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1.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 70(4): 11-12, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35443465

RESUMO

COPD is currently the fourth leading cause of death the world but is projected to be 3rd leading cause of death by 2020. It is characterized by limitation of airflow which is not fully transformable to normal along with increased long term inflammatory response in airways of the tracts of lungs. Acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) are the most common causes of hospitalization and death among COPD patients. CRP, leukocytes, IL-6, IL-8 and fibrinogen are associated with COPD. However, while these biomarkers may be helpful, many of them are time consuming with extra cost, and some of the tests are not readily clinically available. Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) and platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR) are effortless and basic parameters that are readily obtained from the simplest and easily obtainable complete blood count, even in peripheral hospitals. Material: Study was conducted at NMCH &RC, Raichur, patients attending NMCH for a duration of 18 months. 100 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COPD confirmed with pulmonary function test according to GOLD criteria were included in the study. Observation: Mean age of the study population was 67.14±8.03 years. Males were predominant with male to female ratio as 9:1.Mean NLR of the AECOPD patients from stage 1 was 3.73±0.18, stage 2 was 6.07±1.27, stage 3 was 6.02±1.14 and stage 4 was 8.19±2.66. When we compared the mean NLR of the patients between different stages of COPD, the difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). It means mean NLR was higher in stage 4 as compared to other groups. Mean PLR of the AECOPD patients from stage 1 was 12690.48±3978.45, stage 2 was 22219.93±7797.9, stage 3 was 19158.73±5070.88 and stage 4 was 19544.87±10207.59. When we compared the mean PLR of the patients between different stages of COPD, the difference was found to be statistically significant (p<0.05). It means mean PLR was higher in stage 2 followed by stage 4 as compared to other groups Conclusion: The NLR and PLR may be used as a useful and easily accessible tool for evaluating the ongoing inflammation during stable period and the disease severity during acute exacerbations in COPD patients. NLR ratio is more specific to severity of COPD compared to PLR ratio.


Assuntos
Neutrófilos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Plaquetas , Prognóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
2.
Nanoscale Res Lett ; 17(1): 30, 2022 Mar 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35244784

RESUMO

With the increasing demand of silicon carbide (SiC) power devices that outperform the silicon-based devices, high cost and low yield of SiC manufacturing process are the most urgent issues yet to be solved. It has been shown that the performance of SiC devices is largely influenced by the presence of so-called killer defects, formed during the process of crystal growth. In parallel to the improvement of the growth techniques for reducing defect density, a post-growth inspection technique capable of identifying and locating defects has become a crucial necessity of the manufacturing process. In this review article, we provide an outlook on SiC defect inspection technologies and the impact of defects on SiC devices. This review also discusses the potential solutions to improve the existing inspection technologies and approaches to reduce the defect density, which are beneficial to mass production of high-quality SiC devices.

3.
Psychol Res Behav Manag ; 15: 677-694, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35330960

RESUMO

Purpose: The main objective of existing research is to assess empowering leadership effects on employees' job performance at the academic level through mediating variables' goal clarity and self-efficacy. Methods: Data were congregated from 400 employees belonging to higher education institutions of Pakistan through research assistants, hired for data collection. Statistical procedures, such as factor analysis via statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS 23), structural equation modeling with bootstrapping via statistical tool analysis of moment structures (AMOS 24), were used to evaluate data and assess the relationship among the constructs. Results: The structural equation modeling analysis uncovered several results. For instance, it shows the positive influence of empowering leadership behaviors on goal clarity, self-efficacy, and employees' job performance. Moreover, the bootstrap investigation showed that goal clarity and self-efficacy mediate empowering leadership behaviors' influence on workers' job performance. Therefore, conferring to existing study results empowering leadership is significantly associated with employees' job performance in the presence of mediators goal clarity and self-efficacy at the academic level of higher education institutions of Sindh, Pakistan. Conclusion: The main research question of existing research is to assess empowering leadership effects on employees' job performance through mediating variables' goal clarity and self-efficacy. To investigate this research question, we have conducted this study and empirically established that empowering leadership can affect employees' job performance with and without mediation. We have also shown empowering leadership as collaborative effects produce advanced levels of self-efficacy, goal clarity, and employees' job performance than either leadership behavior could accomplish by itself.

