyses. Only 42.2% of adolescent mothers initiated breastfeeding within the first hour of birth, 53% exclusively breastfed their infants, predominant breastfeeding was 17.3%, and 15.7% bottle-fed their children. Parity (2-3 children), older infants, and adolescent mothers who made postnatal check-up after two days were associated with increased exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rates. Adolescent mothers aged 12-18 years and who watched television were less likely to delay breastfeeding initiation within the first hour of birth. Adolescent mothers who delivered at home (adjusted OR = 2.63, 95% CI:1.86, 3.74) and made postnatal check-up after two days (adjusted OR = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.21, 2.30) were significantly more likely to delay initiation breastfeeding within the first hour of birth. Adolescent mothers living in the Barisal region and who listened to the radio reported increased odds of predominant breastfeeding, and increased odds for bottle-feeding included male infants, infants aged 0-5 months, adolescent mothers who had eight or more antenatal clinic visits, and the highest wealth quintiles. In order for Bangladesh to meet the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2 and 3 by 2030, breastfeeding promotion programmes should discourage bottle-feeding among adolescent mothers from the richest households and promote early initiation of breastfeeding especially among adolescent mothers who delivered at home and had a late postnatal check-up after delivery.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246460, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606713

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Vitamin D is important for its immunomodulatory role and there is an independent association between vitamin D deficiency and pneumonia. We assessed the effect of vitamin D supplementation on the outcome in children hospitalized for severe pneumonia. METHODS: This was a randomised, double blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial in children aged >2-59 months with severe pneumonia attending Dhaka Hospital, icddr,b. Children received age-specific megadose of vitamin D3 (20,000IU: <6 months, 50,000 IU: 6-12 months, 100,000 IU:13-59 months) or placebo on first day and 10,000 IU as maintenance dose for next 4 days or until discharge (if discharged earlier) along with standard therapy. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02185196. FINDINGS: We enrolled 100 children in placebo group and 97 in vitamin D group. On admission, 50 (52%) and 49 (49%) of children in vitamin D and placebo groups, respectively were vitamin D deficient. Among children with a sufficient serum vitamin D level on admission, a lower trend for duration of resolution of severe pneumonia in hours [72(IQR:44-96)vs. 88(IQR:48-132);p = 0.07] and duration of hospital stay in days [4(IQR:3-5)vs.5(IQR:4-7);P = 0.09] was observed in vitamin D group compared to placebo. No beneficial effect was observed in vitamin D deficient group or irrespective of vitamin D status. CONCLUSION: Age-specific mega dose of vitamin D followed by a maintenance dose shown to have no statistical difference between the two intervention groups, however there was a trend of reduction of time to recovery from pneumonia and overall duration of hospital stay in under-five children with a sufficient serum vitamin D level on hospital admission.

4.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525327

RESUMO

Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is one of the less focused on infections and is often associated with faulty child nutrition in the developing world. This study aimed to evaluate the association of NTS infection with growth faltering among children under the age of five. We analyzed data from 378 fecal NTS positive children with both moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) and asymptomatic infection from the seven countries of South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa during enrolment and on day 60 follow up in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) for the period of December 2007 to March 2011. Children not associated with fecal NTS (n = 1134) were randomly selected from the same dataset (1:3 ratio) as a comparison group. The association between an explanatory variable and the outcome variable was longitudinally tested using generalized estimating equations (GEE), where the dependent variables were height-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-age (WAZ), and weight-for-height (WHZ) z-score, and the independent variable was the presence of fecal NTS. The GEE multivariable model identified a negative association between fecal NTS and WAZ (coefficient: -0.19; 95% CI (confidence interval): -0.33, -0.04, and p value = 0.010), WHZ (coef: -0.19; 95% CI: -0.34, -0.05, and p value = 0.007), and HAZ (coef: -0.13; 95% CI: -0.27, -0.01, and p value = 0.073) after adjusting for age, gender, diarrhea, breastfeeding status, mothers' education, number of children under the age of five, household size by the number of people regularly sleep at the home, handwashing practice, source of drinking water, wealth index, presence of co-pathogens, comorbidity, and study sites. In the GEMS, where children were followed during 50-90 days of enrolment, the presence of fecal NTS harmed the child's anthropometric outcomes. Minimizing potential exposure to NTS is needed to curb worsening child undernutrition.

