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1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(1): e3, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981679

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to examine the delay in antiviral initiation in rapid antigen test (RAT) false-negative children with influenza virus infection and to explore the clinical outcomes. We additionally conducted a medical cost-benefit analysis. METHODS: This single-center, retrospective study included children (aged < 10 years) with influenza-like illness (ILI), hospitalized after presenting to the emergency department during three influenza seasons (2016-2019). RAT-false-negativity was defined as RAT-negative and polymerase chain reaction-positive cases. The turnaround time to antiviral treatment (TAT) was from the time when RAT was prescribed to the time when the antiviral was administered. The medical cost analysis by scenarios was also performed. RESULTS: A total of 1,430 patients were included, 7.5% were RAT-positive (n = 107) and 2.4% were RAT-false-negative (n = 20). The median TAT of RAT-false-negative patients was 52.8 hours, significantly longer than that of 4 hours in RAT-positive patients (19.2-100.1, P < 0.001). In the multivariable analysis, TAT of ≥ 24 hours was associated with a risk of severe influenza infection and the need for mechanical ventilation (odds ratio [OR], 6.8, P = 0.009 and OR, 16.2, P = 0.033, respectively). The medical cost varied from $11.7-187.3/ILI patient. CONCLUSION: Antiviral initiation was delayed in RAT-false-negative patients. Our findings support the guideline that children with influenza, suspected of having severe or progressive infection, should be treated immediately.

2.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34862341

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Invasive bacterial infection (IBI) remains a major burden of mortality and morbidity in children. As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged, stringent nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) were applied worldwide. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of NPIs on pediatric IBI in Korea. METHODS: From January 2018 to December 2020, surveillance for pediatric IBIs caused by 9 pathogens (S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, N. meningitidis, S. agalactiae, S. pyogenes, S. aureus, Salmonella species, L. monocytogenes and E. coli) was performed at 22 hospitals throughout Korea. Annual incidence rates were compared before and after the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: A total of 651 cases were identified and the annual incidence was 194.0 cases per 100,000 in-patients in 2018, 170.0 in 2019 and 172.4 in 2020. Most common pathogen by age group was S. agalactiae in infants < 3 months (n = 129, 46.7%), S. aureus in 3 to < 24 months (n = 35, 37.2%), Salmonella spp. in 24 to < 60 months (n = 24, 34.8%) and S. aureus in children ≥ 5 years (n = 128, 60.7%). Compared with 2018 to 2019, the incidence rate in 2020 decreased by 57% for invasive pneumococcal disease (26.6 vs. 11.5 per 100,000 in-patients, P = 0.014) and 59% for Salmonella spp. infection (22.8 vs. 9.4 per 100,000 in-patients, P = 0.018). In contrast, no significant changes were observed in invasive infections due to S. aureus, S. agalactiae and E. coli. CONCLUSIONS: The NPIs implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic reduced invasive diseases caused by S. pneumoniae and Salmonella spp. but not S. aureus, S. agalactiae and E. coli in children.

3.
Clin Exp Pediatr ; 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34844396

RESUMO

In the era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, countries worldwide have implemented several non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to contain its spread before vaccines and treatments were developed. NPIs included social distancing, mask wearing, intensive contact tracing and isolation, and sanitization. In addition to their effectiveness at preventing the rapid spread of COVID-19, NPIs have caused secondary changes in the epidemiology of other infectious diseases. In Korea, various NPI stages have been implemented since the first confirmed case of COVID-19 on January 20, 2020. This review, based on a PubMed database search, shows the impact of NPIs on several infectious diseases other than severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in the COVID-19 pandemic era in Korea.

