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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016872

RESUMO

The present study was aimed to estimating the effect of Saussurea lappa (costus) root extract on thorium accumulation in different brain regions (cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and hypothalamus) of adult male albino rats and also to evaluate the antioxidant effect and thyroid gland modulation activity of costus following thorium toxicity. Adult male rats were randomly allocated into four groups; control group receiving saline (0.9% NaCl), thorium group receiving an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of thorium nitrate (Th; 6.3 mg/kg bwt), costus group receiving an oral administration of costus extract at 200 mg/kg bwt and costus + thorium group receiving costus 1 h before thorium injection. Thorium injection in rats for 28 days resulted in the accumulation of Th maximally in the cerebellum followed by the cerebral cortex and then in the hypothalamus. The accumulation of Th was associated with significant disturbance in sodium and potassium ions. A significant decrease in monoamines was also observed in different brain regions. Furthermore, the results indicated that Th-induced oxidative stress evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide and decrease the glutathione content. Additionally, Th caused a significant increase in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4) levels in the serum of rats. However, the pre-administration of costus alleviated all of those disturbances. Our results revealed that costus extract exerted its protective effect mainly through potentiating the antioxidant defense system.

2.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol ; 393(2): 167-176, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31482261

RESUMO

Assessment of the hazardous effects of thorium, a naturally radioactive element, on the nervous and endocrine systems, which are intimately involved in maintaining homeostasis, is important. In the present study, rats were divided into control and thorium groups and were decapitated after 2, 4, and 6 weeks. We observed that intraperitoneally injected thorium (6.3 mg/kg body weight) crossed the blood-brain barrier and was localized in the cerebellum, cerebral cortex, and hypothalamus of the rats in the given order. Thorium administration significantly decreased the GSH level and increased MDA, NO, and Fe3+ levels. Furthermore, thorium administration decreased NE and DA levels and induced fluctuations in 5-HT level. Thorium administration also increased serum TSH level, which in turn increased T4 and T3 levels. Together, these results indicate that thorium administration stimulates TSH secretion, which significantly increases T4 and T3 secretion from the thyroid gland. Moreover, these results indicate that thorium administration exerts hazardous effects on the neuroendocrine axis.

3.
J Therm Biol ; 84: 259-265, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466762

RESUMO

The objective was to investigate the effects of dietary curcumin and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) on the performance and physiological responses of broiler chickens under chronic thermal stress. One hundred and sixty day-old male chicks (Ross 308) were divided equally into 4 groups (each contained 4 replicates). On the day 22 of age and thereafter, the first group (TN) was raised in a thermoneutral condition (23 ±â€¯1 °C), while the second group (HS) was subjected to 8 h of thermal stress (34 °C) and both groups fed the basal diet with no supplements. The third (CR) and fourth (AS) groups were subjected to the same thermal stress conditions and fed curcumin-supplemented diet (100 mg curcumin kg-1 diet) and ASA-supplemented diet (1 g ASA kg-1 diet), respectively. Dietary treatment had a significant effect on ADFI (P = 0.041), average daily gain (P = 0.013) and final body weight (P = 0.001). The curcumin-supplemented had higher values for these measures compared with other experimental groups (P < 0.05). Also, the dietary curcumin supplement significantly increased the carcass yield as compared to the HS group (P < 0.05). Compared with the HS group, the dietary curcumin and ASA supplements decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde in the breast muscles (P = 0.014). Both dietary supplements exhibited a marked ability to restore the serum TAC, Na and K in heat-stressed broiler chickens. The current study reported a remarkable ability of curcumin supplement to restore the concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the breast muscles of heat-stressed broilers, including α-linolinec acid and Docosahexaenoic acid (P = 0.009 and 0.001, respectively). It could be concluded that supplemental dietary curcumin or ASA enhanced growth performance and antioxidant biomarkers of heat-stressed broilers. Moreover, curcumin might be an effective dietary supplement to alleviate the adverse effect of chronic thermal stress on carcass yield and meat quality.