5.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 64, 2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Post-hospital discharge mortality risk is high among young children in many low and middle-income countries (LMICs). The available literature suggests that child, caregiver and health care provider gender all play important roles in post-discharge adherence to medical advice, treatment-seeking and recovery for ill children in LMICs, including those with undernutrition. METHODS: A qualitative study was embedded within a larger multi-country multi-disciplinary observational cohort study involving children aged less than 2 years conducted by the Childhood Acute Illness and Nutrition (CHAIN) Network. Primary data were collected from family members of 22 purposively selected cohort children. Family members were interviewed several times in their homes over the 6 months following hospital discharge (total n = 78 visits to homes). These in-depth interviews were complemented by semi-structured individual interviews with 6 community representatives, 11 community health workers and 12 facility-based health workers, and three group discussions with a total of 24 community representatives. Data were analysed using NVivo11 software, using both narrative and thematic approaches. RESULTS: We identified gender-related influences at health service/system and household/community levels. These influences interplayed to family members' adherence to medical advice and treatment-seeking after hospital discharge, with potentially important implications for children's recovery. Health service/system level influences included: fewer female medical practitioners in healthcare facilities, which influenced mothers' interest and ability to consult them promptly for their child's illnesses; gender-related challenges for community health workers in supporting mothers with counselling and advice; and male caregivers' being largely absent from the paediatric wards where information sessions to support post-discharge care are offered. Gendered household/community level influences included: women's role as primary caretakers for children and available levels of support; male family members having a dominant role in decision-making related to food and treatment-seeking behaviour; and greater reluctance among parents to invest money and time in the treatment of female children, as compared to male children. CONCLUSIONS: A complex web of gender related influences at health systems/services and household/community levels have important implications for young children's recovery post-discharge. Immediate interventions with potential for positive impact include awareness-raising among all stakeholders - including male family members - on how gender influences child health and recovery, and how to reduce adverse consequences of gender-based discrimination. Specific interventions could include communication interventions in facilities and homes, and changes in routine practices such as who is present in facility interactions. To maximise and sustain the impact of immediate actions and interventions, the structural drivers of women's position in society and gender inequity must also be tackled. This requires interventions to ensure equal equitable opportunities for men and women in all aspects of life, including access to education and income generation activities. Given patriarchal norms locally and globally, men will likely need special targeting and support in achieving these objectives.

6.
Popul Health Metr ; 19(Suppl 1): 16, 2021 Feb 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (gestational age (GA) <37 weeks) is the leading cause of child mortality worldwide. However, GA is rarely assessed in population-based surveys, the major data source in low/middle-income countries. We examined the performance of new questions to measure GA in household surveys, a subset of which had linked early pregnancy ultrasound GA data. METHODS: The EN-INDEPTH population-based survey of 69,176 women was undertaken (2017-2018) in five Health and Demographic Surveillance System sites in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau and Uganda. We included questions regarding GA in months (GAm) for all women and GA in weeks (GAw) for a subset; we also asked if the baby was 'born before expected' to estimate preterm birth rates. Survey data were linked to surveillance data in two sites, and to ultrasound pregnancy dating at <24 weeks in one site. We assessed completeness and quality of reported GA. We examined the validity of estimated preterm birth rates by sensitivity and specificity, over/under-reporting of GAw in survey compared to ultrasound by multinomial logistic regression, and explored perceptions about GA and barriers and enablers to its reporting using focus group discussions (n = 29). RESULTS: GAm questions were almost universally answered, but heaping on 9 months resulted in underestimation of preterm birth rates. Preference for reporting GAw in even numbers was evident, resulting in heaping at 36 weeks; hence, over-estimating preterm birth rates, except in Matlab where the peak was at 38 weeks. Questions regarding 'born before expected' were answered but gave implausibly low preterm birth rates in most sites. Applying ultrasound as the gold standard in Matlab site, sensitivity of survey-GAw for detecting preterm birth (GAw <37) was 60% and specificity was 93%. Focus group findings suggest that women perceive GA to be important, but usually counted in months. Antenatal care attendance, women's education and health cards may improve reporting. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first published study assessing GA reporting in surveys, compared with the gold standard of ultrasound. Reporting GAw within 5 years' recall is feasible with high completeness, but accuracy is affected by heaping. Compared to ultrasound-GAw, results are reasonably specific, but sensitivity needs to be improved. We propose revised questions based on the study findings for further testing and validation in settings where pregnancy ultrasound data and/or last menstrual period dates/GA recorded in pregnancy are available. Specific training of interviewers is recommended.