4.
EMBO Rep ; 23(2): e53081, 2022 02 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34866316

RESUMO

Mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) can self-renew indefinitely and maintain pluripotency. Inhibition of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) by the kinase inhibitor INK128 is known to induce paused pluripotency in mESCs cultured with traditional serum/LIF medium (SL), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) but not complex 2 (mTORC2) mediates mTOR inhibition-induced paused pluripotency in cells grown in both SL and 2iL medium (GSK3 and MEK inhibitors and LIF). We also show that mTORC1 regulates self-renewal in both conditions mainly through eIF4F-mediated translation initiation that targets mRNAs of both cytosolic and mitochondrial ribosome subunits. Moreover, inhibition of mitochondrial translation is sufficient to induce paused pluripotency. Interestingly, eIF4F also regulates maintenance of pluripotency in an mTORC1-independent but MEK/ERK-dependent manner in SL, indicating that translation of pluripotency genes is controlled differently in SL and 2iL. Our study reveals a detailed picture of how mTOR governs self-renewal in mESCs and uncovers a context-dependent function of eIF4F in pluripotency regulation.


Assuntos
Fator de Iniciação 4F em Eucariotos , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Animais , Fator de Iniciação 4F em Eucariotos/genética , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/genética , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 2 de Rapamicina , Camundongos
5.
Burns ; 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34903416

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, different strategies have been chosen to face the COVID-19-patient surge, often affecting access to health care for other patients. This observational study aimed to investigate whether the standard of burn care changed globally during the pandemic, and whether country´s income, geographical location, COVID-19-transmission pattern, and levels of specialization of the burn units affected reallocation of resources and access to burn care. METHODS: The Burn Care Survey is a questionnaire developed to collect information on the capacity to provide burn care by burn units around the world, before and during the pandemic. The survey was distributed between September and October 2020. McNemar`s test analyzed differences between services provided before and during the pandemic, χ2 or Fisher's exact test differences between groups. Multivariable logistic regression analyzed the independent effect of different factors on keeping the burn units open during the pandemic. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 234 burn units in 43 countries. During the pandemic, presence of burn surgeons did not change (p = 0.06), while that of anesthetists and dedicated nursing staff was reduced (<0.01), and so did the capacity to manage patients in all age groups (p = 0.04). Use of telemedicine was implemented (p < 0.01), collaboration between burn centers was not. Burn units in LMICs and LICs were more likely to be closed, after adjustment for other factors. CONCLUSIONS: During the pandemic, most burn units were open, although availability of standard resources diminished worldwide. The use of telemedicine increased, suggesting the implementation of new strategies to manage burns. Low income was independently associated with reduced access to burn care.

6.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2021: 6400045, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34956352

RESUMO

This paper proposes a multivariate and online prediction of stock prices via the paradigm of kernel adaptive filtering (KAF). The prediction of stock prices in traditional classification and regression problems needs independent and batch-oriented nature of training. In this article, we challenge this existing notion of the literature and propose an online kernel adaptive filtering-based approach to predict stock prices. We experiment with ten different KAF algorithms to analyze stocks' performance and show the efficacy of the work presented here. In addition to this, and in contrast to the current literature, we look at granular level data. The experiments are performed with quotes gathered at the window of one minute, five minutes, ten minutes, fifteen minutes, twenty minutes, thirty minutes, one hour, and one day. These time windows represent some of the common windows frequently used by traders. The proposed framework is tested on 50 different stocks making up the Indian stock index: Nifty-50. The experimental results show that online learning and KAF is not only a good option, but practically speaking, they can be deployed in high-frequency trading as well.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Investimentos em Saúde
7.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 11(6)2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208236

RESUMO

Two-dimensional quantum dots have received a lot of attention in recent years due to their fascinating properties and widespread applications in sensors, batteries, white light-emitting diodes, photodetectors, phototransistors, etc. Atomically thin two-dimensional quantum dots derived from graphene, layered transition metal dichalcogenide, and phosphorene have sparked researchers' interest with their unique optical and electronic properties, such as a tunable energy bandgap, efficient electronic transport, and semiconducting characteristics. In this review, we provide in-depth analysis of the characteristics of two-dimensional quantum dots materials, their synthesis methods, and opportunities and challenges for novel device applications. This analysis will serve as a tipping point for learning about the recent breakthroughs in two-dimensional quantum dots and motivate more scientists and engineers to grasp two-dimensional quantum dots materials by incorporating them into a variety of electrical and optical fields.