Assuntos
Curcumina/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/sangue , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/sangue , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo
4.
Chem Biol Interact ; 308: 279-287, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150628

RESUMO

The dose-dependent neuroprotective role of licorice-derived glycyrrhizin during subacute neuroterminal norepinephrine (NE) depletion was studied in rat brain. Experimental design included thirty 5-week-old male rats randomly divided into five groups. Compared to the saline-injected control group, the group receiving daily intraperitoneal injection of fusaric acid (FA; 5 mg/kg/b.w.) for 30 days showed pharmacological depletion of NE. The neuroprotective effects of three successively increasing oral doses of glycyrrhizin were examined in FA-treated rats. Neurochemical parameters and histo-/immunohistopathological changes in the hippocampus were examined. FA generated global hippocampal stress with altered neurobiochemical parameters, accompanied by immune-confirmed inflammatory tissue damage, and noticeable behavioral changes. Although glycyrrhizin after FA-induced intoxication did not correct the recorded drop in the NE level, it decreased the dopamine levels to control levels. Similarly, glycyrrhizin at a high dose restored the serotonin level to its normal value and blocked the FA-induced increase in the level of its metabolite, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. The FA-induced rise in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and histamine was alleviated after administration of a high dose of glycyrrhizin. This was accompanied by improvements in the bioenergetic status and neuronal regenerative capacity through recovery of ATP and brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels to the pre-intoxicated values. High doses of glycyrrhizin also ameliorated the FA-generated behavioral changes and oxidative damage, manifested by the reduction in the expression of cortical pro-apoptotic caspase 3 in the same group. This study suggests that glycyrrhizin can potentially mend most of the previously evoked neuronal damage induced by FA intoxication in the brain of an experimental rat model.


Assuntos
Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Glicirrízico/farmacologia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Norepinefrina/metabolismo , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/metabolismo , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Dopamina/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ácido Fusárico/toxicidade , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Hipocampo/patologia , Masculino , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/tratamento farmacológico , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/patologia , Síndromes Neurotóxicas/veterinária , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Serotonina/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
5.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 134: 300-310, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30685417

RESUMO

Cyanobacteria are natural enormous sources of various biologically active compounds with great contributions in different industries. This study aimed to explore and characterize novel cyanobacterial isolates with antioxidant activity and potent phycoremediation ability from Egyptian wastewater canals. The in vitro biological activity of these isolates and their potential ability to take up nutrients and heavy metals from wastewater were examined. The obtained isolates were sequenced and deposited in database under accession numbers, KY250420.1, KY321359.1, KY296359.1 and KU373076.1 for Nostoc calcicola, Leptolyngbya sp., Nostoc sp., and Nostoc sp., respectively. Leptolyngbya sp. (KY321359.1) showed the lowest identity (90%) with the nearest deposited sequence in database. While the isolate Nostoc sp. (KU373076.1) showed the highest total phenolic content as well as the highest levels of caffeic, ferulic and gallic acids. Consequently, it presented the highest antioxidant scavenging activity. All studied isolates revealed potent ability in chelating nutrients and removing heavy metals from wastewater. In conclusion, this study provides a taxonomic, biochemical and molecular evidence of four novel cyanobacterial isolates with antioxidant activity and potential phycoremediation ability.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cianobactérias/isolamento & purificação , Poluição da Água , Biodegradação Ambiental , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Cianobactérias/classificação , Fenóis/farmacologia , Filogenia , Picratos/química , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Mapeamento por Restrição , Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água/isolamento & purificação , Purificação da Água
6.
Prev Vet Med ; 163: 44-50, 2019 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30670185

RESUMO

The objective of this trial was to investigate the effect of space allowance on performance, welfare-related parameters and the levels of brain neurotransmitters in growing male rabbits. In a cage housing system, a total of 96 weaned rabbits were accommodated on three space allowance conditions (S1 = 1425 cm2/rabbit; S2 = 850 cm2/rabbit; S3 = 625 cm2/rabbit), with 8 replicate cages per each group. Rabbits in the S1 and S2 groups showed better daily feed intake and feed conversion ratio compared with the high stocking density group (p = 0.004 and 0.018, respectively). Compared to the highest stocking density group (S3), rabbits in the S1 and S2 groups showed significantly lower serum cortisol, MDA and GSSH level (p = 0.026, 0.018 and 0.009, respectively). The concentration of dopamine in brain tissues was significantly decreased in the S3 group compared with other experimental groups (P = 0.001). However, there was no significant effect of space allowance on the brain AChE level (P = 0.277). Brain serotonin and GABA levels showed a significant decrease in rabbits reared with a limited space allowance (S3) compared with S1 and S2 groups (P = 0.001 and 0.038, respectively). The level of brain MDA was significantly increased in the S3 group compared with the S1 group (P = 0.006). However, there were no detectable differences in the brain ATP level in rabbits reared with different space allowance (P = 0.693). In conclusion, the current study indicates that the 850 cm2/rabbit stocking density has resulted in a better feed intake, and welfare-related conditions compared with the 625 cm2/rabbit. Furthermore, the limited space allowance may impair the most important brain neurotransmitters in male rabbits.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Abrigo para Animais , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Comportamento Espacial , Animais , Dopamina/metabolismo , Masculino , Coelhos
7.
J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr (Berl) ; 103(1): 41-52, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30280428