7.
BMJ Open ; 11(2): e044339, 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597144

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Malnutrition remains a major problem among adolescents worldwide, but the types of nutritional problem impacting this group are changing significantly. This study aims to describe and analyse the trends in nutritional status and related epidemiological characteristics of 10 to 19 years old adolescent girls over time (2001 to 2018) in Bangladesh. METHODS: We extracted data from the Diarrhoeal Disease- Surveillance System of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research Bangladesh. We performed χ2 test for trend to test for statistical significance of the changing trends of undernutrition and overnutrition among the study participants. Multivariable logistic regression model was fit to measure the strength of association, reported as adjusted OR (aOR) and corresponding 95% CIs. RESULTS: A total of 1224 and 628 adolescent females attended urban and rural treatment facilities, respectively, between 2001 and 2018. The proportion of stunting and thinness decreased substantially, whereas overweight has been observed to increase (1.7% to 7.4%, p<0.001) over the study period. Factors independently associated with stunting were illiteracy (aOR 2.39, 95% CI (1.68 to 3.39), p<0.001), monthly family income of less than US$100 (aOR 1.54, 95% CI (1.25 to 1.9), p<0.001) and family belonging to poorest wealth quintile (aOR 1.45, 95% CI (1.13 to 1.87), p=0.004). Younger participants (aOR 2.69, 95% CI (2.10 to 3.45), p<0.001), rural participants (aOR 1.71 95% CI (1.23 to 2.38), p<0.001), longer hospital stay (aOR 1.52, 95% CI (1.16 to 1.98), p=0.002) and monthly family income less than US$100 (aOR 1.44, 95% CI (1.09 to 1.89), p=0.009) were significantly associated with thinness. Conversely, overweight/obesity was associated with monthly family income more than US$100, duration of diarrhoea and rural participants. CONCLUSION: Undernutrition in adolescent girls has decreased with time, but the burden of overweight has increased. Higher literacy and better wealth status were found to be associated with the improved nutritional status of the participants.

8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2355, 2021 Jan 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504937

RESUMO

There is paucity of knowledge on the histological features of the intestinal mucosa in malnourished adults of Bangladesh. The purpose of the study was to explore the histological features of the intestinal mucosa in malnourished adults of Bangladesh and to compare the findings with their well-nourished counterparts. 64 adults (37 malnourished with body mass index, BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 and 27 controls with BMI > 18.5 kg/m2) from the Bangladesh Environmental Enteric Dysfunction (BEED) study, who underwent upper-gastrointestinal endoscopy, were selected for this study. With a view to address the association of environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) with malnutrition, upper-gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed and mucosal biopsies from the distal duodenum were studied for histopathology. Villous height, crypt depth, and presence of inflammatory infiltrates in lamina propria were investigated. Bivariate analysis was performed to quantify the relation between malnutrition and the histological features. About 95% adults, irrespective of nutritional status, were diagnosed to have chronic non-specific duodenitis on histopathology. Malnourished adults suffered significantly more from chronic active duodenitis compared to their well-nourished counterparts (p = 0.003). Malnourished adults also had significantly higher frequency of subtotal villous atrophy, crypt hyperplasia and marked cellular infiltration in the lamina propria than the healthy controls (p < 0.05).

