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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246934, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285605

RESUMO

Abstract Physids belong to Class Gastropoda; Phylum Mollusca have important position in food web and act as bio indicators, pests and intermediate host. Being resistant these are called cockroaches of malacology. Physid snails were collected from different water bodies of Faisalabad (Punjab) and were identified up to species using morphological markers. The morphometry of the specimens was carried out with the help of a digital Vernier caliper in millimeters (mm) using linear measurement of shell characters. Linear regression analysis of the AL/SW ratio vs AL and SL/SW ratio vs AL indicated that allometric growth exists only in Physa acuta when compared with P.gyrina and P. fontinalis. This study will lead to assess the status of the Physid species in Central Punjab. The Principal component analysis shows that the Component 1 (Shell Length) and component 2 (Shell Width) are the most prolific components and nearly 80 percent of the identification. The distance between P. acuta and P. fontinalis is 5.4699, P. acuta and P. gyrina is 7.6411, P. fontinalis and P. gyrina is 16.6080 showing that P. acuta resembles with P. fontinalis, and both these specimens donot resemble with P. gyrina. P.acuta is an invasive species and shows bioactivity making it a potent candidate for bioactive substances.


Resumo Os físidos pertencem à classe Gastropoda; o filo Mollusca possui importante posição na teia alimentar e atua como bioindicador, praga e hospedeiro intermediário. Por serem resistentes, são chamadas baratas de malacologia. Os caramujos físidos foram coletados em diferentes corpos d'água de Faisalabad (Punjab) e identificados até as espécies por meio de marcadores morfológicos. A morfometria dos corpos de prova foi realizada com auxílio de paquímetro digital Vernier em milímetros (mm) por meio de medida linear dos caracteres da casca. A análise de regressão linear da razão AL / SW vs. AL e razão SL / SW vs. AL indicou que o crescimento alométrico existe apenas em Physa acuta quando comparado com P. gyrina e P. fontinalis. Este estudo levará a avaliar a situação das espécies de físido no Punjab Central. A análise do componente principal mostra que o componente 1 (comprimento da casca) e o componente 2 (largura da casca) são os componentes mais prolíficos e quase 80% da identificação. A distância entre P. acuta e P. fontinalis é 5,4699, P. acuta e P. gyrina é 7,6411, P. fontinalis e P. gyrina é 16,6080, mostrando que P. acuta se assemelha a P. fontinalis, e ambos os espécimes não se parecem com P. gyrina. P. acuta é uma espécie invasora e apresenta bioatividade, tornando-se uma candidata potente para substâncias bioativas.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246984, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS | ID: biblio-1285632

RESUMO

Abstract Physids belong to Class Gastropoda; belong to Phylum Mollusca and being bioindicators, intermediate hosts of parasites and pests hold a key position in the ecosystem. There are three species of Genus Physa i.e. P. fontinalis, Physa acuta and P. gyrina water bodies of Central Punjab and were characterized on the basis of molecular markers High level of genetic diversity was revealed by polymorphic RAPD, however SSR markers were not amplified. The multivariate analysis revealed polymorphism ranging from 9.09 percent to 50 percent among the three Physid species. Total number of 79 loci were observed for the three species under study and 24 loci were observed to be polymorphic. These RAPD fragment(s) can be developed into co dominant markers (SCAR) by cloning and can be further sequenced for the development of the Physa species specific markers to identify the introduced and native species in Pakistan.


