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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: 00264, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339364

RESUMO

Abstract Allium cepa L. is a commonly consumed vegetable that belongs to the Amaryllidaceae family and contains nutrients and antioxidants in ample amounts. In spite of the valuable food applications of onion bulb, its peel and outer fleshy layers are generally regarded as waste and exploration of their nutritional and therapeutic potential is still in progress with a very slow progression rate. The present study was designed with the purpose of doing a comparative analysis of the antioxidant potential of two parts of Allium cepa, i.g., bulb (edible part) and outer fleshy layers and dry peels (inedible part). Moreover, the inhibitory effect of the onion bulb and peel extracts on rat intestinal α-glucosidase and pancreatic α-amylase of porcine was also evaluated. The antioxidant potential of onion peel and bulb extracts were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), ferric-reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP), 2,2'-azino-bis- 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical scavenging assay, H2O2 radical scavenging activity and Fe2+ chelating activity. Total flavonoids and phenolic content of ethanolic extract of onion peel were significantly greater as compared to that of onion bulb. Ethanolic extract of onion peel also presented better antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activity as compared to the ethanolic extract of bulb, while the aqueous extract of bulb presented weakest antioxidative potential. Onion peel extract's α-glucosidase inhibition potential was also correlated with their phenolic and flavonoid contents. The current findings presented onion peel as a possible source of antioxidative agents and phenolic compounds that might be beneficial against development of various common chronic diseases that might have an association with oxidative stress. Besides, outer dry layers and fleshy peels of onion exhibited higher phenolic content and antioxidant activities, compared to the inner bulb. The information obtained by the present study can be useful in promoting the use of vegetable parts other than the edible mesocarp for several future food applications, rather than these being wasted.


Resumo Allium cepa pertence à família Liliaceae e é rica em nutrientes e antioxidantes. Apesar das expressivas aplicações alimentares do bulbo da cebola, sua casca e outras camadas externas são geralmente consideradas resíduos, e seu potencial nutricional e terapêutico ainda é pouco explorado. O presente estudo foi delineado com o objetivo de investigar comparativamente o potencial antioxidante de duas partes de Allium cepa, por exemplo o bulbo (parte comestível) e camadas externas e cascas secas (parte não comestível). Além disso, o efeito inibitório dos extratos do bulbo de cebola e casca sobre a α-glucosidase intestinal de ratos e α-amilase pancreática suína também foi avaliado. O potencial antioxidante dos extratos da casca de cebola e bulbo foi avaliado utilizando-se 2,2-difenil-1-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), método de poder antioxidante de redução do ferro (FRAP), método 2,2'-azino-bis-3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-ácido sulfônico (ABTS) de eliminação de radicais, atividade de eliminação de radicais H2O2 e atividade quelante do Fe2+. Os flavonoides totais e os teores fenólicos do extrato de etanol da casca de cebola foram significativamente maiores quando comparados ao do bulbo. O extrato de etanol da casca de cebola também apresentou melhor atividade antioxidante e eliminação de radicais livres quando comparado ao extrato de etanol do bulbo, enquanto o extrato aquoso de bulbo apresentou menor potencial antioxidante. O potencial de inibição da α-glicosidase dos extratos de casca de cebola correlacionou-se com seus teores fenólicos e de flavonoides. Os resultados encontrados identificaram que a casca de cebola é uma possível fonte de agentes antioxidantes e compostos fenólicos que podem ser benéficos contra o desenvolvimento de várias doenças crônicas que estão associadas ao estresse oxidativo. Além disso, as camadas externas secas e as cascas da cebola exibiram maior conteúdo fenólico e atividades antioxidantes, em comparação com o bulbo interno. As informações obtidas pelo presente estudo podem promover o uso de outras partes vegetais além do mesocarpo comestível para futuras aplicações em alimentos, ao invés de serem desperdiçadas.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Cebolas , Antioxidantes , Suínos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , alfa-Glucosidases , Peróxido de Hidrogênio
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e244311, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285616