8.
Heliyon ; 7(6): e07183, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34141938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dengue fever has been one of the most common mosquito-transmitted diseases in the world, affecting more than 128 countries in both tropical and subtropical regions. Bangladesh has been sufferring from dengue outbreaks almost annually since 2000, and in 2019, Bangladesh faced the worst outbreak of dengue to date. This study aimed to provide clinical and biochemical profiles of Bangladesh's dengue-infected patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted from August through December 2019 in three tertiary private hospitals in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We collected information on demographic data, clinical characteristics, and laboratory profiles for 542 confirmed hospitalized acute dengue cases using a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: The average age of the enrolled patients was 26.15 years, and about 50% of patients belonged to the age group of 20-40 years. The most frequent among the prevalent clinical symptoms were fever (93.1%), abdominal pain (29.5%), skin rash (25.3%), and diarrhea (19.7%). 316 patients had some complications, such as breathing problems (41.4%), pleural effusion (38.9%), gum bleeding (11.1%), etc. More than 90% of the patients showed seropositivity for the DENV-NS1 antigen. CONCLUSIONS: Over the last couple of years, dengue fever has become a major health issue for Bangladesh. To reduce the burden of this disease, timely diagnosis and prompt treatment are necessary. This analysis thus yields the clinical features, laboratory profiles, and seropositivity test results of dengue patients from Bangladesh. The research results may help clinicians understand the circumstantial diagnosis of dengue patients and facilitate early intervention.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5235, 2021 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33664314

RESUMO

Escalation of human-wildlife conflict (HWC) is a barrier to the conservation of ecological corridors across the globe. The existing mechanisms to counter HWC are either economically and socially taxing, or ineffective for long-term management. We assessed HWC in the corridor linking the Rajaji and Corbett Tiger Reserves in Uttarakhand, India, and its drivers, along with the benefits derived by local communities from the forest. We designed an innovative incentive-based mitigation mechanism to encourage coexistence of people and wildlife around the corridor. Costs incurred due to conflict and benefits derived from the forest were assessed using semi-structured questionnaire-based personal interviews (n = 757) with representatives from forest dependent households (hh). Fuelwood (1678.7 ± 131 kg hh-1 year-1), fodder (4772 ± 186 kg hh-1 year-1) and green/dry grass (3359 ± 104 kg hh-1 year-1) contributed 3 ± 1%, 6 ± 0.5% and 9 ± 1%, respectively, to the annual income of dependent households. 69% of the households practising agriculture reported crop damage by wild animals, 19% of the households that owned livestock reported livestock loss, and 1.58% reported attack on humans resulting in injuries. The cost incurred due to crop raiding and livestock depredation was US $ 159.83 ± 1.0 hh-1 year-1 and US $ 229.32 ± 34.0 hh-1 year-1, respectively. Crop loss was positively associated with the number of crops grown per season and cultivation of sugarcane, wheat and pulses, and negatively with distance from forest and cultivation of fodder and finger millet. Livestock depredation was negatively associated with distance from forest and positively with number of livestock owned, primarily calves. The accounting profit from cultivating a hectare of land, in the absence of crop depredation by wild animals, was estimated at US $ 3571.84 ha-1 year-1 and US $ 361.44 ha-1 year-1 for the plains and hills, respectively. This value can be used to calculate the payments to be paid to local communities to encourage them to adopt HWC resistant agricultural and pastoralism practices. The net present value of benefits from participating in the payments to encourage coexistence programme for 5 years, discounted at 12%, was US $ 12,875.7 ha-1 for the plains and US $ 1302.9 ha-1 for the hills.