4.
J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709664

RESUMO

Two messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccines developed by Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna are being rolled out. Despite the high volume of emerging evidence regarding adverse events (AEs) associated with the COVID-19 mRNA vaccines, previous studies have thus far been largely based on the comparison between vaccinated and unvaccinated control, possibly highlighting the AE risks with COVID-19 mRNA vaccination. Comparing the safety profile of mRNA vaccinated individuals with otherwise vaccinated individuals would enable a more relevant assessment for the safety of mRNA vaccination. We designed a comparative safety study between 18 755 and 27 895 individuals who reported to VigiBase for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) with mRNA COVID-19 and influenza vaccines, respectively, from January 1, 2020, to January 17, 2021. We employed disproportionality analysis to rapidly detect relevant safety signals and compared comparative risks of a diverse span of AEFIs for the vaccines. The safety profile of novel mRNA vaccines was divergent from that of influenza vaccines. The overall pattern suggested that systematic reactions like chill, myalgia, fatigue were more noticeable with the mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, while injection site reactogenicity events were more prevalent with the influenza vaccine. Compared to the influenza vaccine, mRNA COVID-19 vaccines demonstrated a significantly higher risk for a few manageable cardiovascular complications, such as hypertensive crisis (adjusted reporting odds ratio [ROR], 12.72; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.47-65.54), and supraventricular tachycardia (adjusted ROR, 7.94; 95% CI, 2.62-24.00), but lower risk of neurological complications such as syncope, neuralgia, loss of consciousness, Guillain-Barre syndrome, gait disturbance, visual impairment, and dyskinesia. This study has not identified significant safety concerns regarding mRNA vaccination in real-world settings. The overall safety profile patterned a lower risk of serious AEFI following mRNA vaccines compared to influenza vaccines.

5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1003, 2021 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34563128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycoplasma pneumoniae is a common pathogen that causes community-acquired pneumonia in school-age children. Macrolides are considered a first-line treatment for M. pneumoniae infection in children, but macrolide-refractory M. pneumoniae (MRMP) strains have become more common. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones in MRMP treatment in children through a systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: Two reviewers individually searched 10 electronic databases (Medline/Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and core Korean, Chinese, and Japanese journals) for papers published from January 1, 1990 to March 8, 2018. The following data for each treatment group were extracted from the selected studies: intervention (tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones/comparator), patient characteristics (age and sex), and outcomes (fever duration, hospital stay length, treatment success rate, and defervescence rates 24, 48, and 72 h after starting treatment). RESULTS: Eight studies involving 537 participants were included. Fever duration and hospital stay length were shorter in the tetracycline group than in the macrolide group (weighted mean difference [WMD] = - 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: - 2.55 to - 0.36, P = 0.009; and WMD = - 3.33, 95% CI: - 4.32 to - 2.35, P < 0.00001, respectively). The therapeutic efficacy was significantly higher in the tetracycline group than in the macrolide group (odds ratio [OR]: 8.80, 95% CI: 3.12-24.82). With regard to defervescence rate, patients in the tetracycline group showed significant improvement compared to those in the macrolide group (defervescence rate after 24 h, OR: 5.34, 95% CI: 1.81-15.75; after 48 h, OR 18.37, 95% CI: 8.87-38.03; and after 72 h, OR: 40.77, 95% CI: 6.15-270.12). There were no differences in fever improvement within 24 h in patients in the fluoroquinolone group compared to those in the macrolide group (OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.25-5.00), although the defervescence rate was higher after 48 h in the fluoroquinolone group (OR: 2.78, 95% CI: 1.41-5.51). CONCLUSION: Tetracyclines may shorten fever duration and hospital stay length in patients with MRMP infection. Fluoroquinolones may achieve defervescence within 48 h in patients with MRMP infection. However, these results should be carefully interpreted as only a small number of studies were included, and they were heterogeneous.


Assuntos
Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacologia , Fluoroquinolonas/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Macrolídeos/farmacologia , Macrolídeos/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Tetraciclinas/farmacologia , Tetraciclinas/uso terapêutico
6.
Vaccine ; 39(40): 5787-5793, 2021 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465475