RESUMO

Abstract Tuberculosis is a communicable disease with high morbidity and mortality rates in developing countries. The study's primary objective is to compare conventional methods such as acid-fast bacillus (AFB) culture and microscopy with rapid diagnostic methods. The secondary objective is to compare histopathological and microbiological findings in suspected patients with tubercular lymphadenitis. A total of 111 samples (August 2018 to September 2019) of lymph nodes were processed for AFB microscopy, AFB cultures, drug-susceptibility testing (DST), histopathology, and Xpert Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (MTB)/resistance to Rifampin (RIF) assays. Out of 111 lymph node samples, 6 (5.4%) were positive for AFB smear microscopy, 84 (75.6%) were positive for AFB culture, 80 (70.7%) were positive on Gene Xpert, and 102 (91.8%) were indicative of tuberculosis for histopathology studies. Mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) culture positivity was 84 (75.6%) higher than solid Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ) culture 74 (66.6%). Positive cultures underwent phenotypic DST. Two cases were Multidrug-resistant (MDR) on DST, while three cases were Rifampicin resistant on Gene Xpert. The sensitivity of Genexpert was (62%) against the conventional AFB culture method. The poor performance of conventional lymphadenitis diagnostic methods requires early and accurate diagnostic methodology. Xpert MTB/RIF test can help in the treatment of multidrug-resistant TB cases. Nonetheless, rapid and conventional methods should be used for complete isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Resumo A tuberculose é uma doença transmissível com altas taxas de morbimortalidade nos países em desenvolvimento. O objetivo principal do estudo é comparar métodos convencionais, como cultura de bacilo álcool-ácido resistente (BAAR) e microscopia, com métodos de diagnóstico rápido. O objetivo secundário é comparar os achados histopatológicos e microbiológicos em pacientes com suspeita de linfadenite tubercular. Um total de 111 amostras (agosto de 2018 a setembro de 2019) de gânglios linfáticos foi processado ​​para microscopia de AFB, culturas de AFB, teste de susceptibilidade a drogas (DST), histopatologia e Xpert Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)/ensaios de resistência à rifampicina (RIF). Das 111 amostras de linfonodos, 6 (5,4%) foram positivas para baciloscopia de AFB, 84 (75,6%) foram positivas para cultura de AFB, 80 (70,7%) foram positivas para o GeneXpert e 102 (91,8%) foram indicativas de tuberculose para estudos histopatológicos. A positividade da cultura do tubo indicador de crescimento de micobactérias (MGIT) foi 84 (75,6%), maior que a cultura sólida de Lowenstein-Jensen (LJ), 74 (66,6%). As culturas positivas foram submetidas a DST fenotípico. Dois casos eram multirresistentes (MDR) ao DST, enquanto três casos eram resistentes à rifampicina no GeneXpert. A sensibilidade do GeneXpert foi 62% contra o método convencional de cultura AFB. O fraco desempenho dos métodos convencionais de diagnóstico de linfadenite requer metodologia de diagnóstico precoce e precisa. O teste Xpert MTB/RIF pode ajudar no tratamento de casos de tuberculose multirresistente. No entanto, métodos rápidos e convencionais devem ser usados ​​para o isolamento completo do Mycobacterium tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Humanos , Tuberculose dos Linfonodos/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Resistente a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Rifampina/farmacologia
3.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(21)2022 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36363167

RESUMO

The excellent optical properties of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) make them promising for numerous applications. Herein, we present a facile synthesis of both surfactant-free (SF-AuNPs) and non-toxic D-fructose (DF)-coated gold nanoparticles (DF-AuNPs) via the plasma-liquid interactions (PLIs) method. Moreover, we demonstrate that both SF-AuNPs and DF-AuNPs are potential candidates for trace detection via surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and catalytic degradation of toxic dyes. However, SF-AuNPs have superior SERS and catalytic performance compared to the DF-AuNPs due to their surfactant-free nature. Moreover, SF-AuNPs have also been shown to quench the fluorescence of analyte molecules, making their SERS-based trace detection more efficient. In particular, SERS enhancement of rhodamine 6G (R6G) and catalytic reduction of a toxic dye methylene blue (MB) have been explored.

4.
Esophagus ; 2022 Nov 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348250

RESUMO

Revisional surgery may be required in a subset of patients who remain symptomatic despite undergoing laparoscopic fundoplication (LF) for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). While revisional LF (RLF) is feasible in these patients, laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) may serve as an alternative, although its efficacy and safety remains unknown. This study aimed to determine the outcomes of LRYGB in symptomatic patients following failed LF for GERD. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PubMed databases were systematically searched for studies reporting LRYGB outcomes in symptomatic adults despite undergoing LF for GERD. Postoperative symptom resolution, recurrence of heartburn and dysphagia, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use, and body mass index (BMI) reduction were assessed to determine LRYGB efficacy. Postoperative morbidity and mortality were used to evaluate LRYGB safety. Twenty-two studies with 1523 patients were included. Pooled rates of symptom resolution, recurrence of heartburn and dysphagia, PPI use, morbidity, and mortality were 71.6% (95% CI 59.4-86.4), 15.6% (8.9-27.3), 20.7% (12.5-34.3), 29.6% (18.8-46.5), 39.5% (29.9-52.3), and 2.2% (1.2-4.0), respectively, following LRYGB. Similar rates were observed after RLF. However, BMI reduction was significantly greater after LRYGB compared with RLF (mean difference 6.1 kg/m2, 4.8-7.4; p < 0.0001). LRYGB resulted in symptom relief in a majority of patients, and proved comparable to RLF regarding symptom recurrence and PPI use. Morbidity and mortality following LRYGB also did not differ from RLF. However, LRYGB was associated with considerably greater weight loss relative to RLF. Therefore, LRYGB is efficacious and an acceptable revisional procedure in symptomatic GERD patients who have previously undergone LF.