Resumo Os físidos pertencem à classe Gastropoda; pertencem ao filo Mollusca e, sendo bioindicadores, hospedeiros intermediários de parasitas e pragas, ocupam uma posição-chave no ecossistema. Existem três espécies do gênero Physa, ou seja, P. fontinalis, Physa acuta e P. gyrina em corpos d'água do Punjab Central e foram caracterizadas com base em marcadores moleculares. Alto nível de diversidade genética foi revelado por RAPD polimórfico, no entanto os marcadores SSR não foram amplificados. A análise multivariada revelou polimorfismo variando de 9,09% a 50% entre as três espécies de Physid. Um número total de 79 loci foi observado para as três espécies em estudo e 24 loci foram observados como polimórficos. Esses fragmentos RAPD podem ser desenvolvidos em marcadores codominantes (SCAR) por clonagem e podem ser posteriormente sequenciados para o desenvolvimento de marcadores específicos da espécie Physa para identificar as espécies introduzidas e nativas no Paquistão.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e237040, 2022. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249252

RESUMO

Abstract This investigation presents the food and feeding activity of and endangered riverine catfish Rita rita, during February 2017-January 2018. A total of 225 fish individuals was analyzed for stomach contents by characterizing the dominant food items and morphometric features. The results divulged ten major food items consumed, preferably fish scales and eggs, teleost fishes, copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, and mollusks. Total length and body weight of fish varied between 9-34 cm (20.53 ± 6.90 cm) and 10-400 g (9125.94 ± 102.07 g), respectively. The index of relative importance (IRI%) showed the importance of rotifers over the other food items. Morisita's index of diet overlap indicated seasonal variations in catfish diets with summer and monsoon displaying the least overlap, while maximum overlap during monsoon and winter seasons. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) indicated the close association between the food items available during summer and winter seasons with a significant difference among the seasons (ANOSIM, R = 0.638, P = 0.013). Levin's niche breadth index arranged in the order of 0.88>0.81>0.78>0.63>0.43 for the size classes of V, IV, III, II and I, respectively. The PCA explained 95.39% of the total variance among the food items and fish size groups. Small-sized fish individuals displayed a greater correlation with food items suitable for their mouth size. In conclusion, the variety and frequency of food items recorded indicated considerable feeding plasticity and opportunistic feeding behavior with a shift from carnivorous to omnivorous feeding nature. This study could render useful information on the food and feeding habits of R. rita and provide background for preparing its diet for future aquaculture practices.


Resumo Esta investigação apresenta a alimentação e a atividade alimentar de bagres ribeirinhos Rita rita ameaçados de extinção, no período de fevereiro de 2017 a janeiro de 2018. Um total de 225 peixes foi analisado quanto ao conteúdo do estômago, caracterizando os itens alimentares dominantes e as características morfométricas. Os resultados apresentaram dez principais itens alimentares consumidos, preferencialmente escamas e ovos de peixes, teleósteos, copépodes, cladóceros, rotíferos e moluscos. O comprimento total e o peso corporal dos peixes variaram entre 9-34 cm (20,53 ± 6,90 cm) e 10-400 g (9125,94 ± 102,07 g), respectivamente. O índice de importância relativa (IRI%) mostrou a importância dos rotíferos sobre os demais itens alimentares. O índice de sobreposição de dieta de Morisita indicou variações sazonais nas dietas de bagres no verão e nas monções, exibindo a menor sobreposição, enquanto a sobreposição máxima ocorreu durante as estações das monções e do inverno. A escala multidimensional não métrica (nMDS) indicou a estreita associação entre os itens alimentares disponíveis durante o verão e o inverno, com uma diferença significativa entre as estações (ANOSIM, R = 0,638, P = 0,013). O índice de amplitude de nicho de Levin foi organizado na ordem de 0,88 > 0,81 > 0,78 > 0,63 > 0,43 para as classes de tamanho de V, IV, III, II e I, respectivamente. O PCA explicou 95,39% da variação total entre os itens alimentares e os grupos de tamanho de peixes. Peixes de pequeno porte apresentaram maior correlação com itens alimentares adequados ao tamanho da boca. Em conclusão, a variedade e a frequência dos itens alimentares registrados indicaram plasticidade alimentar considerável e comportamento alimentar oportunista, com uma mudança da natureza carnívora para onívora. Este estudo pode fornecer informações úteis sobre os hábitos alimentares e de alimentação de R. rita e apresentar subsídios para a preparação de sua dieta em futuras práticas de aquicultura.