RESUMO

The objective of the current research was to explore the possible impacts of dietary supplementation with synbiotic and/or organic acids (OA) on the performance traits, carcass yields and muscle amino acid and fatty acid (FA) profiles of broilers. Randomly, a total of 160 day-old chicks (Ross 308) were assigned into four equal groups (40 birds each), with each group subdivided into eight replicates (five birds/pen). The control group (CON) fed the basal diet with no supplements, while diets of the treated groups were supplemented with OA (Sodium butyrate 40%; 1 g/kg), synbiotic (comprised Bacillus subtilis, Saccharomyces cerivisiae, Streptococcus faecium, Mannan-Oligosaccharides and ß-Glucan; 1 g/kg) and equal mix of OA and synbiotic (2 g/kg). Broilers fed the diets supplemented with synbiotic or synbiotic plus OA produced a significantly higher feed utilization efficiency (p = 0.021) and carcass yields (p = 0.038) than the CON and OA-supplemented groups. The group fed the diet supplemented with the synbiotic showed lowered serum cholesterol (p = 0.049), triglycerides (p = 0.001) and very low density lipoprotein (p = 0.032) when compared with the CON group. Regarding the polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) of breast muscles, synbiotic-supplemented birds had significantly lower n-6:n-3 ratio (p = 0.047), however, a greater hypocholesterolaemic to hypercholesterolaemic FA (H/H) ratio was reported when compared with the CON group (p = 0.002). Among the essential amino acids, the contents of leucine and methionine in the breast (p = 0.032 and 0.007 respectively) and thigh (p = 0.023 and 0.003 respectively) muscles were greater in the synbiotic-supplemented birds compared with the CON group. In conclusion, the synbiotic-supplemented diet improved the PUFA:SFA, n-6:n-3 and H/H ratios by altering the FA composition of broiler muscles, which are important with regards to human health.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Composição Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/química , Músculo Esquelético/química , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Ácido Butírico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Butírico/farmacologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Simbióticos/administração & dosagem
8.
Open Access Maced J Med Sci ; 6(7): 1215-1224, 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30087724

RESUMO

AIM: This study aims to elucidate the possible ameliorative effect of silymarin on scopolamine-induced dementia using the object recognition test (ORT) in rats. METHODS: The study was extended to demonstrate the role of cholinergic activity, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, brain neurotransmitters and histopathological changes in the anti-amnestic effect of silymarin in demented rats. Wistar rats were pre-treated with silymarin (200, 400, 800 mg/kg) or donepezil (10 mg/kg) orally for 14 consecutive days. Dementia was induced after the last drug administration by a single intraperitoneal dose of scopolamine (16 mg/kg). Then behavioural, biochemical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical analyses were then performed. RESULTS: Rats pre-treated with silymarin counteracted scopolamine-induced non-spatial working memory impairment in the ORT and decreased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA), elevated reduced glutathione (GSH), restored gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and dopamine (DA) contents in the cortical and hippocampal brain homogenates. Silymarin reversed scopolamine-induced histopathological changes. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that silymarin mitigated protein expression of the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB) in the brain cortex and hippocampus. All these effects of silymarin were similar to that of the standard anti-amnestic drug, donepezil. CONCLUSION: This study reveals that the ameliorative effect of silymarin on scopolamine-induced dementia in rats using the ORT maybe in part mediated by, enhancement of cholinergic activity, anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities as well as mitigation in brain neurotransmitters and histopathological changes.

9.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 32(10): e22199, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29992723

RESUMO

AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of three different hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) levels on blood and liver oxidative status, energy metabolites, and gene expression in male albino rats at two time intervals (2 and 4 weeks). METHODS: A total of 32 rats were divided into four groups. The first group received tap water and served as control. The second group received low dose of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ; 0.25%), The third group received medium dose of H2 O2 (0.5%) and the fourth group received high dose of H2 O2 (1%) in drinking water. RESULTS: Present data showed that medium and high dose increased oxidative stress markers, decreased cell energy, and decreased antioxidant enzyme gene expression (GPx and Nrf2) and its downstream in contrast low dose did not show significant effects. CONCLUSION: This study might indicate that hydrogen peroxide medium level is the best dose for redox model status.