5.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2022: 1-6, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36176130

RESUMO

To mitigate the "limb position effect" that hinders myoelectric upper limb prosthesis control, pattern recognition-based models must accurately predict user-intended movements across a multitude of limb positions. Such models can use electromyography (EMG) and inertial measurement units to capture necessary multi-position data. However, this data capture solution requires lengthy user-performed model training routines, with movements in many limb positions, plus retraining thereafter due to inherent signal variations over time. While a general-purpose control model (trained with a dataset that represents numerous device users) eliminates the user-training requirement altogether, it yields low movement predictive accuracy. Conversely, a user-specific control model (trained with a smaller dataset from an individual) yields high predictive accuracy, but requires retraining over time. This study capitalizes on the benefits offered by both such control options, and contributes an alternative control solution-a novel recurrent convolutional neural network (RCNN)-based Composite Model that combines the representation portion of a general-purpose model, with the decision portion of a user-specific model. The resulting Composite Model offers moderate movement predictive accuracy across various limb positions and a reduction in user training routine requirements, suggesting a new research direction to help mitigate the limb position effect along with model training burden.


Assuntos
Membros Artificiais , Eletromiografia/métodos , Humanos , Movimento , Redes Neurais de Computação , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão/métodos
6.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273022, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36006906

RESUMO

Visual object tracking is a critical problem in the field of computer vision. The visual object tracker methods can be divided into Correlation Filters (CF) and non-correlation filters trackers. The main advantage of CF-based trackers is that they have an accepted real-time tracking response. In this article, we will focus on CF-based trackers, due to their key role in online applications such as an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), through two contributions. In the first contribution, we proposed a set of new video sequences to address two uncovered issues of the existing standard datasets. The first issue is to create two video sequence that is difficult to be tracked by a human being for the movement of the Amoeba under the microscope; these two proposed video sequences include a new feature that combined background clutter and occlusion features in a unique way; we called it hard-to-follow-by-human. The second issue is to increase the difficulty of the existing sequences by increasing the displacement of the tracked object. Then, we proposed a thorough, practical evaluation of eight CF-base trackers, with the top performance, on the existing sequence features such as out-of-view, background clutters, and fast motion. The evaluation utilized the well-known OTB-2013 dataset as well as the proposed video sequences. The overall assessment of the eight trackers on the standard evaluation metrics, e.g., precision and success rates, revealed that the Large Displacement Estimation of Similarity transformation (LDES) tracker is the best CF-based tracker among the trackers of comparison. On the contrary, with a deeper analysis, the results of the proposed video sequences show an average performance of the LDES tracker among the other trackers. The eight trackers failed to capture the moving objects in every frame of the proposed Amoeba movement video sequences while the same trackers managed to capture the object in almost every frame of the sequences of the standard dataset. These results outline the need to improve the CF-based object trackers to be able to process sequences with the proposed feature (i.e., hard-to-follow-by-human).


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Computadores , Humanos , Gravação em Vídeo/métodos
7.
Phys Rev Lett ; 129(6): 061803, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36018638

RESUMO

This Letter reports the observation of WWW production and a measurement of its cross section using 139 fb^{-1} of proton-proton collision data recorded at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. Events with two same-sign leptons (electrons or muons) and at least two jets, as well as events with three charged leptons, are selected. A multivariate technique is then used to discriminate between signal and background events. Events from WWW production are observed with a significance of 8.0 standard deviations, where the expectation is 5.4 standard deviations. The inclusive WWW production cross section is measured to be 820±100 (stat)±80 (syst) fb, approximately 2.6 standard deviations from the predicted cross section of 511±18 fb calculated at next-to-leading-order QCD and leading-order electroweak accuracy.