RESUMO

Replacement with nonvaccine serotypes (NVTs) among invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) after the introduction of extended-valency pneumococcal conjugate vaccines varies in predominant serotypes across countries. This study analyzed changes in serotype distribution through serotyping, multilocus sequence typing, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of 168 pediatric IPD isolates obtained from a multihospital-based surveillance system during 2014-2019 in South Korea. Vaccine serotypes (VTs) accounted for 16.1% (19A, 10.1%; 6A, 1.8%; and 19F 1.8%), 82.1% were NVTs (10A, 23.8%; 15A, 8.3%; 12F, 6.5%; 15C, 6.5%; and 15B, 6.0%), and three (1.8%) were nontypeable. Serotype 10A was the most common serotype, with a significant increase from 11.5% in 2014 to 33.3% in 2019 (p < 0.05 for the trend). Other NVTs decreased from 70.4% to 41.7% between 2015 and 2019, most notably in serotype 12F (from 14.8% to 0%). Almost all (95.0%) serotype 10A isolates were ST11189, which were multidrug resistant.


Assuntos
Infecções Pneumocócicas , Vacinas Pneumocócicas , Criança , Humanos , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Sorogrupo , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genética
7.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(1): e0046721, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34232095

RESUMO

Noroviruses are the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis in all age groups and constitute a major health and economic burden worldwide. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of immunochromatographic tests (ICTs) for the detection of norovirus in stool specimens, which has not been performed previously. In this systematic review and meta-analysis (registered on PROSPERO, CRD42020186911), we searched Medline/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science for all studies published up to 16 May 2020. The values for sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR+), negative likelihood ratio (LR-), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) of ICTs with 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled using a bivariate random-effects model. The summary receiver operating characteristic curve and area under the curve were used to summarize overall test accuracy. We included 43 studies describing 7,428 samples. The overall estimates of sensitivity, specificity, LR+, LR-, DOR, and accuracy of ICT for diagnosing norovirus were 0.61 (95% CI, 0.54 to 0.67), 0.97 (95% CI, 0.95 to 0.98), 17.08 (95% CI, 11.15 to 26.18), 0.40 (95% CI, 0.34 to 0.46), 53.9 (95% CI, 31.32 to 92.78), and 0.928, respectively. Significant differences in pooled sensitivities were noted between age groups and in pooled DOR and LR+ between genogroups of included samples. ICT provides low sensitivity but high specificity and accuracy for detecting norovirus. Thus, an ICT for norovirus can be a rapid and convenient way for identifying patients early; however, a negative result cannot rule out norovirus infection and should be confirmed by a reference test.

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293172

RESUMO

Vaccination against Japanese encephalitis is recommended for long-term travelers to endemic areas; however, the recommendation for pregnant women is controversial. An infant was diagnosed with Japanese encephalitis whose mother moved to an endemic area while pregnant. Preventive strategies are discussed. An infant was diagnosed with Japanese encephalitis whose mother travelled to endemic area while pregnant. As preventive strategies, we suggest vaccination of mother before or during pregnancy before the travel, or application of physical barriers before the child's vaccination.

9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 110: 29-35, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34245886

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) reduce winter-prevalent respiratory viral infections represented by a respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza virus (IFV) during the winter in Korea. METHODS: The Korean Influenza and Respiratory Virus Monitoring System database was used. From January 2016 through January 2021, the weekly positivity of respiratory viruses and the weekly number of hospitalizations with acute respiratory infections were collected. The NPI period was defined as February 2020-January 2021. We analyzed whether hospitalization and sample positivity by respiratory viruses changed after NPIs. Bayesian structural time-series models and Poisson analyses were used. Data from other countries/regions reporting positive rates of RSV and IFV were also investigated. RESULTS: Compared with the pre-NPI period, the positive rates of RSV and IFV decreased significantly to 19% and 6%, and 23% and 6% of the predicted value. Also, hospitalization significantly decreased to 9% and 8%, and 10% and 5% of the predicted value. The positive rates of IFV in 14 countries during the NPI period were almost 0, whereas sporadic outbreaks of RSV occurred in some countries. CONCLUSIONS: No RSV and IFV winter epidemics were observed during the 2020-2021 season in Korea.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Epidemias , Influenza Humana , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial , Vírus Sincicial Respiratório Humano , Infecções Respiratórias , Teorema de Bayes , Hospitalização , Humanos , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Infecções por Vírus Respiratório Sincicial/epidemiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , SARS-CoV-2 , Estações do Ano
10.
Clin Exp Pediatr ; 64(12): 602-607, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098627