10.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 31(2): 197-201, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645189

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE:  To determine the pattern of histopathology in living-related, kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) from a transplant centre in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK), Pakistan. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive, observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Institute of Kidney Diseases, Peshawar, from August 2008 to July 2018. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective review of graft biopsy reports and clinical charts from living-related, kidney transplant recipients was carried out. Allograft biopsies were done for graft dysfunction with no apparent cause. The biopsy pathology was classified according to updated Banff classifications. The descriptive statistics were used to tabulate the results. RESULTS: Out of the 55 biopsies, 51 (92.73%) were from males with mean age of 34.35±9.40 years. Out of 52 percutaneous biopsies, 10 (19.23%) belonged to the normal category. Category 2 (borderline rejection) and 3 (acute/active cellular rejection) were seen in three (5.7%) and one (1.9%) cases, respectively. Interstitial fibrosis/tubular atrophy (Banff Category 5) was observed in 18 (34.62%) cases. Banff Category 6 (others) was seen in 19 (36.5%) cases, in which calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) toxicity was commonest (17 [89.4%] of 19 cases). Mixed lesions were found in 19 (36.5%) cases. Out of the 19 mixed category cases, 12 (63.16%) showed both Category 3 and Category 5 changes with most of the cases showing mild to moderate IF/TA; while one case had severe IF/TA. Three graft nephrectomies were done, one each for recurrent oxalosis, nephroblastoma and fungal infection. CONCLUSION: Among the studied specimens, mixed lesions were the predominant findings, followed by others (mostly CNI toxicity) and IFTA categories. The frequency of acute/active rejections was low and that of chronic changes higher, in keeping with delayed biopsies. Key Words: Allograft biopsy, Graft dysfunction, Rejection, Kidney.


Assuntos
Transplante de Rim , Adulto , Aloenxertos , Biópsia , Rejeição de Enxerto/epidemiologia , Humanos , Rim , Masculino , Nefrectomia , Paquistão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cureus ; 13(1): e12652, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33489629

RESUMO

Objective To determine the efficacy of 5-Fluorouracil (FU) in the treatment of pterygium. Methodology After meeting the inclusion criteria 101 patients were enrolled in this study. Informed consent and demographic information was taken from all the patients. Patients underwent ophthalmic clinical examination that included slit lamp examination to grade pterygium. Before starting 5-FU injections, all topical medication was stopped. After four weeks the effects of 5-FU and its efficacy was noted. The patients were reviewed again after six months to note any recurrence. All the collected data was entered and analyzed on Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). Results In our study the mean age of the patients was 37.74 ± 10.15 years, male to female ratio of the patients was 1.06:1. The primary type of pterygium was noted in 54 (53.5%) and recurrent was noted in 47 (46.5%) patients. The efficacy achieved in 88 (87.13%) patients, four had recurrence of pterygium and of 101 patients 26 underwent surgical excision. Conclusion The use of 5-FU is safe and effective for the treatment of pterygium and it can be implemented as a primary treatment especially in the hot temperate zone where it is very common and aggressive with high recurrence rate. 5-FU not only halts its progression but also reduces the size and vascularity thus decreasing the need for surgery and steroid use and preventing recurrence.

12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32175873

RESUMO

Accurate breast cancer detection using automated algorithms remains a problem within the literature. Although a plethora of work has tried to address this issue, an exact solution is yet to be found. This problem is further exacerbated by the fact that most of the existing datasets are imbalanced, i.e., the number of instances of a particular class far exceeds that of the others. In this paper, we propose a framework based on the notion of transfer learning to address this issue and focus our efforts on histopathological and imbalanced image classification. We use the popular VGG-19 as the base model and complement it with several state-of-the-art techniques to improve the overall performance of the system. With the ImageNet dataset taken as the source domain, we apply the learned knowledge in the target domain consisting of histopathological images. With experimentation performed on a large-scale dataset consisting of 277,524 images, we show that the framework proposed in this paper gives superior performance than those available in the existing literature. Through numerical simulations conducted on a supercomputer, we also present guidelines for work in transfer learning and imbalanced image classification.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Mama , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação
13.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 23(8): 809-817, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307731