9.
Vaccine ; 39(1): 59-67, 2021 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33121844

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vaccine-preventable infectious diseases are often responsible for childhood morbidity and high rates of mortality. Immune response to the vaccine is associated with multiple factors in early childhood and measured by antibody titers. Among them, micronutrient deficiencies such as vitamin D and zinc deficiencies are the most important in resource-limited settings like Bangladesh. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate the association of vaccine response to low serum zinc and vitamin D levels in children. METHODS: We evaluated vaccine response for measles and poliovirus, tetanus and pertussis toxoid, and Ig A antibody levels to rotavirus by ELISA and serum vitamin D and zinc at 7 and 15 months in the MAL-ED birth cohort of the Bangladesh site. By using population-specific generalized estimating equations (GEE), the association between each explanatory variable and the binary outcome variable was examined longitudinally where the dependent variable was vaccine titers and the independent variables were low serum vitamin D and zinc levels. RESULTS: The GEE multivariable model identified a positive association between serum zinc level and tetanus vaccine titer (OR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.07-3.17 and p value = 0.028) after adjusting for age, gender, birth weight, WAMI score, diarrhea, ALRI, exclusive breastfeeding, serum ferritin, serum retinol and undernutrition (stunting, wasting, underweight). No association was found between the rest of the vaccine titers with serum vitamin D and zinc level (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: In the MAL-ED birth cohort, where children were followed for five years, serum zinc level had a positive impact on tetanus vaccine titers.

10.
J Clin Virol ; 134: 104689, 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33260046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Noroviruses are the major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) in people of all ages globally. Standardized genotyping is key for outbreak investigations and surveillance networks. OBJECTIVE: Here we describe the validation of a one-step conventional RT-PCR assay for sequence-based dual typing of GI and GII noroviruses. This polymerase (P) and capsid (C) dual typing assay uses a combination of previously published oligonucleotide primers amplifying a genomic region spanning the 3'-end of ORF1 and 5'end of ORF2 resulting in a 579 bp product for GI and 570 bp product for GII viruses. RESULTS: The limit of detection of the assay ranged from 5 to 50 copies of viral RNA per reaction for GI and GII. To validate the assay, we tested 2,663 noroviruspositive stool samples from outbreaks and sporadic cases of AGE in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Peru, and USA collected between 2010-2019, of which 2,392 (90 %) were genotyped successfully. Most of the known genotypes infecting humans (GI (n = 9) and GII (n = 23)) and P types (GI (n = 15), GII, (n = 20)) could be detected. The remaining 270 samples had low viral load (Ct > 30) by real-time RT-PCR. A panel of 166 samples positive for other enteric viruses (rotavirus, astrovirus, sapovirus, adenovirus type 40/41) tested negative. CONCLUSION: The use of broadly reactive genotyping assays greatly strengthens exchange of standardized genotype data globally to monitor trends in genotype diversity which is important for both the development of vaccines and to measure their impact.

11.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0243128, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33264364

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is one of the leading causes of mortality in children under five globally. When it is associated with bacteremia, mortality is even higher. However, bacteraemia in diarrheal children has gained little attention in spite of its deleterious impact in under-five mortality. So, we aimed to evaluate associated clinical and laboratory factors for death in under-five children hospitalized with both diarrhea and bacteremia. METHODS: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we used patients' electronic database of Dhaka Hospital of 'icddr,b', and enrolled all under-five children with diarrhea and bacterial growth in their blood samples on admission between June-2014 and May-2017. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were compared between those who died and who survived with a special attention to bacterial pathogens related to deaths and their sensitivity pattern. RESULTS: In a total of 401 diarrheal children with bacteraemia, 45 (11%) died. Although Salmonella Typhi (34%) was the most predominant isolate followed by Staphylococcus species (16%) and Pseudomonas species (9%), children who died more often had E. coli (OR = 5.69, 95% CI = 2.42-13.39, p = <0.001) and Klebsiella bacteraemia (OR = 4.59, 95% CI = 1.84-11.46, p = 0.001) compared to those who survived. However, none of them was significantly associated with deaths in regression analysis when adjusted with other potential confounders. E. coli was 100% resistant to ampicillin, 41% to gentamicin, and 73% to ceftriaxone and Klebsiella species was 96% resistant to ampicillin, 42% to gentamicin, and 62% to ceftriaxone. Study children who died had significantly higher overall resistance pattern shown in World Health Organization (WHO) recommended one of the first line antibiotics in treating childhood sepsis such as ampicillin (80% vs. 50%, p = 0.001) and in second line antibiotic such as ceftriaxone (49% vs. 22%, p = 0.001) compared to the survivors. In logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, we found that clinical sepsis (aOR 3.79, 95% CI 1.60-8.96, p = 0.002), hypoxemia (aOR 4.20, 95% CI 1.74-10.12, p = 0.001), and hyperkalaemia (aOR 2.69, 95% CI 1.05-6.91, p = 0.039) were found to be independent predictors of deaths and receipt of sensitive antibiotic (aOR 0.42, 95% CI 0.18-0.99, p = 0.048) was revealed as the independent protective factor for deaths in this population. CONCLUSION AND SIGNIFICANCE: The results of our data suggest that diarrheal children with bacteremia who died more often had gram negative bacteremia compared to those who survived and these pathogens are highly resistant to WHO recommended first line and second line antibiotics. The results further emphasize the critical importance of early identification of important clinical problems such as clinical sepsis, hypoxemia and hyperkalaemia in diarrheal children and treat them with potential sensitive antibiotic(s) in order to reduce bacteremia related mortality in children with diarrhea, especially in resource limited settings.