8.
Postgrad Med ; 134(7): 680-685, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35838136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual relationships, sexual functions are all parts of the female sexual identity and which influence physiological, psychological, and reproductive functions of women. AIM OF THE WORK: The study aimed to identify prevalence of Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD) in women affected by type 1 and type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) and to evaluate the impact of diabetes on female sexuality. PATIENT AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 400 married females who were interviewed to answer Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire and were divided into two groups: the first group included 300 diabetes patients (134 patients with type 1 DM and 166 patients with type 2 DM), while the second included 100 women not diagnosed with diabetes who served as controls. RESULTS: Considering female sexual dysfunction (score < 26.55), there was statistically significant increase of patients with female sexual dysfunction (FSD) in Type 1 DM (50.7%) when compared to type 2 DM patients (28.9%) or control group (10.0%). CONCLUSION: FSD is a significant health problem in premenopausal women complaining of DM. Females with type 1 DM were more affected than females with type 2 DM, who in turn were more affected than healthy controls. Long duration of the disease was the main risk factor for developing FSD.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/epidemiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/etiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Fisiológicas/psicologia , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/epidemiologia , Disfunções Sexuais Psicogênicas/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
9.
Materials (Basel) ; 15(9)2022 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35591317

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to investigate the flexural performance of a new steel-concrete composite beam system, which is required to carry higher loads when applied in flooring systems with less self-weight and cost compared with conventional composite beams. This new composite member is prepared by filling a single cold-formed steel C-section with concrete material that has varied lightweight-recycled aggregates. In addition, varied stiffening scenarios are suggested to improve the composite behavior of this member, since these cold-formed C-sections are of a slender cross-section and more likely to buckle and twist under high bending loads than those of hot-rolled C-sections. The influence of using four different lightweight-recycled aggregates that combine together in the infill concrete material was investigated. These recycled aggregates are recycled concrete aggregate (RCA), expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads, crumb rubber aggregates (CRA) and fine glass aggregates (FGA). For this purpose, 14 samples of cold-formed galvanized steel C-purlin were filled with concrete material (containing 0 to 100% recycled aggregates) which are experimentally tested under pure bending load, and 1 additional sample was tested without the filling material. Further numerical models were prepared and analyzed using finite element analysis software to investigate the effects of additional parameters that were not experimentally examined. Generally, the results confirm that filling the C-sections with concrete material that contains varied percentages of recycled aggregates offer significantly improved the flexural stiffness, bending capacity, and ductility performances. For example, using infill concrete materials with 0% and 100% recycled aggregate replacement increased the bending capacity of hollow C-section by about 11.4 and 8.6 times, respectively. Furthermore, stiffening of the concrete-filled C-sections with steel strips or screw connectors eventually improved the composite behavior of the specimens which led to an increase in their bending capacities accordingly, and this improvement enhanced more with an increased number of these strips and connectors.

10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(10)2022 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35632311

RESUMO

A commonly cited reason for the high abandonment rate of myoelectric prostheses is a lack of grip force sensory feedback. Researchers have attempted to restore grip force sensory feedback by stimulating the residual limb's skin surface in response to the prosthetic hand's measured grip force. Recent work has focused on restoring natural feedback to the missing digits directly through invasive surgical procedures. However, the functional benefit of utilizing somatotopically matching feedback has not been evaluated. In this paper, we propose an experimental protocol centered on a fragile object grasp and lift task using a sensorized myoelectric prosthesis to evaluate sensory feedback techniques. We formalized a suite of outcome measures related to task success, timing, and strategy. A pilot study (n = 3) evaluating the effect of utilizing a somatotopically accurate feedback stimulation location in able-bodied participants was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of the standardized platform, and to inform future studies on the role of feedback stimulation location in prosthesis use. Large between-participant effect sizes were observed in all outcome measures, indicating that the feedback location likely plays a role in myoelectric prosthesis performance. The success rate decreased, and task timing and task focus metrics increased, when using somatotopically-matched feedback compared to non-somatotopically-matched feedback. These results were used to conduct a power analysis, revealing that a sample size of n = 8 would be sufficient to achieve significance in all outcome measures.