4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20190586, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34550163

RESUMO

In this paper, a new three-parameter lifetime model called the Topp-Leone odd log-logistic exponential distribution is proposed. Its density function can be expressed as a linear mixture of exponentiated exponential densities and can be reversed-J shaped, skewed to the left and to the right. Further, the hazard rate function of the new model can be monotone, unimodal, constant, J-shaped, constant-increasing-decreasing and decreasing-increasing-decreasing and bathtub-shaped. Our main focus is on estimation from a frequentist point of view, yet, some statistical and reliability characteristics for the proposed model are derived. We briefly describe different estimators namely, the maximum likelihood estimators, ordinary least-squares estimators, weighted least-squares estimators, percentile estimators, maximum product of spacings estimators, Cramér-von-Mises minimum distance estimators, Anderson-Darling estimators and right-tail Anderson-Darling estimators. Monte Carlo simulations are performed to compare the performance of the proposed methods of estimation for both small and large samples. We illustrate the performance of the proposed distribution by means of two real data sets and both the data sets show the new distribution is more appropriate as compared to some other well-known distributions.


Assuntos
Funções Verossimilhança , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Método de Monte Carlo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Distribuições Estatísticas
5.
Cryobiology ; 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480940

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of supplementing rabbit semen extender with zeolite loaded with different charges (Z+ or Z-, Z±) on sperm cryopreservation. Semen was collected from six healthy, fertile New Zealand rabbit bucks using an artificial vagina. The collected ejaculates were pooled and diluted with a tris-yolk fructose (TYF) extender supplemented with Z± (+16, +12, +8, -16, -12, and -8) at a concentration of 1% for a final sperm concentration of 25 × 106 sperm cells/mL. The diluted semen samples were then cryopreserved in 0.25 mL straws and stored in liquid nitrogen for 1 month. To evaluate sperm quality, we examined sperm progressive motility, vitality, morphological abnormalities, and plasma membrane integrity. In addition, apoptotic rates were determined using flow cytometry and by examining sperm ultrastructure under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Moreover, total antioxidant capacity and markers of lipid peroxidation were measured in the extender after thawing. Addition of Z± had a positive effect on progressive motility, vitality, and membrane integrity after an equilibration period and post-thawing as compared with the controls (P < 0.05). Z± supplementation, particularly with a strong negative charge, also decreased the percentages of apoptotic and necrotic sperm cells compared to controls (P < 0.05), as shown both by flow cytometry and TEM. This was not associated with any marked effects on the oxidative biomarkers in the extender. In conclusion, addition of Z± to semen extender improved post-thawing sperm quality by improving sperm characteristics, decreasing apoptosis, and minimizing sperm damage during cryopreservation.

6.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e242942, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468508

RESUMO

Thimerosal is an organomercurial compound, which is used in the preparation of intramuscular immunoglobulin, antivenoms, tattoo inks, skin test antigens, nasal products, ophthalmic drops, and vaccines as a preservative. In most of animal species and humans, the kidney is one of the main sites for mercurial compounds deposition and target organs for toxicity. So, the current research was intended to assess the thimerosal induced nephrotoxicity in male rats. Twenty-four adult male albino rats were categorized into four groups. The first group was a control group. Rats of Group-II, Group-III, and Group-IV were administered with 0.5µg/kg, 10µg/kg, and 50µg/kg of thimerosal once a day, respectively. Thimerosal administration significantly decreased the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione (GSH), and protein content while increased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels dose-dependently. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, urinary albumin and creatinine clearance was reduced dose-dependently in thimerosal treated groups. The results demonstrated that thimerosal significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activities, DNA and histopathological damages dose-dependently. So, the present findings ascertained that thimerosal exerted nephrotoxicity in male albino rats.