12.
BMJ Open ; 10(12): e043365, 2020 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310813

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We conducted a cross-sectional survey to assess the extent and to identify the determinants of food insecurity and coping strategies in urban and rural households of Bangladesh during the month-long, COVID-19 lockdown period. SETTING: Selected urban and rural areas of Bangladesh. PARTICIPANTS: 106 urban and 106 rural households. OUTCOME VARIABLES AND METHOD: Household food insecurity status and the types of coping strategies were the outcome variables for the analyses. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were done to identify the determinants. RESULTS: We found that around 90% of the households were suffering from different grades of food insecurity. Severe food insecurity was higher in urban (42%) than rural (15%) households. The rural households with mild/moderate food insecurity adopted either financial (27%) or both financial and food compromised (32%) coping strategies, but 61% of urban mild/moderate food insecure households applied both forms of coping strategies. Similarly, nearly 90% of severely food insecure households implemented both types of coping strategies. Living in poorest households was significantly associated (p value <0.05) with mild/moderate (regression coefficient, ß: 15.13, 95% CI 14.43 to 15.82), and severe food insecurity (ß: 16.28, 95% CI 15.58 to 16.97). The statistically significant (p <0.05) determinants of both food compromised and financial coping strategies were living in urban areas (ß: 1.8, 95% CI 0.44 to 3.09), living in poorest (ß: 2.7, 95% CI 1 to 4.45), poorer (ß: 2.6, 95% CI 0.75 to 4.4) and even in the richer (ß: 1.6, 95% CI 0.2 to 2.9) households and age of the respondent (ß: 0.1, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.21). CONCLUSION: Both urban and rural households suffered from moderate to severe food insecurity during the month-long lockdown period in Bangladesh. But, poorest, poorer and even the richer households adopted different coping strategies that might result in long-term economic and nutritional consequences.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , /epidemiologia , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos Nutricionais , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Matern Child Nutr ; 16 Suppl 3: e13017, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347719

RESUMO

This narrative review aims to provide an interdisciplinary perspective on actors that link global aquatic food production systems with fish consumption and nutritional status, with a special focus on adolescent girls in Bangladesh. The writing of this narrative perspective was undertaken within the framework of the Aquatic Food for Health and Nutrition (AQN) project that aimed to develop a metric for assessing the impacts on nutrition and health of agroecosystems producing farmed seafood. Previous studies evaluating links between agricultural ecosystems, aquaculture, food security and human health have systemically ignored the importance of diet and nutrition. Such studies have also ignored the importance of local communities, cultural norms and household composition and behaviours to identify vulnerable groups such as adolescent girls. This narrative review presents our current understanding of the relationships between aquaculture, fish production and consumption patterns, food security, optimal nutrition and health. It also highlights the importance of research into aquaculture food systems, linking aquatic food production systems with nutritional status, health and socioeconomic prosperity, which would help to develop more integrated and relevant food policies.