Assuntos
Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Desoxiguanosina/análogos & derivados , Desoxiguanosina/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/administração & dosagem , Fígado/enzimologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
10.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 19(6): 2658-2671, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29943282

RESUMO

Amisulpride (AMS) is an atypical antipsychotic agent used for the treatment of schizophrenia. The effect of different variables, i.e., the type of cyclodextrins (CDs), ratio of drug/CDs, and type of loading on the prepared AMS-CD liposomes (single and double loaded) was studied by applying 23 full factorial design. Double-loaded liposomes are loaded with AMS-hydroxyl propyl-ß-cyclodextrin (HP-ß-CD) in the aqueous phase and free drug in the lipophilic bilayer, while single-loaded liposomes are loaded only with AMS-HP-ß-CD in the aqueous phase. Entrapment efficiency, particle size, polydespersibility, and zeta potential were selected as dependent variables. Design Expert® software was used to obtain an optimized formulation with high entrapment efficiency (64.55 ± 1.27%), average particle size of 40.1 ± 2.77 nm, polydespersibility of 0.44 ± 0.37, and zeta potential of - 48.8 ± 0.28. Optimized formula was evaluated for in vitro release, surface morphology and stability study was also conducted. AMS-HP-ß-CD in double-loaded liposomes exhibited higher drug release than those in the conventional liposomes and in the single-loaded liposomes. The maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of AMS in optimized AMS-HP-ß-CD double-loaded liposomal formulation increased by 1.55- and 1.29-fold, as compared to the commercial tablets and conventional liposomes, respectively. However, the relative bioavailability of AMS double-loaded liposomes was 1.94- and 1.28-folds of commercial tablet and conventional liposomes, respectively.


Assuntos
Antipsicóticos/química , Antipsicóticos/metabolismo , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/metabolismo , Sulpirida/análogos & derivados , 2-Hidroxipropil-beta-Ciclodextrina/administração & dosagem , 2-Hidroxipropil-beta-Ciclodextrina/química , 2-Hidroxipropil-beta-Ciclodextrina/metabolismo , Amissulprida , Animais , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Disponibilidade Biológica , Portadores de Fármacos/administração & dosagem , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos/fisiologia , Lipossomos , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Sulpirida/administração & dosagem , Sulpirida/química , Sulpirida/metabolismo , Comprimidos , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química , beta-Ciclodextrinas/metabolismo
11.
J Biomed Sci ; 24(1): 66, 2017 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28865467

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malnutrition resulting from protein and calorie deficiency continues to be a major concern worldwide especially in developing countries. Specific deficiencies in the protein intake can adversely influence reproductive performance. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of curcumin and curcumin nano-emulsion on protein deficient diet (PDD)-induced testicular atrophy, troubled spermatogenesis and decreased reproductive performance in male rats. METHODS: Juvenile rats were fed the protein deficient diet (PDD) for 75 days. Starting from day 60 the rats were divided into 4 groups and given the corresponding treatments for the last 15 days orally and daily as follows: 1st group; curcumin group (C) received 50 mg/kg curcumin p.o. 2ndgroup; curcumin nano-form low dose group (NCL) received 2.5 mg/kg nano-curcumin. 3rd group; curcumin nano-form high dose group (NCH) received 5 mg/kg nano-curcumin. 4th group served as malnutrition group (PDD group) receiving the protein deficient diet daily for 75 days and received distilled water ingestions (5 ml/kg p.o) daily for the last 15 days of the experiment. A normal control group was kept under the same conditions for the whole experiment and received normal diet according to nutrition requirement center daily for 75 days and received distilled water ingestions (5 ml/kg p.o) daily for the last 15 days of the experiment. RESULTS: PDD induced significant (P < 0.05) reduction in serum testosterone level, sperm motility, testicular GSH, CAT, SOD, testicular cell energy (ATP, ADP and AMP), essential and non-essential amino acids in seminal plasma, an increase in testicular MDA, NOx, GSSG and 8-OHDG. Data was confirmed by histological examination and revealed pathological alteration in the PDD group. Ingestion of curcumin (50 mg/kg) and curcumin nano-emulsion (2.5 and 5 mg/kg) showed significant (P< 0.05) amelioration effects against PDD-induced disrupted reproductive performance as well as biochemical and pathological alterations and the overall results of the nano-emulsion (5 mg/kg) were comparable to curcumin (50 mg/kg). CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that administration of curcumin nano-emulsion as a daily supplement would be beneficial in malnutrition- induced troubled male reproductive performance and spermatogenesis cases.