Assuntos
Estresse Oxidativo , Timerosal , Animais , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Rim , Masculino , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Timerosal/metabolismo , Timerosal/toxicidade
7.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e243438, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468509

RESUMO

Cisplatin (CP) is a commonly used, powerful antineoplastic drug, having numerous side effects. Casticin (CAS) is considered as a free radical scavenger and a potent antioxidant. The present research was planned to assess the curative potential of CAS on CP persuaded renal injury in male albino rats. Twenty four male albino rats were distributed into four equal groups. Group-1 was considered as a control group. Animals of Group-2 were injected with 5mg/kg of CP intraperitoneally. Group-3 was co-treated with CAS (50mg/kg) orally and injection of CP (5mg/kg). Group-4 was treated with CAS (50mg/kg) orally throughout the experiment. CP administration substantially reduced the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GSR), glutathione (GSH) content while increased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels. Urea, urinary creatinine, urobilinogen, urinary proteins, kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels were substantially increased. In contrast, albumin and creatinine clearance was significantly reduced in CP treated group. The results demonstrated that CP significantly increased the inflammation indicators including nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), Interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), Interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) activity and histopathological damages. However, the administration of CAS displayed a palliative effect against CP-generated renal toxicity and recovered all parameters by bringing them to a normal level. These results revealed that the CAS is an effective compound having the curative potential to counter the CP-induced renal damage.


Assuntos
Cisplatino , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Animais , Antioxidantes , Cisplatino/toxicidade , Flavonoides , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
8.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5044, 2021 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413298

RESUMO

Indirect somatic genetic rescue (SGR) of a germline mutation is thought to be rare in inherited Mendelian disorders. Here, we establish that acquired mutations in the EIF6 gene are a frequent mechanism of SGR in Shwachman-Diamond syndrome (SDS), a leukemia predisposition disorder caused by a germline defect in ribosome assembly. Biallelic mutations in the SBDS or EFL1 genes in SDS impair release of the anti-association factor eIF6 from the 60S ribosomal subunit, a key step in the translational activation of ribosomes. Here, we identify diverse mosaic somatic genetic events (point mutations, interstitial deletion, reciprocal chromosomal translocation) in SDS hematopoietic cells that reduce eIF6 expression or disrupt its interaction with the 60S subunit, thereby conferring a selective advantage over non-modified cells. SDS-related somatic EIF6 missense mutations that reduce eIF6 dosage or eIF6 binding to the 60S subunit suppress the defects in ribosome assembly and protein synthesis across multiple SBDS-deficient species including yeast, Dictyostelium and Drosophila. Our data suggest that SGR is a universal phenomenon that may influence the clinical evolution of diverse Mendelian disorders and support eIF6 suppressor mimics as a therapeutic strategy in SDS.


Assuntos
Mutação , Subunidades Ribossômicas Maiores de Eucariotos/metabolismo , Ribossomos/genética , Ribossomos/patologia , Síndrome de Shwachman-Diamond/genética , Síndrome de Shwachman-Diamond/patologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Fenômenos Biológicos , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dictyostelium , Drosophila , Fatores de Iniciação em Eucariotos/genética , Fatores de Iniciação em Eucariotos/metabolismo , Células Germinativas , Humanos , Lactente , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/genética , Fatores de Alongamento de Peptídeos/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Biossíntese de Proteínas , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5/genética , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Pequena U5/metabolismo , Ribossomos/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Síndrome de Shwachman-Diamond/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246934, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431912

RESUMO

Physids belong to Class Gastropoda; Phylum Mollusca have important position in food web and act as bio indicators, pests and intermediate host. Being resistant these are called cockroaches of malacology. Physid snails were collected from different water bodies of Faisalabad (Punjab) and were identified up to species using morphological markers. The morphometry of the specimens was carried out with the help of a digital Vernier caliper in millimeters (mm) using linear measurement of shell characters. Linear regression analysis of the AL/SW ratio vs AL and SL/SW ratio vs AL indicated that allometric growth exists only in Physa acuta when compared with P.gyrina and P. fontinalis. This study will lead to assess the status of the Physid species in Central Punjab. The Principal component analysis shows that the Component 1 (Shell Length) and component 2 (Shell Width) are the most prolific components and nearly 80 percent of the identification. The distance between P. acuta and P. fontinalis is 5.4699, P. acuta and P. gyrina is 7.6411, P. fontinalis and P. gyrina is 16.6080 showing that P. acuta resembles with P. fontinalis, and both these specimens donot resemble with P. gyrina. P.acuta is an invasive species and shows bioactivity making it a potent candidate for bioactive substances.