14.
J Trop Pediatr ; 2020 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33221898

RESUMO

Empirical antimicrobial use is common in hospitalized infants and may contribute to antimicrobial resistance in low- and middle-income countries. In this observational birth cohort study nested in a randomized controlled trial in Dhaka, Bangladesh, inpatient antimicrobial prescription data were extracted from serious adverse event forms completed for hospitalizations of infants (0-12 months of age). The primary outcome was the proportion of inpatient admissions where systemic antimicrobials were prescribed. Infant and hospitalization-related factors associated with antimicrobial prescriptions were determined. Among 1254 infants, there were 448 admissions to 32 facilities from 2014 to 2016. Antimicrobials were prescribed in 73% of admissions with a mean antimicrobial exposure rate of 0.25 antimicrobials per day of admission [95% confidence intervals (95% CIs): 0.24-0.27]. The most common antibiotics were aminoglycosides (29%), penicillins (26%) and third-generation cephalosporins (25%). In all, 58% of antibiotics were classified as 'access', 38% 'watch' and 1% 'reserve' using the World Health Organization (WHO) Essential Medicines List classification. WHO-recommended antimicrobial regimens were used in 68% of neonatal sepsis and 9% of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) admissions. 'Watch' antimicrobials were used in 26% of neonatal sepsis and 76% of LRTI admissions. Compared with private facilities, antimicrobial prescription rates were lower at government [rate ratio (RR) 0.71; 95% CI: 0.61-0.83] and charitable facilities (RR 0.39; 95% CI: 0.28-0.53), after adjustment for household wealth index and parental education. Younger infant age, older maternal age and longer admission were associated with higher prescription rates. These findings highlight the need for paediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs in Bangladesh.

15.
Food Nutr Bull ; : 379572120973908, 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222545

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The changes of plasma retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) level after a nutrition intervention can indicate the metabolic changes associated with the delivered intervention. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the changes in plasma RBP4 level among 12- to 18-month-old children after a nutrition intervention and measured its association with subcutaneous adiposity, maternal characteristics, and inflammation. METHODS: Data of 520 undernourished children (250 of them had length-for-age Z score [LAZ] <-1 to -2 and 270 had LAZ score <-2) were collected from the Bangladesh Environmental Enteric Dysfunction study conducted in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Multivariable linear regression and generalized estimation equations (GEE) modeling techniques were used to measure the association. RESULTS: At baseline, median RBP4 level was 19.9 mg/L (interquartile range [IQR]: 7.96), and at the end of the intervention, it was 20.6 mg/L (IQR: 9.06). Percentage changes in plasma RBP4 level were not significantly associated (P > .05) with the percentage changes in child's height, weight, and subcutaneous adiposity. But maternal height (regression coefficient, ß = -1.62, P = .002) and milk intake (ß = -0.05, P = .01) were negatively and maternal weight was positively associated (ß = 0.56, P = .03) with the changes in RBP4 levels. The GEE models revealed negative association of RBP4 levels with C-reactive protein (CRP; ß = -0.14, P < .05) and α-1-acid glycoprotein (AGP; ß = -0.03, P < .05). CONCLUSION: Children, whose mothers were taller, experienced less increase in plasma RBP4 level and, children, whose mother had a higher weight, experienced more increase in the RBP4 level from baseline. We have also found that CRP and AGP levels and intake of whole milk were negatively associated with the plasma RBP4 level.