Assuntos
Curcumina/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Espermatogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/patologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Atrofia/tratamento farmacológico , Atrofia/patologia , Curcumina/administração & dosagem , Dieta , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Emulsões , Masculino , Substâncias Protetoras/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
12.
Asian Pac J Trop Med ; 10(6): 557-565, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28756919

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the degree of ameliorative effects of Melatonin (MEL), Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and Balanites aegyptiaca (BA) against hepatotoxicity induced by MTX for one month. METHODS: Eighty adult male rats (Sprague Dawely) weighing (190 ± 10 g), were randomly divided into eight equal groups: Control, MTX, MEL, BA, UDCA, MTX + MEL, MTX + BA, MTX + UDCA. Liver function biomarker enzymes, liver tissue oxidative stress parameters, together with total antioxidant capacity and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) were determined. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry examinations for TNF-α were also done. RESULTS: MTX showed significant increase in alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), total and direct bilirubin, as well as TNF-α levels, oxidized glutathione (GSSG), malodialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO). Whereas total protein, albumin, total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) levels were significantly decreased in MTX treated group. These alterations were improved by MEL and BA treatment, whereas no improvement was noticed in UDCA treatment. CONCLUSIONS: BA may be as promising as MEL in the hepatoprotection against MTX toxicity through their antioxidant and radical scavenging activities. In addition, it is not recommended to co-administer UDCA with MTX as it enhanced inflammation and damage to the liver.

13.
J Biochem Mol Toxicol ; 31(9)2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28557239

RESUMO

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune demyelinating neurodegenerative central nervous system disorder. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prophylactic effect exerted by the one-time intraperitoneal injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) 1 × 106 and 14-day intraperitoneal injection of methylprednisolone (MP) 40 mg/kg in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE was induced by intradermal injection of rat spinal cord homogenate with complete Freund's adjuvant in Swiss mice. Results of MSCs and MP-treated mice showed a significantly milder disease and fewer clinical scores compared to control mice. They suppressed tumor necrosis factor-alpha and myeloperoxidase and increased interleukin 10, whereas thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide brain contents were reduced to comparable levels between treatment groups. Brain content of GSH was significantly higher in MSCs-treated mice than control mice. It is evident that MSCs have relevant prophylactic effect in an animal model of MS and might represent a valuable tool for stem cell based therapy in MS.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla/prevenção & controle , Aloenxertos , Animais , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/metabolismo , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Masculino , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/patologia , Camundongos , Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
14.
Neural Regen Res ; 12(12): 1990-1999, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29323037

RESUMO

Sodium nitrite (NaNO2) is an inorganic salt used broadly in chemical industry. NaNO2 is highly reactive with hemoglobin causing hypoxia. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of differentiating into a variety of tissue specific cells and MSC therapy is a potential method for improving brain functions. This work aims to investigate the possible therapeutic role of bone marrow-derived MSCs against NaNO2 induced hypoxic brain injury. Rats were divided into control group (treated for 3 or 6 weeks), hypoxic (HP) group (subcutaneous injection of 35 mg/kg NaNO2 for 3 weeks to induce hypoxic brain injury), HP recovery groups N-2wR and N-3wR (treated with the same dose of NaNO2 for 2 and 3 weeks respectively, followed by 4-week or 3-week self-recovery respectively), and MSCs treated groups N-2wSC and N-3wSC (treated with the same dose of NaNO2 for 2 and 3 weeks respectively, followed by one injection of 2 × 106 MSCs via the tail vein in combination with 4 week self-recovery or intravenous injection of NaNO2 for 1 week in combination with 3 week self-recovery). The levels of neurotransmitters (norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin), energy substances (adenosine monophosphate, adenosine diphosphate, adenosine triphosphate), and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, glutathione reduced form, and oxidized glutathione) in the frontal cortex and midbrain were measured using high performance liquid chromatography. At the same time, hematoxylin-eosin staining was performed to observe the pathological change of the injured brain tissue. Compared with HP group, pathological change of brain tissue was milder, the levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, oxidized glutathione, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, norepinephrine, serotonin, glutathione reduced form, and adenosine triphosphate in the frontal cortex and midbrain were significantly decreased, and glutathione reduced form/oxidized glutathione and adenosine monophosphate/adenosine triphosphate ratio were significantly increased in the MSCs treated groups. These findings suggest that bone marrow-derived MSCs exhibit neuroprotective effects against NaNO2-induced hypoxic brain injury through exerting anti-oxidative effects and providing energy to the brain.

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