Assuntos
Membros Artificiais , Retroalimentação , Mãos , Humanos , Projetos Piloto , Desenho de Prótese
11.
Surgery ; 172(1): 436-445, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35379520

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sarcopenia refers to the progressive age and pathology-associated loss of skeletal muscle, which has been shown to independently predict mortality in patients undergoing major elective surgery. Emergency laparotomy is commonly performed for a range of procedures and is associated with high rates of mortality. However, the prognostic utility of sarcopenia after emergency laparotomy remains unknown. The aim of this study was to compare short and long-term survival between patients with and without sarcopenia undergoing emergency laparotomy. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Scopus databases were systematically searched for articles comparing survival outcomes between adults with and without radiologically defined sarcopenia after emergency gastrointestinal surgery regardless of indication and approach (open/laparoscopic). The primary outcome was postoperative mortality. Sensitivity analysis of adjusted multivariate analyses was performed. RESULTS: Twenty articles comprising 6,737 patients were included. Sarcopenia was most commonly assessed using axial abdominal computerized tomography at L3, although cut-off thresholds were heterogeneous and rarely sex-specific. Postoperative mortality was higher among patients with sarcopenia than without in the in-hospital setting, and at 30- and 90-day follow-up on univariate but not on multivariate meta-analysis. However, mortality was significantly higher among sarcopenic cohorts in the 1-year (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.5-5.6; P = .002) follow-up period, despite adjusting for confounding preoperative and patient factors. CONCLUSION: The meta-analysis has shown sarcopenia to provide useful long-term prognostic information following emergency laparotomy. This may aid with preoperative risk assessment, patient counseling, and in perioperative decision-making for patients undergoing emergency laparotomy.


Assuntos
Sarcopenia , Abdome/cirurgia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/complicações , Sarcopenia/cirurgia
13.
Sensors (Basel) ; 22(3)2022 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35161706

RESUMO

Floods are a major cause of loss of lives, destruction of infrastructure, and massive damage to a country's economy. Floods, being natural disasters, cannot be prevented completely; therefore, precautionary measures must be taken by the government, concerned organizations such as the United Nations Office for Disaster Risk Reduction and Office for the coordination of Human Affairs, and the community to control its disastrous effects. To minimize hazards and to provide an emergency response at the time of natural calamity, various measures must be taken by the disaster management authorities before the flood incident. This involves the use of the latest cutting-edge technologies which predict the occurrence of disaster as early as possible such that proper response strategies can be adopted before the disaster. Floods are uncertain depending on several climatic and environmental factors, and therefore are difficult to predict. Hence, improvement in the adoption of the latest technology to move towards automated disaster prediction and forecasting is a must. This study reviews the adoption of remote sensing methods for predicting floods and thus focuses on the pre-disaster phase of the disaster management process for the past 20 years. A classification framework is presented which classifies the remote sensing technologies being used for flood prediction into three types, which are: multispectral, radar, and light detection and ranging (LIDAR). Further categorization is performed based on the method used for data analysis. The technologies are examined based on their relevance to flood prediction, flood risk assessment, and hazard analysis. Some gaps and limitations present in each of the reviewed technologies have been identified. A flood prediction and extent mapping model are then proposed to overcome the current gaps. The compiled results demonstrate the state of each technology's practice and usage in flood prediction.


Assuntos
Desastres , Inundações , Humanos , Radar , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Medição de Risco
14.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng ; 69(7): 2243-2255, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34986093

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Persons with normal arm function can perform complex wrist and hand movements over a wide range of limb positions. However, for those with transradial amputation who use myoelectric prostheses, control across multiple limb positions can be challenging, frustrating, and can increase the likelihood of device abandonment. In response, the goal of this research was to investigate convolutional neural network (RCNN)-based position-aware myoelectric prosthesis control strategies. METHODS: Surface electromyographic (EMG) and inertial measurement unit (IMU) signals, obtained from 16 non-disabled participants wearing two Myo armbands, served as inputs to RCNN classification and regression models. Such models predicted movements (wrist flexion/extension and forearm pronation/supination), based on a multi-limb-position training routine. RCNN classifiers and RCNN regressors were compared to linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classifiers and support vector regression (SVR) regressors, respectively. Outcomes were examined to determine whether RCNN-based control strategies could yield accurate movement predictions, while using the fewest number of available Myo armband data streams. RESULTS: An RCNN classifier (trained with forearm EMG data, and forearm and upper arm IMU data) predicted movements with 99.00% accuracy (versus the LDA's 97.67%). An RCNN regressor (trained with forearm EMG and IMU data) predicted movements with R2 values of 84.93% for wrist flexion/extension and 84.97% for forearm pronation/supination (versus the SVR's 77.26% and 60.73%, respectively). The control strategies that employed these models required fewer than all available data streams. CONCLUSION: RCNN-based control strategies offer novel means of mitigating limb position challenges. SIGNIFICANCE: This research furthers the development of improved position-aware myoelectric prosthesis control.