16.
Environ Health Perspect ; 128(11): 117007, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33226277

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D improves absorption of calcium; however, in animal studies vitamin D also increases the absorption of toxic metals, such as lead and cadmium. OBJECTIVES: We examined maternal and neonatal cord blood levels of lead, cadmium, manganese, and mercury after supplementation with vitamin D during pregnancy. METHODS: The Maternal Vitamin D for Infant Growth trial was a randomized, placebo-controlled, multi-arm study of maternal vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy in Dhaka, Bangladesh (NCT01924013). Women were randomized during their second trimester to blinded weekly doses of placebo or 4,200, 16,800, or 28,000 IU of vitamin D3 throughout pregnancy. Each group had 118-239 maternal blood specimens and 100-201 cord blood samples analyzed. Metals were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Unadjusted estimates from linear regression models were expressed as percentage differences. Cord blood cadmium was analyzed as detectable or undetectable with log-binomial regression. RESULTS: Maternal cadmium, mercury, and manganese levels were nearly identical across groups. Maternal lead levels were 6.3%, 7.4%, and 6.0% higher in the treatment groups (4,200, 16,800, and 28,000 IU, respectively) vs. placebo; however, 95% confidence intervals (CIs) showed that differences from 4.1% lower to 20% higher were compatible with the data. In treatment groups (4,200, 16,800, 28,000 IU) vs. placebo, neonatal cord blood lead levels were 8.5% (95% CI: -3.5, 22), 16% (95% CI: 3.3, 30), and 11% (95% CI: 0.4, 23) higher and had higher risk of detectable cadmium, relative risk (RR)=2.2 (95% CI: 1.3, 3.7), RR=1.4 (95% CI: 0.8, 2.5), RR=1.7 (95% CI: 1.0, 2.9). DISCUSSION: Vitamin D supplementation from the second trimester of pregnancy did not influence maternal cadmium, mercury, or manganese levels at delivery. Vitamin D was associated with nonsignificant increases in maternal lead and with significant increases in cord blood lead and cadmium. These associations were not dose dependent. Given that there are no safe levels of metals in infants, the observed increases in cord blood lead and cadmium require further exploration. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP7265.

17.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 9(11): e17735, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33136058

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pneumonia causes about 0.9 million deaths worldwide each year. The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for the standard management of severe pneumonia requires parenteral ampicillin every 6 hours and once-daily parenteral gentamicin for 5 to 7 days. Although this treatment has contributed to the reduction of mortality, it requires nursing interventions every 6 hours for 7 days. Further intervention trials should be conducted to search for alternate antibiotics with better adherence, reduced cost, and reduced hospital stay. Parenteral amoxicillin is an effective alternative to ampicillin, as it has a longer half-life and broader coverage. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this clinical trial is to compare the efficacy of a dose of injectable amoxicillin every 12 hours plus a once-daily dose of injectable gentamicin with a dose of injectable ampicillin every 6 hours plus a once-daily dose of injectable gentamicin in children hospitalized for severe pneumonia. METHODS: This randomized, controlled, open-label, noninferiority trial is being conducted in Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, Bangladesh. A sample size of 308 children with severe pneumonia will give adequate power to this study. Children aged 2 to 59 months are randomized to either intravenous ampicillin or intravenous amoxicillin, plus intravenous gentamicin in both study arms. The monitoring of the patients is carried out according to the WHO protocol for the treatment of severe pneumonia. The primary objective is the rate of treatment failure, defined by the persistence of danger signs of severe pneumonia beyond 48 hours or deterioration within 24 hours of initiation of the therapy. The secondary objectives are (1) improvement in or the resolution of danger signs since enrollment, (2) length of hospital stay, (3) death during hospitalization, and (4) rate of nosocomial infections. RESULTS: Enrollment in the study started on January 1, 2018, and ended on October 31, 2019. Data entry and analysis are in progress. Findings from the study are expected to be disseminated in October 2020. CONCLUSIONS: Our study's findings will improve compliance with the use of antibiotics that require less frequent doses for the treatment of severe pneumonia. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03369093; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03369093. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/17735.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33147841