Assuntos
Espécies Introduzidas , Caramujos , Animais
10.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e246984, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431913

RESUMO

Physids belong to Class Gastropoda; belong to Phylum Mollusca and being bioindicators, intermediate hosts of parasites and pests hold a key position in the ecosystem. There are three species of Genus Physa i.e. P. fontinalis, Physa acuta and P. gyrina water bodies of Central Punjab and were characterized on the basis of molecular markers High level of genetic diversity was revealed by polymorphic RAPD, however SSR markers were not amplified. The multivariate analysis revealed polymorphism ranging from 9.09 percent to 50 percent among the three Physid species. Total number of 79 loci were observed for the three species under study and 24 loci were observed to be polymorphic. These RAPD fragment(s) can be developed into co dominant markers (SCAR) by cloning and can be further sequenced for the development of the Physa species specific markers to identify the introduced and native species in Pakistan.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Espécies Introduzidas , Animais , Ecossistema , Paquistão , Filogenia , Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico
11.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 35(9): e22842, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273911

RESUMO

Doxorubicin (DOX) treatment has been associated with cardiotoxicity. Therefore, it is crucial to search for a therapeutic that can effectively mitigate DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of valsartan (VAL) against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four treatment groups: Group I: Control, Group II: VAL (30 mg/kg, ip), Group III: DOX (15 mg/kg, ip), and Group IV: VAL + DOX (30 + 15 mg/kg, ip). All groups were treated every other day for 14 days. Blood was isolated for biochemical and metabolomics studies, and sections of the heart were also analyzed for histopathological and immunohistochemical alterations to detect changes in P53, BAX, BCL-2, and P62 expression. The combination of VAL + DOX resulted in a marked decrease in cardiac biomarker enzymes (aminotransferase and creatine phosphokinase) compared to DOX monotherapy. In addition, the histopathological examination of the VAL + DOX combination revealed a low percentage of fibrosis and inflammation. Immunohistochemical expression of p53 and BAX was significantly reduced, whereas BCL-2 expression was significantly increased in the VAL + DOX treatment group compared to DOX monotherapy. Also, the combination of VAL + DOX reverses the negative effect of DOX on nuclear p62 expression. Analysis of serum metabolites showed that DOX monotherapy reduced the number of several amino acids, whereas the combination of VAL + DOX restored these metabolic pathways. This study revealed the potential cardioprotective effect of VAL, which may provide novel and promising approaches for managing cardiotoxicity induced by DOX.


Assuntos
Cardiotônicos/farmacologia , Cardiotoxicidade , Doxorrubicina/administração & dosagem , Metabolômica , Valsartana/farmacologia , Animais , Cardiotoxicidade/metabolismo , Cardiotoxicidade/patologia , Cardiotoxicidade/prevenção & controle , Doxorrubicina/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 60(38): 20734-20738, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270852

RESUMO

We report the synthesis of a (2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-yl)oxidanyl) (TEMPO) appended polymonothiocarbonates through the ring-opening copolymerization of (4-glycidyloxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl) (GTEMPO) in the presence of carbonyl sulfide under ambient conditions. We have prepared the atactic and isotactic versions of this polymer, using enantiopure R or S forms of the GTEMPO monomer in the latter instances. Cyclic voltammetry studies revealed both oxidation and reduction events that were characteristic of TEMPO radicals. Electrical conductivity of these polymers was measured as solid-state films after annealing the samples above their glass transition temperatures. At room temperature the isotactic polymer shows much greater conductivity (ca. 10-4  S cm-1 ) than the atactic (ca. 10-7  S cm-1 ), attributed to the well-defined stereochemistry and regulated charge transport pathway of isotactic polymer chains in contrast to the irregular structure of the atactic counterpart.