RESUMO

Leachate control and management is a major challenge faced during solid waste management as it may pollute surface and groundwaters. In the current research, constructed wetlands (CWs) vegetated with Typha angustifolia plant in combination with catalytic ozonation by ferrous (Fe)-coated zeolite A was studied for the treatment of leachate. The CWs treatment with 9 days detention reduced the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) up to 75.81% and 69.84%, respectively. Moreover, total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), and total kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal of 91.16%, 33.33%, and 25.22% were achieved, respectively. The Fe-coated zeolite A catalytic ozonation further reduced the COD up to 90.7%. Comparison of the processes showed the effective performance of the combined process (CW/O3/Fe-zeolite) with 97.76% COD reduction of leachate. It is, therefore, concluded that the studied combined process (CW/O3/Fe-zeolite A) was more efficient as compared with single ozonation and CW alone, hence it can be implied for the leachate treatment in real conditions.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Typhaceae , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Zeolitas , Biodegradação Ambiental , Análise da Demanda Biológica de Oxigênio , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Áreas Alagadas
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5061, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33033262

RESUMO

The interplay between the Yamanaka factors (OCT4, SOX2, KLF4 and c-MYC) and transcriptional/epigenetic co-regulators in somatic cell reprogramming is incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that the histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) demethylase JMJD3 plays conflicting roles in mouse reprogramming. On one side, JMJD3 induces the pro-senescence factor Ink4a and degrades the pluripotency regulator PHF20 in a reprogramming factor-independent manner. On the other side, JMJD3 is specifically recruited by KLF4 to reduce H3K27me3 at both enhancers and promoters of epithelial and pluripotency genes. JMJD3 also promotes enhancer-promoter looping through the cohesin loading factor NIPBL and ultimately transcriptional elongation. This competition of forces can be shifted towards improved reprogramming by using early passage fibroblasts or boosting JMJD3's catalytic activity with vitamin C. Our work, thus, establishes a multifaceted role for JMJD3, placing it as a key partner of KLF4 and a scaffold that assists chromatin interactions and activates gene transcription.


Assuntos
Reprogramação Celular , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/metabolismo , Animais , Catálise , Proliferação de Células , Senescência Celular , Desmetilação , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/citologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genoma , Histonas/metabolismo , Lisina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Modelos Biológicos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ativação Transcricional/genética
15.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 20(1): 293, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993632

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease characterized by hyperglycemia that may occur due to genetic, environmental or lifestyle factors. Natural remedies have been used to treat diabetes since long and many antidiabetic compounds of varied efficacies have been isolated from medicinal plants. Rhazya stricta has been used for decades for the treatment of diabetes mellitus and associated ailments. Considering the folkloric use of R. stricta against diabetes, it was aimed to investigate the effectiveness of its root extracts against diabetes through in vitro assays and in vivo studies using animal model along with phytochemical profiling through GCMS. METHODS: Various fractions of Rhazya stricta obtained through column chromatography were evaluated for a variety of assays including α-glucosidase, Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV), ß-secretase and Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion studies. For the in vivo studies the alloxan-induced diabetic mice were treated with root extracts and blood glucose levels, HbA1C, and other biochemical markers along with the histological study of the liver were done. The phytochemical identification was performed using an Agilent 7890B GC coupled to a 7010 Triple Quadrupole (MS/MS) system. GraphPad Prism software version 5.01 was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Majority of the extract fractions showed excellent results against diabetes by inhibiting enzymes DPP-IV (Up to 61%) and ß-secretase (Up to 83%) with IC50s 979 µg/ml and 169 µg/ml respectively with increase in the GLP1 secretion. The results of in vivo studies indicated a marked reduction in blood glucose and HbA1c levels along with positive effects on other parameters like lipid profile, liver functions and renal functions of extract-treated mice as compared to control. The histological examination of the liver demonstrated hepatoprotective effects against diabetes led changes and various classes of phytochemicals were also identified through GCMS in different fractions. CONCLUSION: The results revealed strong antidiabetic activity of R. stricta root with the potential to protect body organs against diabetic changes. Moreover, a variety of phytochemicals has also been identified through GCMS that might be responsible for the antidiabetic potential of Rhazya stricta root.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Aloxano , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Paquistão , Raízes de Plantas
16.
J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad ; 32(3): 342-345, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829548