RESUMO

In April 2020, the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety licensed a hexavalent combined diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugated to tetanus protein, and hepatitis B (HepB) (recombinant DNA) vaccine, DTaP-IPV-Hib-HepB (Hexaxim, Sanofi Pasteur), for use as a 3-dose primary series in infants aged 2, 4, and 6 months. The DTaP-IPV-Hib-HepB vaccine is highly immunogenic and safe and provides a long-term immune response based on studies performed in a variety of settings in many countries, including Korea. This report summarizes the Committee on Infectious Diseases of the Korean Pediatric Society guidelines for the use of this newly introduced hexavalent combination vaccine.

12.
Pediatr Rheumatol Online J ; 19(1): 48, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794945

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The early detection of uveitis associated with systemic inflammatory disease in children is important for proper treatment and prognosis. However, the diagnosis may be delayed because of difficulties in childhood examinations and early minor systemic symptoms. The objective of our study was to identify the pattern of childhood uveitis and investigate the frequency and clinical features of rheumatic diseases in pediatric patients with uveitis. METHODS: This retrospective observational study reviewed the medical records of children (age ≤ 18 years) with uveitis at a Korean tertiary hospital between January 2005 and December 2018. Data collected included the age at onset of uveitis, sex, anatomic location of ocular inflammation, comorbid disease (including systemic inflammatory disease), ocular complications, relevant laboratory data, and treatment. Fisher's exact test was used to compare categorical variables and the Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare continuous variables. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: A total of 155 pediatric patients with uveitis were included in this study. The median age at diagnosis was 13.0 years (interquartile range, 9.5-16.0 years). The male-to-female ratio was 1.09. The process was unilateral in 51.6% of children. Anterior uveitis, panuveitis, intermediate uveitis, and posterior uveitis represented 51.6, 26.5, 6.5, and 1.9% of the cases, respectively. Idiopathic uveitis (65.2%) was the most frequent type of uveitis. Systemic rheumatic disease associations were responsible for 28.4% of the cases, among which juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) was the most frequent cause (14.8%). Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 and antinuclear antibody (ANA) positive rates were significantly higher in patients with JIA than in those with idiopathic uveitis (p = 0.006 and p = 0.007, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately one-third of children with uveitis in Korea have a systemic rheumatic disease, of which JIA accounts for the majority of cases. HLA-B27 and ANA can serve as risk factors for JIA-associated uveitis.


Assuntos
Doenças Reumáticas/complicações , Doenças Reumáticas/epidemiologia , Uveíte/complicações , Uveíte/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
Clin Transl Immunology ; 10(4): e1272, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33868687

RESUMO

Objectives: In patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), the immune system often fails to eradicate maternal cells that enter the foetus via the placenta, resulting in transplacental maternal engraftment (TME) syndrome. However, the clinical significance of TME has not been comprehensively elucidated. Methods: Here, we describe a patient with SCID with a novel frameshift IL2RG mutation associated with maternal engrafted CD8+ T cells that had been expanded by viral infection. To evaluate the origin of the expanded T cells, we HLA-typed the myeloid and T cells of the patient and analysed the immunological characteristics of the expanded CD8+ T cells using T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire and flow cytometry analysis. Results: In our patient, the maternal engrafted CD8+ T cells expanded and exerted in vitro antiviral function against human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection before and after haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). After haploidentical HCT from the maternal donor, maternal engrafted CMV-specific CD8+ T cells were maintained, successfully proliferated and activated against CMV. We found no evidence of acute graft-versus-host disease or infectious complications other than recurrent episodes of CMV viraemia, which were well controlled by ganciclovir and, possibly by, the maternal engrafted CMV-specific CD8+ T cells. Conclusion: Our findings elucidate a possible functional role of TME in controlling CMV infection in patient with SCID and suggest an optimal strategy for donor selection in patients with SCID with TME.