Assuntos
Membros Artificiais , Braço/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Movimento , Redes Neurais de Computação , Punho/fisiologia
15.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 46(1): 78-90, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35027520

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Artificial intelligence (AI) is the most revolutionizing development in the health care industry in the current decade, with diagnostic imaging having the greatest share in such development. Machine learning and deep learning (DL) are subclasses of AI that show breakthrough performance in image analysis. They have become the state of the art in the field of image classification and recognition. Machine learning deals with the extraction of the important characteristic features from images, whereas DL uses neural networks to solve such problems with better performance. In this review, we discuss the current applications of machine learning and DL in the field of diagnostic radiology.Deep learning applications can be divided into medical imaging analysis and applications beyond analysis. In the field of medical imaging analysis, deep convolutional neural networks are used for image classification, lesion detection, and segmentation. Also used are recurrent neural networks when extracting information from electronic medical records and to augment the use of convolutional neural networks in the field of image classification. Generative adversarial networks have been explicitly used in generating high-resolution computed tomography and magnetic resonance images and to map computed tomography images from the corresponding magnetic resonance imaging. Beyond image analysis, DL can be used for quality control, workflow organization, and reporting.In this article, we review the most current AI models used in medical imaging research, providing a brief explanation of the various models described in the literature within the past 5 years. Emphasis is placed on the various DL models, as they are the most state-of-art in imaging analysis.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Algoritmos , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagem , Redes Neurais de Computação , Controle de Qualidade , Fluxo de Trabalho
16.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 271: 120897, 2022 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35066444

RESUMO

Nowadays, the analytical community is focusing on developing new analytical methods that incorporate principles of green analytical chemistry to reduce adverse impacts on the environment and humans. In this study, we focused specifically on establishing a correlated connection between theoretical and experimental applications via developing green, and eco-friendly visible spectrophotometric methods. These methods were relied on charge-transfer complexation (CTC) between ledipasvir and 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ), or chloranilic acid (CA) for sensitive colorimetric analysis of ledipasvir in the presence of sofosbuvir (Sofolanork plus®). The results were evaluated as modern computational chemistry using molecular modeling technology. At ambient temperature, the reactions for DDQ and CA took 15 and 10 min, respectively, to produce a purple red-colored solution with DDQ absorbing maximally at 588 nm and a purple-colored solution with CA absorbing maximally at 522 nm. Linearity was achieved for ledipasvir utilizing DDQ and CA in the concentration ranges of 8-80 µg.mL-1 and 40-400 µg.mL-1, respectively. The precision and accuracy of the methods mentioned were determined. Finally, the results were statistically compared to a previously published spectrophotometric technique, and no significant differences were found.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Colorimetria , Humanos , Sofosbuvir , Espectrofotometria/métodos
17.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 92(2): 447-455, 2022 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34554140

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cholecystectomy is one of the most commonly performed abdominal operations. Rising demands on acute operating theater availability and resource utilization in the daytime have led to acute cholecystectomy being performed out-of-hours (in the evenings, at night, or on weekends), although it remains unknown whether outcomes differ between out-of-hours and in-hours (during the daytime on weekdays) acute cholecystectomy. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare outcomes following out-of-hours versus in-hours acute cholecystectomy. METHODS: The study protocol was prospectively registered on PROSPERO (ID: CRD42021226127). MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Scopus databases were systematically searched for studies comparing outcomes following out-of-hours and in-hours acute cholecystectomy in adults with any acute benign gallbladder disease. The outcomes of interest were rates of bile leakage, bile duct injury, overall postoperative complications, conversion to open cholecystectomy, specific intraoperative and postoperative complications, length of stay, readmission, and mortality. Subgroup (evening/night-time vs. daytime, weekend vs. weekday, acute surgical unit [ASU]-only, non-ASU, and laparoscopic-only) and sensitivity analyses of adjusted multivariate regression analysis results was also performed. RESULTS: Eleven studies were included. There were no differences between out-of-hours and in-hours acute cholecystectomy for rates of bile leakage, bile duct injury, overall postoperative complications, conversion to open cholecystectomy, operative duration, readmission, mortality, and postoperative length of stay. Higher rates of postoperative sepsis (odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-2.41; p = 0.03) and pneumonia (odds ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.26; p = 0.02) were observed following out-of-hours acute cholecystectomy on univariate meta-analysis, but not after the adjusted multivariate meta-analysis. Higher conversion rates were observed when out-of-hours cholecystectomy was performed in centers without an ASU. CONCLUSION: This systematic review and meta-analysis has not shown an increased risk in overall or specific complications associated with out-of-hours compared with in-hours acute cholecystectomy. However, future studies should assess the potential impact of structural hospital factors, such as an ASU, on outcomes following out-of-hours acute cholecystectomy. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Study, Level IV.


