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Nanoscale ; 13(40): 16909-16922, 2021 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533167


The blood brain barrier (BBB) and blood tumour barrier (BTB) remain a major roadblock for delivering therapies to treat brain cancer. Amongst brain cancers, glioblastoma (GBM) is notoriously difficult to treat due to the challenge of delivering chemotherapeutic drugs across the BBB and into the tumour microenvironment. Consequently, GBM has high rates of tumour recurrence. Currently, limited numbers of chemotherapies are available that can cross the BBB to treat GBM. Nanomedicine is an attractive solution for treating GBM as it can augment drug penetration across the BBB and into the heterogeneous tumour site. However, very few nanomedicines exist that can easily overcome both the BBB and BTB owing to difficulty in synthesizing nanoparticles that meet the small size and surface functionality restrictions. In this study, we have developed for the first-time, a room temperature protocol to synthesise ultra-small size with large pore silica nanoparticles (USLP, size ∼30 nm, pore size >7 nm) with the ability to load high concentrations of chemotherapeutic drugs and conjugate a targeting moiety to their surface. The nanoparticles were conjugated with lactoferrin (>80 kDa), whose receptors are overexpressed by both the BBB and GBM, to achieve additional active targeting. Lactoferrin conjugated USLP (USLP-Lf) were loaded with doxorubicin - a chemotherapy agent that is known to be highly effective against GBM in vitro but cannot permeate the BBB. USLP-Lf were able to selectively permeate the BBB in vitro, and were effectively taken up by glioblastoma U87 cells. When compared to the uncoated USLP-NPs, the coating with lactoferrin significantly improved penetration of USLP into U87 tumour spheroids (after 12 hours at 100 µm distance, RFU value 19.58 vs. 49.16 respectively). Moreover, this USLP-Lf based delivery platform improved the efficacy of doxorubicin-mediated apoptosis of GBM cells in both 2D and 3D models. Collectively, our new nano-platform has the potential to overcome both the BBB and BTB to treat GBM more effectively.

Neoplasias Encefálicas , Glioblastoma , Nanopartículas , Barreira Hematoencefálica , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Lactoferrina , Dióxido de Silício/uso terapêutico , Microambiente Tumoral
Adv Drug Deliv Rev ; 171: 108-138, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486006


Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive cancers of the brain. Despite extensive research over the last several decades, the survival rates for GBM have not improved and prognosis remains poor. To date, only a few therapies are approved for the treatment of GBM with the main reasons being: 1) significant tumour heterogeneity which promotes the selection of resistant subpopulations 2) GBM induced immunosuppression and 3) fortified location of the tumour in the brain which hinders the delivery of therapeutics. Existing therapies for GBM such as radiotherapy, surgery and chemotherapy have been unable to reach the clinical efficacy necessary to prolong patient survival more than a few months. This comprehensive review evaluates the current and emerging therapies including those in clinical trials that may potentially improve both targeted delivery of therapeutics directly to the tumour site and the development of agents that may specifically target GBM. Particular focus has also been given to emerging delivery technologies such as focused ultrasound, cellular delivery systems nanomedicines and immunotherapy. Finally, we discuss the importance of developing novel materials for improved delivery efficacy of nanoparticles and therapeutics to reduce the suffering of GBM patients.

Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Glioblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Humanos
Cancer Res ; 80(19): 4129-4144, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816860


Therapeutic checkpoint antibodies blocking programmed death receptor 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) signaling have radically improved clinical outcomes in cancer. However, the regulation of PD-L1 expression on tumor cells is still poorly understood. Here we show that intratumoral copper levels influence PD-L1 expression in cancer cells. Deep analysis of the The Cancer Genome Atlas database and tissue microarrays showed strong correlation between the major copper influx transporter copper transporter 1 (CTR-1) and PD-L1 expression across many cancers but not in corresponding normal tissues. Copper supplementation enhanced PD-L1 expression at mRNA and protein levels in cancer cells and RNA sequencing revealed that copper regulates key signaling pathways mediating PD-L1-driven cancer immune evasion. Conversely, copper chelators inhibited phosphorylation of STAT3 and EGFR and promoted ubiquitin-mediated degradation of PD-L1. Copper-chelating drugs also significantly increased the number of tumor-infiltrating CD8+ T and natural killer cells, slowed tumor growth, and improved mouse survival. Overall, this study reveals an important role for copper in regulating PD-L1 and suggests that anticancer immunotherapy might be enhanced by pharmacologically reducing intratumor copper levels. SIGNIFICANCE: These findings characterize the role of copper in modulating PD-L1 expression and contributing to cancer immune evasion, highlighting the potential for repurposing copper chelators as enhancers of antitumor immunity. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT:

Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Encefálicas/imunologia , Cobre/metabolismo , Neuroblastoma/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/fisiologia , Animais , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Encefálicas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Quelantes/farmacologia , Transportador de Cobre 1/metabolismo , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Células Matadoras Naturais , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Neuroblastoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neuroblastoma/metabolismo , Trietilenofosforamida/farmacologia , Evasão Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
Theranostics ; 8(20): 5645-5659, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555570


Given the strong clinical evidence that copper levels are significantly elevated in a wide spectrum of tumors, copper homeostasis is considered as an emerging target for anticancer drug design. Monitoring copper levels in vivo is therefore of paramount importance when assessing the efficacy of copper-targeting drugs. Herein, we investigated the activity of the copper-targeting compound Dextran-Catechin by developing a [64Cu]CuCl2 PET imaging protocol to monitor its effect on copper homeostasis in tumors. Methods: Protein expression of copper transporter 1 (CTR1) in tissue microarrays representing 90 neuroblastoma patient tumors was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Western blotting analysis was used to study the effect of Dextran-Catechin on the expression of CTR1 in neuroblastoma cell lines and in tumors. A preclinical human neuroblastoma xenograft model was used to study anticancer activity of Dextran-Catechin in vivo and its effect on tumor copper homeostasis. PET imaging with [64Cu]CuCl2 was performed in such preclinical neuroblastoma model to monitor alteration of copper levels in tumors during treatment. Results: CTR1 protein was found to be highly expressed in patient neuroblastoma tumors by immunohistochemistry. Treatment of neuroblastoma cell lines with Dextran-Catechin resulted in decreased levels of glutathione and in downregulation of CTR1 expression, which caused a significant decrease of intracellular copper. No changes in CTR1 expression was observed in normal human astrocytes after Dextran-Catechin treatment. In vivo studies and PET imaging analysis using the neuroblastoma preclinical model revealed elevated [64Cu]CuCl2 retention in the tumor mass. Following treatment with Dextran-Catechin, there was a significant reduction in radioactive uptake, as well as reduced tumor growth. Ex vivo analysis of tumors collected from Dextran-Catechin treated mice confirmed the reduced levels of CTR1. Interestingly, copper levels in blood were not affected by treatment, demonstrating potential tumor specificity of Dextran-Catechin activity. Conclusion: Dextran-Catechin mediates its activity by lowering CTR1 and intracellular copper levels in tumors. This finding further reveals a potential therapeutic strategy for targeting copper-dependent cancers and presents a novel PET imaging method to assess patient response to copper-targeting anticancer treatments.

Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Animais , Catequina , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cobre , Transportador de Cobre 1 , Dextranos , Feminino , Homeostase , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Técnicas In Vitro , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Imagem Molecular , Neuroblastoma , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons combinada à Tomografia Computadorizada , Análise Serial de Tecidos
Microorganisms ; 4(1)2016 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27681900


Microbial mats are unique geobiological ecosystems that form as a result of complex communities of microorganisms interacting with each other and their physical environment. Both the microorganisms present and the network of metabolic interactions govern ecosystem function therein. These systems are often found in a range of extreme environments, and those found in elevated salinity have been particularly well studied. The purpose of this review is to briefly describe the molecular ecology of select model hypersaline mat systems (Guerrero Negro, Shark Bay, S'Avall, and Kiritimati Atoll), and any potentially modulating effects caused by salinity to community structure. In addition, we discuss several emerging issues in the field (linking function to newly discovered phyla and microbial dark matter), which illustrate the changing paradigm that is seen as technology has rapidly advanced in the study of these extreme and evolutionally significant ecosystems.