13.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 569: 179-186, 2021 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34252590

RESUMO

An early and accurate pregnancy diagnosis method is required to improve the reproductive performance of cows. Here we developed an easy pregnancy detection method using vaginal mucosal membrane (VMM) with application of Reverse Transcription-Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification (RT-LAMP) and machine learning. Cows underwent artificial insemination (AI) on day 0, followed by VMM-collection on day 17-18, and pregnancy diagnosis by ultrasonography on day 30. By RNA sequencing of VMM samples, three candidate genes for pregnancy markers (ISG15 and IFIT1: up-regulated, MUC16: down-regulated) were selected. Using these genes, we performed RT-LAMP and calculated the rise-up time (RUT), the first-time absorbance exceeded 0.05 in the reaction. We next determined the cutoff value and calculated accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive prediction value (PPV), and negative prediction value (NPV) for each marker evaluation. The IFIT1 scored the best performance at 92.5% sensitivity, but specificity was 77.5%, suggesting that it is difficult to eliminate false positives. We then developed a machine learning model trained with RUT of each marker combination to predict pregnancy. The model created with the RUT of IFIT1 and MUC16 combination showed high specificity (86.7%) and sensitivity (93.3%), which were higher compared to IFIT1 alone. In conclusion, using VMM with RT-LAMP and machine learning algorithm can be used for early pregnancy detection before the return of first estrus.

14.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e237040, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34105668

RESUMO

This investigation presents the food and feeding activity of and endangered riverine catfish Rita rita, during February 2017-January 2018. A total of 225 fish individuals was analyzed for stomach contents by characterizing the dominant food items and morphometric features. The results divulged ten major food items consumed, preferably fish scales and eggs, teleost fishes, copepods, cladocerans, rotifers, and mollusks. Total length and body weight of fish varied between 9-34 cm (20.53 ± 6.90 cm) and 10-400 g (9125.94 ± 102.07 g), respectively. The index of relative importance (IRI%) showed the importance of rotifers over the other food items. Morisita's index of diet overlap indicated seasonal variations in catfish diets with summer and monsoon displaying the least overlap, while maximum overlap during monsoon and winter seasons. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) indicated the close association between the food items available during summer and winter seasons with a significant difference among the seasons (ANOSIM, R = 0.638, P = 0.013). Levin's niche breadth index arranged in the order of 0.88>0.81>0.78>0.63>0.43 for the size classes of V, IV, III, II and I, respectively. The PCA explained 95.39% of the total variance among the food items and fish size groups. Small-sized fish individuals displayed a greater correlation with food items suitable for their mouth size. In conclusion, the variety and frequency of food items recorded indicated considerable feeding plasticity and opportunistic feeding behavior with a shift from carnivorous to omnivorous feeding nature. This study could render useful information on the food and feeding habits of R. rita and provide background for preparing its diet for future aquaculture practices.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato , Animais , Comportamento Alimentar , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Hábitos , Humanos , Estações do Ano
15.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(7): 960-966, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130120

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, especially for the elderly and people who suffer from chronic conditions. This study was conducted to assess the clinical and microbiological characteristics and disease outcomes associated with the occurrence of CAP. METHODS: This retrospective chart review was conducted at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Cases with documented clinical diagnosis of CAP during the period from 2016 to 2019 were included. Data were collected on demographic, clinical, and microbiological characteristics, used antimicrobials and patients' outcomes, including length of hospital stay, intensive care unit admission, and mortality. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify risk factors for increased length of hospital stay. RESULTS: A total of two hundred and eighteen CAP episodes were identified. Patients had a median age of 64.5 years, and 54.1% were males. Microbiological diagnosis was established in 33 patients (15.1%). Admission to ICU and diagnosis of a neurological disease were significantly associated with longer hospital stay (>7 days). An average of 2.7 antimicrobials were used per patient, and the most common antibiotics used were Piperacillin/Tazobactam (46.3%), Doxycycline (44%), then Ceftriaxone (42.7%). Four patients (1.8%) died during hospital stay. CONCLUSIONS: This retrospective analysis of CAP cases identified a lack of microbiological diagnosis and increased burden associated with disease severity and the need for hospitalization. The ability to identify CAP at an earlier stage will be a cornerstone to mitigate its impact on the healthcare system and ICU units.