Assuntos
Plantão Médico , Colecistectomia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Colecistectomia Laparoscópica , Conversão para Cirurgia Aberta , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Readmissão do Paciente , Complicações Pós-Operatórias
18.
Blood Press Monit ; 27(1): 43-49, 2022 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34417374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) function by conventional two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D STE) to detect subclinical LV systolic dysfunction in patients with dipper and nondipper hypertension. METHODS: One hundred consecutive patients with hypertension were included in our study. Clinical evaluation, baseline laboratory investigations, 24 ambulatory blood pressure monitoring 2D echocardiographic examination and 2D STE were performed for all patients. Patients were classified as dippers and nondippers according to their nighttime MAP (mean arterial blood pressure) reduction rate of ≥10 or <10%, respectively. RESULTS: Of 100 patients, 71% were nondippers while 29% were dippers. Nondippers had a significantly lower global longitudinal strain (LS) value (-22.45 ± 3.26 vs. -18.2 ± 3.3, P < 0.001), global circumferential strain (CS) value (-24.23 ± 3.56 vs. -19.16 ± 8.25, P < 0.001) and global radial strain (RS) value (35.04 ± 11.16 vs. 29.58 ± 8.44, P = 0.009). It was found that nondipper status was associated with worsening of LS by 2.737, (P = 0.001), CS by 3.446, (P = 0.002), RS by -3.256, (P = 0.158) and DM also was found associated with worsening of LS by 1.849, (P = 0.062), CS by 3.284 (P = 0.018), RS by -2.499 (P = 0.381). CONCLUSION: The nondipping hypertension pattern is associated with subclinical LV systolic dysfunction as shown by the impaired global myocardial strain in all three directions.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda , Pressão Sanguínea , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Ecocardiografia , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/diagnóstico por imagem , Disfunção Ventricular Esquerda/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Ann Surg ; 275(1): e30-e36, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630453

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Controlling perioperative pain is essential to improving patient experience and satisfaction following surgery. Traditionally opioids have been frequently utilized for postoperative analgesia. Although they are effective at controlling pain, they are associated with adverse effects, including postoperative nausea, vomiting, ileus, and long-term opioid dependency.Following laparoscopic colectomy, the use of intravenous or intraperitoneal infusions of lidocaine (IVL, IPL) are promising emerging analgesic options. Although both techniques are promising, there have been no direct, prospective randomized comparisons in patients undergoing laparoscopic colon resection. The purpose of this study was to compare IPL with IVL. METHODS: Double-blinded, randomized controlled trial of patients undergoing laparoscopic colonic resection. The 2 groups received equal doses of either IPL or IVL which commenced intra-operatively with a bolus followed by a continuous infusion for 3 days postoperatively. Patients were cared for through a standardized enhanced recovery after surgery program. The primary outcome was total postoperative opioid consumption over the first 3 postoperative days. Patients were followed for 60 days. RESULTS: Fifty-six patients were randomized in a 1:1 fashion to the IVL or IPL groups. Total opioid consumption over the first 3 postoperative days was significantly lower in the IPL group (70.9 mg vs 157.8 mg P < 0.05) and overall opioid consumption during the total length of stay was also significantly lower (80.3 mg vs 187.36 mg P < 0.05. Pain scores were significantly lower at 2 hours postoperatively in the IPL group, however, all other time points were not significant. There were no differences in complications between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: Perioperative use of IPL results in a significant reduction in opioid consumption following laparoscopic colon surgery when compared to IVL. This suggests that the peritoneal cavity/compartment is a strategic target for local anesthetic administration. Future enhanced recovery after surgery recommendations should consider IPL as an important component of a multimodal pain strategy following colectomy.