14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6468, 2021 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33742079

RESUMO

Immunocompromised status can result in indeterminate QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) results, but the association of indeterminate results with immunocompetent status in children is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to identify factors associated with indeterminate QFT-GIT results for immunocompetent children. We conducted a retrospective chart review of children (aged ≤ 18 years) who underwent QFT-GIT between September 2006 and July 2017 at the Severance Hospital, Seoul, South Korea. Of the 2037 QFT-GIT assays included in the present study, 7.7% yielded indeterminate QFT-GIT results. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified younger age (OR 0.88; 95% CI 0.836-0.927; P < 0.001), elevated white blood cell (WBC) count (OR 1.066; 95% CI 1.020-1.115; P = 0.005), decreased albumin levels (OR 0.505; 95% CI 0.316-0.807; P = 0.004), and low-dose steroid therapy (< 1 mg/kg per day of prednisone or equivalent for < 2 weeks) (OR 76.146; 95% CI 8.940-648.569; P < 0.001) as significant factors influencing indeterminate results. Younger age, high WBC count, low albumin levels, and low-dose steroid therapy were associated with indeterminate QFT-GIT results. Low-dose steroid therapy had the highest OR for the indeterminate results compared to other significant risk factors. Our study suggests that screening for steroid doses is important prior to performing interferon-gamma release assays for immunocompetent children.


Assuntos
Glucocorticoides/sangue , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama/normas , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Prednisona/sangue , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Lactente , Tuberculose Latente/sangue , Masculino , Prednisona/administração & dosagem
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 105: 277-285, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Rotavirus (RV) genotypes vary geographically, and this can affect vaccine effectiveness (VE). This study investigated the genotype distribution of RV and explored VE before introducing the RV vaccine to the national immunization programme in Vietnam. METHODS: This hospital-based surveillance study was conducted at Children's Hospital 1, Ho Chi Minh City in 2013-2018. Stool samples and relevant data, including vaccination history, were collected from children aged <5 years who were hospitalized with gastroenteritis. RV was detected using enzyme immunoassays and then genotyped. Children aged ≥6 months were included in the VE analysis. RESULTS: Overall, 5176 children were included in this study. RV was detected in 2421 children (46.8%). RV positivity decreased over the study period and was associated with age, seasonality, location and previous vaccination. Among 1105 RV-positive samples, G3P[8] was the most prevalent genotype (43.1%), followed by G8P[8] (19.7%), G1P[8] (12.9%) and G2P[4] (12.9%). Overall VE was 69.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 53.3-80.6%] in fully vaccinated children and 58.6% (95% CI 44.1-69.4%) in children who had received at least one dose of RV vaccine. VE was highest for G3P[8] (95% CI 75.1-84.5%) and lowest for G2P[4] (95% CI 32.4-57.2%). CONCLUSIONS: RV remains a major cause of acute gastroenteritis requiring hospitalization in southern Vietnam. The RV vaccine is effective, but its effectiveness varies with RV genotype.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Vacinas contra Rotavirus/imunologia , Rotavirus/genética , Rotavirus/imunologia , Vacinação/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fezes/virologia , Feminino , Gastroenterite/epidemiologia , Gastroenterite/prevenção & controle , Hospitalização , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Rotavirus/fisiologia , Vietnã/epidemiologia
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(7): e184-e191, 2021 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150393

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many countries have implemented nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to slow the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to determine whether NPIs led to the decline in the incidences of respiratory infections. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, ecological study using a nationwide notifiable diseases database and a respiratory virus sample surveillance collected from January 2016 through July 2020 in the Republic of Korea. Intervention period was defined as February-July 2020, when the government implemented NPIs nationwide. Observed incidences in the intervention period were compared with the predicted incidences by an autoregressive integrated moving average model and the 4-year mean cumulative incidences (CuIs) in the same months of the preintervention period. RESULTS: Five infectious diseases met the inclusion criteria: chickenpox, mumps, invasive pneumococcal disease, scarlet fever, and pertussis. The incidences of chickenpox and mumps during the intervention period were significantly lower than the prediction model. The CuIs (95% confidence interval) of chickenpox and mumps were 36.4% (23.9-76.3%) and 63.4% (48.0-93.3%) of the predicted values. Subgroup analysis showed that the decrease in the incidence was universal for chickenpox, while mumps showed a marginal reduction among those aged <18 years, but not in adults. The incidence of respiratory viruses was significantly lower than both the predicted incidence (19.5%; 95% confidence interval, 11.8-55.4%) and the 4-year mean CuIs in the preintervention period (24.5%; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: The implementation of NPIs was associated with a significant reduction in the incidences of several respiratory infections in Korea.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Adulto , Idoso , Surtos de Doenças , Humanos , Incidência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Int J Infect Dis ; 98: 486-493, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663603