RESUMO

Diarrheal disease remains a major cause of childhood mortality and morbidity causing poor health and economic outcomes. In low-resource settings, young children are exposed to numerous risk factors for enteric pathogen transmission within their dwellings, though the relative importance of different transmission pathways varies by pathogen species. The objective of this analysis was to model associations between five household-level risk factors-water, sanitation, flooring, caregiver education, and crowding-and infection status for endemic enteric pathogens in children in five surveillance studies. Data were combined from 22 sites in which a total of 58,000 stool samples were tested for 16 specific enteropathogens using qPCR. Risk ratios for pathogen- and taxon-specific infection status were modeled using generalized linear models along with hazard ratios for all-cause diarrhea in proportional hazard models, with the five household-level variables as primary exposures adjusting for covariates. Improved drinking water sources conferred a 17% reduction in diarrhea risk; however, the direction of its association with particular pathogens was inconsistent. Improved sanitation was associated with a 9% reduction in diarrhea risk with protective effects across pathogen species and taxa of around 10-20% risk reduction. A 9% reduction in diarrhea risk was observed in subjects with covered floors, which were also associated with decreases in risk for zoonotic enteropathogens. Caregiver education and household crowding showed more modest, inconclusive results. Combining data from diverse sites, this analysis quantified associations between five household-level exposures on risk of specific enteric infections, effects which differed by pathogen species but were broadly consistent with hypothesized transmission mechanisms. Such estimates may be used within expanded water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) programs to target interventions to the particular pathogen profiles of individual communities and prioritize resources.

19.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236707

RESUMO

Chronic exposure to infectious agents results in environmental enteric dysfunction-a significant contributor to childhood stunting. Low plasma tryptophan (TRP), increased kynurenine (KYN), and KYN-TRP (KT) ratio are associated with infections and chronic immune activation. We postulated that both these conditions are interlinked, and therefore aimed to identify the association between KT ratio and the linear growth of Bangladeshi children. A total of 480 stunted and at risk of being stunted children aged 12-18 months were enrolled and provided nutrition intervention for 90 days. Plasma samples were assessed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to measure TRP and KYN concentrations. Multivariable linear regression with generalized estimating equations was applied to analyze association between the KT ratio and linear growth. Tryptophan, KYN, and KT ratio were significantly higher in stunted children than in children at risk of being stunted both at baseline and at the end of nutrition intervention. Following intervention, the median (interquartile range [IQR]) KYN concentration was significantly reduced from 4.6 (3.6, 5.4) µmol/L to 3.9 (0.3, 7.6) µmol/L, and median (IQR) KT ratio decreased from 104 (80.9, 131) to 92.8 (6.6, 247) in stunted children. We also found KT ratio to be negatively associated (coefficient = -0.7; 95% CI = -1.13, -0.26; P-value = 0.002) with linear growth. In addition, KYN and KT ratio were positively correlated with fecal neopterin and plasma C-reactive protein, whereas TRP was negatively correlated with both of these biomarkers and alpha-1-acid glycoprotein. Our findings imply that KT ratio is associated in the pathophysiology of stunting as well as with biomarkers of inflammation in Bangladeshi children.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33107165

RESUMO

AIMS: Appropriate rehydration has always been significant in treating diarrhoeal diseases in children. Irrational antibiotic use among diarrhoeal children has remained a major public health concern. Information regarding antibiotic use in young infants suffering from diarrhoea is very limited and a unique aspect of research. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of antibiotic use in the community among 2-6 months infants with diarrhoeal illnesses and having different nutritional status. METHODS: We investigated a total of 5279 infants aged 2-6 months at Dhaka hospital, International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, between September 2018 and June 2019. Among them, 257 infants were suffering from severe acute malnutrition (SAM). History of taking antibiotics was ascertained by direct observation of a prescription by a physician, the bottle of antibiotic or asking the caregiver about the name of antibiotic or its price that is very close to the usual market price of an antibiotic. RESULTS: Overall, 52% of infants received antibiotics before hospital admission. Non-SAM infants had higher odds of receiving antibiotics (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.52, 95% confidence interval: 1.18, 1.97, P value = 0.003) compared to infants with SAM and use of antibiotics increased with age (aOR = 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.17, P value<0.001). Commonly used antibiotics were azithromycin (13.3%), ciprofloxacin (7.7%), erythromycin (7.7%) and metronidazole (2.6%). The proportion of receiving ciprofloxacin was significantly lower in infants with SAM compared to their non-SAM counterparts (2.7% vs. 7.97%, P value = 0.004). CONCLUSIONS: The study underscores the excessive use of antibiotics among diarrhoeal infants, which is already a major public health concern in low- and middle-income countries.

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