Assuntos
Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas , Pneumonia , Idoso , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/diagnóstico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Comunitárias Adquiridas/epidemiologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Registros Médicos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia
16.
Biologicals ; 72: 33-41, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34092457

RESUMO

Porcine LFBKαVß6 cells have been successfully used for diagnostics and propagation of all FMDV serotypes/subtypes. Unfortunately, after initial characterization, these cells showed contamination with bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a non-cytopathic adventitious agent. Persistent infection with BVDV could interfere with diagnostic tests and, also prevent consideration for other uses, i.e., vaccine production. In this study, we developed a three-prong methodology to completely remove BVDV from LFBKαVß6 cells. Combined treatment with siRNA against BVDV NS5A, porcine interferon alpha and ribavirin resulted in the elimination of BVDV, as determined by immunohistochemistry analysis, quantitative RT-PCR and RNA sequencing. Importantly, elimination of BVDV from LFBKαVß6 did not affect FMDV growth and plaque phenotype from different serotypes isolated and propagated in the clean cell line, newly named MGPK αVß6-C5. Additionally, isolation of FMDV from field oro-pharyngeal samples, was successful at the same sensitivity as in BVDV-contaminated LFBKαVß6 cells. Our results identified a direct method to efficiently eliminate BVDV from porcine cells without altering FMDV permissiveness, diagnostic value, or potential for use in vaccine production. Furthermore, these cells may provide an improved platform for diagnostics and propagation of other viruses of interest in the veterinary field and the virology community at large.

19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(15)2021 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33876774

RESUMO

Suboptimal uterine fluid (UF) composition can lead to pregnancy loss and likely contributes to offspring susceptibility to chronic adult-onset disorders. However, our understanding of the biochemical composition and mechanisms underpinning UF formation and regulation remain elusive, particularly in humans. To address this challenge, we developed a high-throughput method for intraorganoid fluid (IOF) isolation from human endometrial epithelial organoids. The IOF is biochemically distinct to the extraorganoid fluid (EOF) and cell culture medium as evidenced by the exclusive presence of 17 metabolites in IOF. Similarly, 69 metabolites were unique to EOF, showing asymmetrical apical and basolateral secretion by the in vitro endometrial epithelium, in a manner resembling that observed in vivo. Contrasting the quantitative metabolomic profiles of IOF and EOF revealed donor-specific biochemical signatures of organoids. Subsequent RNA sequencing of these organoids from which IOF and EOF were derived established the capacity to readily perform organoid multiomics in tandem, and suggests that transcriptomic regulation underpins the observed secretory asymmetry. In summary, these data provided by modeling uterine luminal and basolateral fluid formation in vitro offer scope to better understand UF composition and regulation with potential impacts on female fertility and offspring well-being.

20.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 51: 102874, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714127

RESUMO

Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a distinct pathologic entity of unknown etiology. Here, we describe the clinical and radiologic presentation of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein associated disease (MOG-AD) with features mimicking CLIPPERS. Three patients met the 2017 CLIPPERS diagnostic criteria, while one patient had a single lesion in the pons that mimicked CLIPPERS lesions. All had an excellent response to steroids, but the three who met the CLIPPERS criteria had a relapsing course. When CLIPPERS is observed, it is crucial to test for mimickers. The ever-expanding spectrum of MOG-AD calls for further research into the immunopathogenesis of its several phenotypes.


Assuntos
Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Ponte , Humanos , Glicoproteína Mielina-Oligodendrócito , Ponte/diagnóstico por imagem , Esteroides
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