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the incidence and relative risk (RR) of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in patients with asplenia/hyposplenism, using a nationwide population-based database. METHODS: From 2009 to 2018, all claimed cases of newly diagnosed asplenia/hyposplenism in the National Health Insurance Service in South Korea were included. The incidence and RR of IPD in asplenia/hyposplenism patients were investigated using the Korean Center for Disease Control criteria. RESULTS: Fifty-seven IPD cases were identified among 21,376 patients with 82,748 person-years of exposure. The cumulative 8-year IPD incidence was 0.5%; 45.6% of the infections occurred within two years after an asplenia/hyposplenism diagnosis. The age-standardised incidence rate was 104.5 per 100,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 103.6-105.4). Patients aged <5 years had a 15.1-times higher risk of IPD than those aged ≥60 years (95% CI: 5.8-39.5, p < 0.0001). The RR of IPD was 32.0 times higher in patients with asplenia/hyposplenism than in the general population (95% CI, 21.7-47.0); the standardized incidence ratio was 17.9(95% CI, 11.8-26.0). CONCLUSIONS: This large population-based study highlights the high IPD incidence rate and RR in Korean patients with asplenia/hyposplenism. Increased awareness and effective prevention strategies are needed for these high-risk populations, especially children aged <5 years.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Heterotaxia/complicações , Infecções Pneumocócicas/epidemiologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/etiologia , Esplenopatias/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Doenças da Imunodeficiência Primária , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Baço/anormalidades , Adulto Jovem
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8071, 2020 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32398714

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

20.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230338, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32182283

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of immunochromatographic tests (ICTs) for the detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Medline/Pubmed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and ISI Web of Science were searched through June 12, 2019 for relevant studies that used ICTs for the detection of M. pneumoniae infection with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or microbial culturing as reference standards. Pooled diagnostic accuracy with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using a bivariate random effects model. We also constructed summary receiver operating characteristic curves and calculated the area under the curve (AUC). Statistical heterogeneity was evaluated by χ2 test or Cochrane's Q test. Thirteen studies including 2,235 samples were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing M. pneumoniae infection were 0.70 (95% CI: 0.59-0.79) and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.87-0.95), respectively. The positive likelihood ratio (LR) was 8.94 (95% CI: 4.90-14.80), negative LR 0.33 (95% CI: 0.22-0.46), diagnostic odds ratio 29.20 (95% CI: 10.70-64.20), and AUC 0.904. In subgroup analysis, ICTs demonstrated similar pooled sensitivities and specificities in populations of children only and mixed populations (children + adults). Specimens obtained from oropharyngeal swabs exhibited a higher sensitivity and specificity than those of nasopharyngeal swab. Moreover, pooled estimates of sensitivity and accuracy for studies using PCR as a reference standard were higher than those using culture. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of Ribotest Mycoplasma®, the commercial kit most commonly used in the included studies, were 0.66 and 0.89, respectively. Overall, ICT is a rapid user-friendly method for diagnosing M. pneumoniae infection with moderate sensitivity, high specificity, and high accuracy. This suggests that ICT may be useful in the diagnostic workup of M. pneumoniae infection; however, additional studies are needed for evaluating the potential impact of ICT in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Cromatografia de Afinidade/normas , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/normas , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/isolamento & purificação , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Adulto , Criança , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Humanos , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Técnicas Microbiológicas/normas , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/imunologia , Orofaringe/microbiologia , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/imunologia , Pneumonia por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/normas , Curva ROC , Padrões de Referência
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