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing haemodialysis are at increased risk for acquiring infections like hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus. This is due to their underlying impaired cellular immunity and exposure to contaminated equipment, frequent blood transfusions, hospitalization and surgery. This study was conducted to determine the frequency of Hepatitis B and C in patients undergoing haemodialysis in tertiary care hospitals. METHODS: This crosssectional study was conducted in dialysis units of three tertiary care hospitals, from January to August 2018. Data regarding demographics and hepatitis status was collected from patients and hospital records through a structured questionnaire. Categorical variables were shown in percentages and Chi square test was used to see association between hepatitis status and age, gender and duration of dialysis. RESULTS: Of the total 521 patients, 318 (61%) were males. Mean age of participants was 44.98±16.51 years and mean duration since initiation of HD 19.74 months. Of the total, 150 (28.8%) were hepatitis C positive, 28 (5.4%) were hepatitis B positive and 18 (3.4%) having hepatitis B and C co-infection. Duration since initiation of dialysis was associated with hepatitis (p<0.001). Percentage of hepatitis was higher in males compared to females but statistically not significant. CONCLUSION: The frequency of hepatitis in our haemodialysis units is alarmingly high and significantly associated with duration since initiation of haemodialysis.


Assuntos
Hepatite B , Hepatite C , Falência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hepatite B/complicações , Hepatite B/epidemiologia , Hepatite C/complicações , Hepatite C/epidemiologia , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Falência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Diálise Renal , Centros de Atenção Terciária
17.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 19(2): 188-206, mar. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104201

RESUMO

The present study aimed to screen the Rhazya stricta Decne root for its antihyperglycemic and antioxidants potential through invitro assays along with phytochemical and elemental analyses. The crude extract was prepared through maceration and fractionated using solvent-solvent extraction technique. The spectroscopic studies indicated the presence of various phytochemical classes in the extract and its fractions. The antioxidant assays showed notable results along with a good concentration of phenolic and flavonoid contents. Enzyme inhibition assays demonstrated glucose-lowering effects by inhibiting the enzyme activity which could reduce post-prandial blood glucose level. The Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibition assay results showed the novel DPP-IV inhibition activity of the plant extract and all fractions showed noteworthy enzyme inhibition and antihyperglycemic activity. Conclusively, the Rhazya stricta root extract displayed its antioxidant and antihyperglycemic potential due to the presence of various classes of phytochemicals and micro-nutrients.


El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo examinar la raíz de Rhazya stricta Decne por su potencial antihiperglicémico y antioxidante a través de ensayos in vitro junto con análisis fitoquímicos y elementales. El extracto crudo se preparó por maceración y se fraccionó usando una técnica de extracción solvente-solvente. Los estudios espectroscópicos indicaron la presencia de varias clases fitoquímicas en el extracto y sus fracciones. Los ensayos antioxidantes mostraron resultados notables junto con una importante concentración de contenido fenólico y flavonoide. Los ensayos de inhibición enzimática demostraron efectos reductores de la glucosa al inhibir la actividad enzimática que podría reducir el nivel de glucosa posprandial en sangre. Los resultados del ensayo de inhibición de Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) mostraron la nueva actividad de inhibición de DPP-IV del extracto de la planta y todas las fracciones mostraron una notable inhibición enzimática y actividad antihiperglicémica. En conclusión, el extracto de raíz de Rhazya stricta Decne mostró su potencial antioxidante y antihiperglicémico debido a la presencia de varias clases de fitoquímicos y micronutrientes.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Apocynaceae/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Flavonoides/análise , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Técnicas In Vitro , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Raízes de Plantas/química , Dipeptidil Peptidases e Tripeptidil Peptidases/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Antioxidantes/química
18.
Braz J Microbiol ; 51(2): 467-487, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086747