Assuntos
Anestesia Local/métodos , Colectomia/efeitos adversos , Laparoscopia/efeitos adversos , Lidocaína/administração & dosagem , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Infusões Parenterais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor/métodos , Dor Pós-Operatória/diagnóstico , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 65(11): 1362-1372, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34897211

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Both topical and oral metronidazole have been shown to reduce pain after excisional hemorrhoidectomy. Although recent meta-analyses have demonstrated efficacy against placebo, there has been no comparison between the 2 routes. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate whether topical or oral metronidazole provides the most analgesic properties after excisional hemorrhoidectomy. DESIGN: A prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled trial was performed. SETTING: This trial was conducted at 2 hospitals in New Zealand between March 2019 and February 2020. PATIENTS: Adults undergoing elective excisional hemorrhoidectomy for grade III/IV hemorrhoids were randomized. INTERVENTIONS: Participants were randomized to receive either topical metronidazole ointment and an oral placebo versus oral metronidazole with a placebo ointment for 7 days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was daily pain scores for 7 days, estimated using a generalized linear mixed model fitted with time and treatment arm and tested for interaction with time and treatment arm. Secondary outcomes included additional analgesia, return to normal activity, recovery scores, and adverse effects. RESULTS: A total of 120 participants were included, with 60 in each group. A unimodal peak of pain was recorded with the maximum at days 3 and 4, but there was no significant difference in resting pain scores, with a mean difference at day 3 of 0.47 (-0.48, 1.42). There were no significant differences for secondary outcomes. Fourteen (11.7%) participants were readmitted, without significant difference between groups. Fifty-nine percent of participants preferred topical analgesic compared with 31% who preferred oral and 9.7% who had no preference. LIMITATIONS: This was a pragmatic study in which we could not have stopped participants seeking other analgesics and with less than perfect complete compliance. CONCLUSION: Postoperative oral and topical metronidazole provide similar analgesia after excisional hemorrhoidectomy. The route should depend on patient preference, with topical administration potentially benefiting from improved antimicrobial stewardship and having less effect on the gut microbiome. See Video Abstract at http:/links.lww.com/DCR/B853 .METRONIDAZOL TÓPICO VERSUS ORAL DESPUÉS DE UNA HEMORROIDECTOMÍA POR ESCISIÓN: UN ENSAYO CONTROLADO ALEATORIO DOBLE CIEGO. ANTECEDENTES: Se ha demostrado que tanto el metronidazol tópico como el oral reducen el dolor después de una hemorroidectomía por escisión. Aunque los metaanálisis más recientes han demostrado eficacia frente al placebo, no ha habido comparación entre las dos vías. OBJETIVO: Este estudio tiene como objetivo investigar si el metronidazol tópico u oral proporciona las propiedades más analgésicas después de una hemorroidectomía por escisión. DISEO: Se realizó un ensayo prospectivo, controlado, aleatorio, a doble ciego. AJUSTE: Este ensayo fue realizado en dos hospitales de Nueva Zelanda entre marzo de 2019 y febrero de 2020. PACIENTES: Se asignaron al azar pacientes adultos sometidos a hemorroidectomía por escisión electiva por hemorroides de grado III / IV. INTERVENCIONES: Los participantes fueron asignados al azar para recibir un ungüento de metronidazol tópico y un placebo oral versus metronidazol oral con un ungüento de placebo durante siete días. PRINCIPALES MEDIDAS DE RESULTADO: El resultado primario fueron las puntuaciones diarias de dolor durante siete días, estimadas mediante un modelo lineal mixto generalizado ajustado tanto con el tiempo y el brazo de tratamiento y probado para la interacción con el tiempo y el brazo de tratamiento. Los resultados secundarios incluyen analgesia adicional, retorno a la actividad normal, puntuaciones de recuperación y efectos adversos. RESULTADOS: Se incluyó un total de 120 participantes, 60 en cada grupo. Se registró un pico de dolor unimodal con el máximo en los días 3 y 4, pero no hubo diferencias significativas en las puntuaciones de dolor en reposo, con una diferencia media en el día 3 de 0,47 (-0,48, 1,42). No hubo diferencias significativas para los resultados secundarios. Catorce (11,7%) participantes fueron readmitidos, sin diferencias significativas entre los grupos. El cincuenta y nueve por ciento de los participantes prefirió el tópico, en comparación con el 31% por vía oral y el 9,7% sin preferencia. LIMITACIONES: Este fue un estudio pragmático en el que no pudimos haber impedido que los participantes buscaran otros analgésicos, con un cumplimiento completo menos que perfecto. CONCLUSINES: El metronidazol posoperatorio por vía oral o tópica proporciona una analgesia similar después de una hemorroidectomía por escisión. La vía debe depender de la preferencia del paciente, y la administración tópica se beneficia potencialmente por una mejor protección de los antimicrobianos y un menor efecto sobre el microbioma intestinal. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B853 . (Traducción-Dr Osvaldo Gauto).


Assuntos
Hemorroidectomia , Adulto , Hemorroidectomia/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Metronidazol/uso terapêutico , Pomadas , Dor , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos
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