RESUMO

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the second most emerging multidrug-resistant, opportunistic pathogen after Acinetobacter baumannii that poses a threat in nursing homes, hospitals, and patients who need devices such as ventilators and blood catheters. Its ability to form quorum sensing-regulated virulence factors and biofilm makes it more resistant to top most therapeutic agents such as carbapenems and next-generation antibiotics. In the current study, we studied the quorum quenching potential of secondary metabolites of Mycoleptodiscus indicus PUTY1 strain. In vitro observation showed a mitigation in virulence factors such as rhamnolipids, protease, elastase pyocyanin, exopolysaccharides, and hydrogen cyanide gas. Furthermore, a significant reduction in the motility such as swimming, swarming, twitching, and inhibition in biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was observed. Results of in vitro studies were further confirmed by in silico studies through docking and molecular dynamic simulation of GC-MS-detected compounds of Mycoleptodiscus indicus employing LasR and RhlR proteins. Both in vitro and in silico observations indicate a new alternative approach for combating virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by targeting its protein receptors LasR and RhlR. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/química , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Percepção de Quorum/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Virulência/antagonistas & inibidores , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/fisiologia , Metabolismo Secundário
19.
FEBS J ; 287(1): 108-121, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361392

RESUMO

Metabolic reprogramming, hallmarked by enhanced glycolysis and reduced mitochondrial activity, is a key event in the early phase of somatic cell reprogramming. Although extensive work has been conducted to identify the mechanisms of mitochondrial remodeling in reprogramming, many questions remain. In this regard, different laboratories have proposed a role in this process for either canonical (ATG5-dependent) autophagy-mediated mitochondrial degradation (mitophagy), noncanonical (ULK1-dependent, ATG5-independent) mitophagy, mitochondrial fission or reduced biogenesis due to mTORC1 suppression. Clarifying these discrepancies is important for providing a comprehensive picture of metabolic changes in reprogramming. Yet, the comparison among these studies is difficult because they use different reprogramming conditions and mitophagy detection/quantification methods. Here, we have systematically explored mitochondrial remodeling in reprogramming using different culture media and reprogramming factor cocktails, together with appropriate quantification methods and thorough statistical analysis. Our experiments show lack of evidence for mitophagy in mitochondrial remodeling in reprogramming, and further confirm that the suppression of the mTORC1-PGC1 pathway drives this process. Our work helps to clarify the complex interplay between metabolic changes and nutrient sensing pathways in reprogramming, which may also shed light on other contexts such as development, aging and cancer.


Assuntos
Reprogramação Celular , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/patologia , Fibroblastos/patologia , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Mitofagia , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Células-Tronco Embrionárias/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Glicólise , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
20.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(4(Supplementary)): 1885-1891, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680088

RESUMO

Embryonic stem cells provide an ideal system to study various therapies for serious human diseases such as juvenile diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, heart diseases and cancer. Synthetic or natural compounds that affect cell proliferation and/or differentiation of embryonic stem cells are of great value. Focus of the current project was upon the isolation and evaluation of natural components from a medicinal plant; Rhazya stricta on proliferation/ differentiation potential of embryonic stem cells. For this purpose, after a series of fractionation and purification steps, 7 compounds named as RS1-RS7 were isolated from aerial parts of the plant. The effects of these compounds were evaluated on the morphology and rate of cell proliferation of mouse naive embryonic stem cells. Only RS7 inhibited the proliferation of cell and reduced the induction of differentiation of cell. The qPCR analysis confirmed that the expression of the selected pluripotency markers (Oct4, Nanog and Sox2) was down regulated by RS7 treatment as compared to control. Furthermore, upon withdraw of Leukemia inhibitory factor (lif) from medium; effect of RS7 to promote differentiation was enhanced. Through structure elucidation studies, RS7 was found to be ursolic acid. This study first time shows the effect of natural compounds of Rhazya stricta Decne. on mouse embryonic stem cells.


Assuntos
Apocynaceae/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Embrionárias Murinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Plantas Medicinais/química , Fatores de Transcrição SOXB1/metabolismo
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